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.1 BT 

OUR, L. R. C. S. E.. 








^ CopyrlKbt. 


Commmjal, InbnsWal nnb SmnUfix: 












1 873 > 

2dL I l^ 

.. o 

b, tbe fi5nrt<»cnth letter of the Knglwh alpha- 
htftt ii a nasal coDsoaatit. and its sound L» ob- 
taimd by placing the tungae aguinst the palate 
■d4 «xp«l£iiff; the breath throuf^h the noatriU. 
Il» plificipal sound i» that heard in bun, douc. 
moaa : bnt when followed by f/ or h, it uvkea 
odier 90tm<ls u in singer, finder, brink. Wben 
fisil after m, it is silent, oondenin. In the 
Si^ari alfihabet thero arc tmir symlKiU fur vt^ 
til* sounds of all o( which occur in the EnglUli, 
ahhon^ uot represented in it h_v firpanite Ict- 
fcen, <^uefly cau^Mnl by the preceding or I'ollow- 
iog letter. There is on n in the Tamil tongue 
wish a dental nasal sound, and in HindiL^Uni, 
GttaemUu andMabrati, there iiia na^il, usually 
a ftnal, although faometimeis a medial, which is^ 
ICtfcaly sounded, oltliough it gives a nasal 
Mond to the preceding vowel. 

NA »S« Sna, Tib. A wild sheep of La- 
dak. Vigne calls it of Uw size of- an ordinary 
sheep, of a dnll I' " riy colour with cnr- 

ToL smootli, and '. liorns. Tt is called 

by de Koroft, a large nljeep-like-deer. Major 
OnnTTr^riHira 8uppo*ea it the »auie as the Nahur 
1, the Oris nnhur. 

•. . !v ',-r,- hard, fine, cleoe-gTained, azid 
• ylop wood. 

riot. See Korambar, Nad. 
'- of Chittagnng. 
. ^ . . 1. ._ ; ;*. LN, T.vM, Ptrnroncctwi solea. 
NAAT or Nnt, Tau. Anvthing relating to 
» Wiralitv or district. See Nad, 
NAAT CAItOASI, Tam, Cmuitry paper. 
NABAn. Hnm. Ribes leptostachyum. 
NABAT-EI, Ujc ancient people of Petra in 
NABATT. HnrD. Pale brown wlor, like sugar. 
NABHA torriti>Ty, Cts-Sutlej, has an area of 
963 1KJ. m., a popuhiiion of 270,000 souls, and 
A rrreoiK of four bikha. The chief 13 of the 
^me ttock as the maharajah-i of Patiala and 
Jbtend, but ]n the elder branch of Lhe family. 
Ihe &mily bdmved ill in the Sikh war of 1845-6 
\m did well in the revolt of 18.57 and were rc- 
wifdrd by a grant of land out of the Jhujjur 

■" ' ■"" \ Jl, ne« Bhakta mala. 
r. -PitHS. Candy. 
! wcvdier. 

louse, OS the French write 
AraUo attempt to pronounce the 


ikM Lb* 

Greek name Neapolu), the ** new city,** the title 
given to the old CanaiUiite town of Shochem 
when it waa restored or rchuil^ probably 
during Vespasian's reign. 

NABON, see Fars. 

NABONASSAR. a prince of Babylon, un- 
der whose reign a«tronouucai studies were much 
advanced in Chiildea. The first day of the era 
which he e.^tjiblished was Wednesday the 26th 
February 747 u. c. He is known to tlie Arabs 
and in niahomcdan literature as Bukht cwn 
Nasr. The era of Nal)onassar, 1st king of tlie 
Chuldneana falls on Wedncsdny 2^th February 
A. A. c. 747. Itj* year wail 1 -.with- 

out any iatercalary day on th. ^ '• The 
Ar.ibic name is not very dimimilar to that nsed 
by tlie llebrew«i, but Bakiit-un-nasr is that by 
wluch the Arabs, Turks nnd Persians designate 
Uiis king of the A^uyrians and BabyloD. But 
Oriental histuriana, aud particularly the Per- 
sians also style bira Ralmm, also Gudarz. 
D'lhfheloU tome 3, />. I ; MupwrCx TrmttU, 
p. 264. See Sennacherib ; Nineveh. 

NABOPOLASSAJt, Uie father of Nebuchad- 
nezzar, became tlie Assyrian satrap of Baby- 
lon, in the 123rd year of Nabonaasftf. Sat- 
danapalus, king of Aasyna, coinmimded him 
to march agunat the Med^ who had revolted, 
but he allied himself with Cyaxares, and 
marched with him against Nineveh, and Baby- 
lon became independent on the destruction of 
Nineveh in B.C. (106.— /f<i;wrti. 
NA-Bi:G-NyAH, see Ka-ihmir. 
NACK^INOLE, also Aveline, It. nazel Nut. 
NAXTTAN-GAON, a town in the lluzur 
tahail of the Wnrdha district, l^ing t^p miles 
to the south of the Pulgaon railway action, 
and about twenty-one milps from Wardha. It 
is said to he very old, and parts of the wall 
which formerly surrounded it still exist. 
NACUASH, see Serpent. 
NAClirHU Tel. Utricularia'faaciculata, and 
D. Stellaris L.—R. i. 143; Cor. 1»0. 
NACHEZ, see Ilindw. 
NACH'H, Hi>D. Adance,aIso writt«nNauii:h. 
NACHM. Htan. A daucing giri. 
NAC11BAVALI,Tam. thcAi'ecj, Uiyo. is a 
form of hlndu benediction, only bcstowwl by 
women and priests : it is performed by clasp- 
ing both bands over the persons head, and 
wa^-ing over him a piece of ailver or other va- 
luable whii;h in bestowed in charity. Tho 
Tamil poopte similarly wave a fowl or aheep'fl 

hcjw? aruund a sick man. Tliis 13 a very ancient ^ 
ccroiiKMiv, and w called *V(ioArni'rt/t, C-oK Ti*d 
Ircquenily had a lar;je sulver fillml wiili silver 
coin waved uver 1il» htiad. which wm haiidod 
fur dktribiitiou aniongiit hianttondauta. It id 
inftil appropriaU* \\oiu tht? Itidies from whom 
alK) lie liad this [t%*ribnu<;x] hy their proxk'**. 
the family priosi tir ft-inale Attendants. It is alB*> 
u mahomedau rile. — TwK* SaJtM^uin VoL t. /'. 
Old. Sgo Hulain I^na, Sacrifice. 

NACHU Trt. Lcmn:iorhiciilata, also Blyxa 
t.>ctandra, Rich. — Vallivneria (xrlundra, R. iii. 
752: Cor. 105. Alao apphetl pcncnilly to 
ainall aqiuitic phinb:. 

NACUE. Kr. Mother oj* Pearl. Sec MoUuscs. 
M M'li.r o' Pearl. 

N ACSIIATUA, HixD. The Tyajya (wrongly 
sfielt Thyajuin and Thyagum) ; that portion of 
u Nii/ishatni, which is deemed unlucky, is 
euUed Varjva, and tlie period of ita duration 
w the Tyajya. — It is called Devi when it oc- 
curs .ul d:iy lijiie, njid Kavi when at night. 
It itf therclbfe aji aHttnlo^cal element : bnt h 
Qcvertliclcsa reyi^tcred every day in the EpJie- 
niuHdes ; where the instant ofitp eommenct^ 
mcnt 1» registered. Its mean duration i^ about 
•1 ;nidtUa (Ih ;W EurofKam time), m thai the 
lu'i^inning heiiiR' known, the end may be sup- 
ported, Willi sufficient accuracy for practical 
puriKkw*, without actual computation. 
\AI), Can. a tcrritiirial diriiuon. 
NADANAR KAKU, an agricultural tribe. 
of M\snrc, who prctond to he pure sudnw. 
NADA UMDALUM, a district mid«:iv 
wten Madura and tlie Pulitjiver country, 
NAOATN, ftce Jawala uiukhi. 
NAUr»I, lIiM)., a rivur, a ^trenmlot. 
NAI>HYA-DESA, «lh' lu*cription«. 
NA£)I or NARI, BKsa, A caste who make 
pmamcntA of lak for mahumuirrlan women. 
. NAIMR SIIAJI, a native of Khorasan. 
IIU name was Taina.s Kuli Khan. llin 
country been compierod in 1V22 by the 
•d hi.« country from the Ghilji, ex- 
I urka :iiid Rtjwians fmm their p<w- 
i>4» and at l! : of (ho pe(.ii»lo re- 

ed the liir(»u< h.j had bi9tj>we<l on 

Thaniasp, ftm of (jhah IUw«ain the Sufi 
monarch of Peraia. In 173^, he commenced 
li»e seijje of CandaljOT, but on the emijcror ul 
Delhi ri'fujting to rcstpre some fuffitiTcs, he 
croned the Iudu.«* with Co.OOi) veteran soldiers ; 
the cmi»cror however r- ' '■ -ubmisaion and 
Nadir Shalj, iu ,M;mh I rt-d the palace 

of l><dlu with him. Onifi.- h-iicwmgnighm false 
re|»urt vnx* rui>.f.l, that Nadir Shiih hod been 1 
murdirttl. on wluch the peoult of Drllti iww; I 
und murdnrfvl ni^nrlv liiiiu of |ii<4 M.iI.lirT« \ad>r ' 
^n 1 ■ 
tt^rt i»UiUt Aod ihveiiy wm (»Ud[p.'ti tvr tiity-fu^ht i 

2 N 



day* anrl he returned to his country with ijn 
meriM; plunder. Nadir Shall 'a plunder destroyed 
the Moj^ul cn»pirc. The Mahnitto^, the nn- 
b<jb uf tl»e Camatic, tlie A«f Jahi family of 
Hyderabad, the nubadurs of liengal Mid Otidhf 
and the Jat of Hhurtpore, all declared for inde- 
Itendcnce and »v.t the imperiid power ut defiance. 
In the fifty-eii.'ht chip that he remained, Niulir 
demoILnhwl, burnt, and ransacked all Delhi, and 
undid the doing* of several bundnnl years. 
The amount nf booty tliat he is taid to have car- 
ried oH'is, by the hiphwt computation, wventy 
crure, and by the lowest thirty-two. Among 
it was tlie tlirune reprrscnling tlie tail of a pea- 
cock dijuplayed. composted of precious stones, 
which fitill adonw the audience chaml)er in the 
jralace at Teheran. Nadir Shab'^ route into 
India wa.^ the ordinary one, by Attock ntid 
Laliorc, und he returned, as appcam by Abdxil 
Karim and M. Otter, by nearly tlic same route; 
save that instead of croasing the Indiw at Attook, 
he wont liigher up, and prissed the bordere of 
Sewad, in ht^ way to Jalalabad and Kabul. 
Ahmed, 8tylotl khan or chali, king of the Ab- 
dalla nccx>mi-tanied Nadir Shah to India in 1739, 
In 1747, Ahmed with an array of 15,U00 men 
overran the Hanjab, but at Sirhind be was met 
and defeated by Ahmed .Shah, the son of tlie 
emperor of l>i'lhi Mnbouied Shah, and he 
rettimed to Af^jliaui^utn, In 1741, he returned 
tAt Inilla. and I^horo and Multnn wore ced*d to 
him. IKmi third time, invude^l India, took and 
plnndentl r>elhi. hut left tor hia native country, 
t)C«Lilence occuoixig amongst bi^ troops, lie 
1 diflplaced Olnzi-ud-diu fwm tlie iwftt ot 
^.,..'^ of the emi>erf>r, and on his withnrswaL 
Ghazi-ud-din obtaiue*! tlic aid of the Mahrattos, 
who a^ivanced on and ca[>[nred Dellii, ro-iufliated 
Ghazi-udMlin ; RagbolKi, the commander of the 
Mahnittafi, then marchol on Lahore, defeated 
Timur, A>n of Ahme<J, and wrcsrtcd Uihore and 
Multan from the Abdalla. Ghazi-ud-din nssas- 
inated Oie em]>cn>r Alauigir in 175U; hut in 
September, Ahmed luul again crossed the Indus 
and invade*! India. In 17(iO, ho overtook tlie 
M:diratta chitifb und defeated them one atlcr 
another. Sada Si\n liao, Bhao, who had re- 
pUced lOicboba, imirtdieil u^ moet Ahmed. 
Ilis army waa com|K>!«.Hl ol' Mahraitjw, ICiijput 
cfltvalry and the Jaundar Surj Mull, tlie whole 
numbering about 270,(«K). Surj Mull advised 
Sada Siva l<ao, Hluio to harnw Ahmed. Tliia 
mlvice was n»it followed, and the Jat and liaj- 
f«ot ariBita itui»et)ueuUy withdrew. The Bhao 
orcupic*! Delhi, and came in contact at Panipul, 
with Ahmi^r« nnny of as,0<M» fixjt, 4W,UU0 
raviih-y, biwi*li'i« tlie KohiUa and Ouilh auxU- 
\:^T'u■<. SiVi itidicitive eucolink'r?i endued, 
17(>-, an oUtinate bat- 
■ uk contjuue'l doubtful 
luml the iiluiu iktl the field, loavmgliia 

\ .1, the wm 01 thi* IVshwjv 

1 i,aUo,JiLukujiSindUia«JitI 

.n Uardi were jiul U» dearii. TUis 

roke the Ma!u*at.tft imprnul power. 

r Sliiili i^rKxeJ^'d U^ esiabUah his 

' — ''; \\f} found the ancestor of 

ly, a ETum of reputation 

M-rniTH ul 8UikarfKior, Tlie Shall 

- deputy of ihe upper tliird of tlio 

M.iw of the whole 

r to Gbuznee. 

tlivju lui^riicd np tlio Sutlcj. and 

\:imU h\ r-trre. Tile l)art''ll»otru urc 

"" (David) the tirst of the 

, I uanie. Tbey fithiUoiwly 

their t>ri)hu lo dje knHph Abbtte ; hut tliey 

% h^- r.^Lorde<l ha Sindliian ItaUichi, or its 

R- _-cfl by a lonfr rt^iiduuce in Sindh. 

In -- ...n;» themselves on the Suilej, they re- 

liaced tiie reniaiiui oi' the nndent Lim^a and 
JoUyya lo further msijrniilcance ; but they intru- 
(hK«d Uw Sindhiun system of caniiU of irriga- 
OcBt «nil Imcli hanks of thu river beluw Pakput- 
bun bear witnc-:^ to their oripnal imlastry and 
hn ■ : 'iluirc. OneofXadir ShahV features 
Ol [ tho pnluuization of tlie eoimtries he 

c» L i!ierc*>fhoeumuraged 

St' . die vuriuui* tribes of 

l},. iipire. At the time of hiftdeutli 

iji Huch intejition, had reached 

Me«hM, and were subsefpicntly iuvitcd to come 
bv Mmiid Sh;ih. Diu-am» a lar^e Per- 
fti ''Z treasure fVinii India at that 

.., i^re alH« induced to enter the 
ploy irf" ili^ new Allghon sovereign, and 
oimce tlieir nHtivc coantry. Henee, at 
Kabtd. nt this dnv, arc t<>und, Juanshir, Kurd, 
Ri" *- ' ".rkli.tri, Shah Sew an, Tahnh, 
It reprcflrntalivK* of every Per- 

aiftji UilMj, L U'Jor Alimcd Shah, and his suc- 
eeuMTv, tJM*y fonuod Uie principal jwrlion of 
u ■ .or huuat'hold troopa. 

..'d Delhi on the 9tli 
MiiKh 1T*IU. :)ii<] to retiirninir fmni India, 
retained all tiie wiMt of the Indus at Attork. 
H^ waa as'OKHiriaied in his tout at Meshid in 
Khonuftaii. by tiireo of his officeis, on 8th June 
A.i>. 1747. 'i*h« fate of tlie Nadir hud been 
thuA recorded, diiiilpil.>-t hv -cmir mooLlaU, 

"Kodiri'< ,, iif Uftll.' 

ThG«» letters ^dve iltil, the year of the ITijra 
■whieh ci(rre«i<i>nd3 with \.P. 17-17, in which 
Nttdir was put to death. The Roman system 
W*iwin;T *-^'* •■- »'» indieate fljjiirefi, is fttllowpil 
liy alT •. itw; the death nf the worthy 

Ktireeni jvnan, .'n-nd, is commemorated in the 

sentence ; 

Kk T&le Kurpetn KlianroMrd. 
* Woo aod ata* ^ Kupouiq Khan io doa>i." 

The numeral vnlurs of tht? letter* oompoelno; 
these irw worila, huiu^-^ added up, jrive liyi^» 
the year of the llijfo, correafxindincf wiili a.d. 
1779» in which this i^ood king died. Ouscley 
meutiona that one uf the atteudant^ who at a 
Jevce presented to him pipc^ and ccifl'ce, vraa a 
grand^ion or great ^'ruudson uf the niifrhtv Nadir 
Shah.— rr. nf a Mm/., Vol. ii. ;>' 320; 
Rf-nnelU Mmmr, p^ 112 ; Cvnnmffltam's Ilis- 
tort/of Ot* SUrhtt^jj, VJ\ : AfoJtson'tt Jtmr-ne^fs, 
VoL ii, p. iii*7 ; Ihifuf»: Otutdeys TntreU^ 
Vol. ii. p. 222. i>ee Alghan, India, Iran, RalEr, 
Kandahar, Kazzilbtush. 

NADOONG-GASS. Swon. Dalberpa m(x> 
niana. — 7%m', 

NADL'LEK, Hnrn. A stone engraved with a 
ver?e of the koran, and gu.spcnde<l aa a charm 
round the necks of chihlxcn. — Nerklots. 

NAEK, A Tamil race who have adoptctl 
brabminisni, they have few lands Jiad are 
lar;;ely employed a.s farm servants. 

NAEK, or Naidu, a term in xise by a class o!" 
the Tihnc; sudra. ai an hoDoritic disliuction. 

NAEK, in the British Indian Anny a niuk 
equivalent to a corporal. 

N^E-MEN, BtTRit. Eurycles Amboincnsis. 

NAET nr Nao-ait, a mahomedan race in the 
peninsula of India. 

NA-KAKMAN, Hind. Delphiruum BJaoH. 

NA-FAUMANI, HiNn. A blue colntir from 
Lhi'tlowLTofCliciranthiisannumn. Lilac, mauve. 

NAFIEL, AuAH. Golbanum oiRcinale. jDo/i. 

NAEK, Pjat8. Hnni. A servant. In the wi'st 
of Bengal the Nafrand his oifspring are plavoi 
for ever and are trangfrrahln and saleable. In 
l^urneya the Nafr is sometimes a domestic slave, 
someiimea an agricultural slave. In the native 
cavalry of India the term ia applied to a horse- 
keeper or ppoom, nlt«j, though rarelyt to a per- 
son who is hire<i to ride a horse, equivalent to 

NAF-TALNA, Hwd. Lit. shifting of the 
navel, a disci^c. 

NAG, Hind., a .«crpeut. See Naga; Taluhak. 

NAG, HrsD. Pyrtw oommunifl, pear tree, 
see NaMpati. 

NAGA, a jinwerAd Scythic race who apppiir 
to have invaded India about six centuries 
heibrc Christ and occupied it prior to the 
api>earance of the Arj-ans. In the mythology 
of India they are di'scnbcd oa true snakes. In 
tlie Persepolitan inscription, Xerxes calls him- 
self Nitpim or NulcA, the Greeks annx, and 
81 'me w rl ters have surrni.«cd tliat this may 
tlie true meaning of the Na;ra d)*nasties nf 
Kashmir aud Magndha. 'j'he Nn;ru race fiecm 
to have nded In Magadlia until dispof!seii!*<e(l 
by the Aryan Pandava ; the Mannipur rulers 
were also of that .Scythic race and uioet of ihf 
Mannipur people continued to worship snakes 


^^ KAGA. 

till the beginning of tho lUlh century, as is still 
the custom amongst Aryan and nnn- Aryan tribes 
throughout the PeninsuJa of India. Noga 
and Tak.«»hao are Sanscnt namc^ lor ft saakt.* 
or serpent, the emblem of Boodha or Mercury. 
The Naga race are said to huvc occupied Cey- 
lon on the northern and western cocuts 
before the Christian era, and to have worsliip- 
ped snakc!*. StratK> calls thn people of 
Phrygia and the Iicllti«pont the Ophio or 
serpent races, and the snake tribe whm. till 
recently, one of the greatest of the trihe* i>f N. 
American Indians. The Na^ race extended tlieir 
power over the country of Magadha in Balmr, 
and ruled there for ten genemtiona. The 
brahmanical body being the chief source of 
learning, endeavour to deduce all ile^ccnta from 
their ancient b(K>ks, and Arjuna is said to be 
the ancestor of the Naga, by Ulupi. Colonel 
Tod it of opinion that the Naga or Taksliak 
were buddliisU. He contfiders Uie Ay of the 
Totan, the Yu of the Chinese, and the Ayu of 
the Poorans, to indicate the great Indu 
(Lunar) progenitor of the three races. Boodha 
(Mercury), tlieaon of Indu (the moon), became 
the patriarchal and spiritual Icjulcr ; as Fo in 
China ; Woden and Teutaics, of tlie tribes 
migrating to Europe. Hence he believet* the reli- 
gion of Budha must have been coeviilwitli thccx- 
iatcnce of the Naga nations ; tliat it was brought 
to India Proper by them, and guidud them 
until the schism of Krishna and the Surya 
worshippers of Bal. in time deprc»<ed them : 
Wlien the Boodha religion wa^ modified into its 
prcHont mild form, the Naga race were so nu- 
merous in Ceylon that it was colled Nfl^radwipo, 
the island of Snakes, as Rliodes and Cypnis 
received the ancient det^ignation of Ophiusa, 
from their being tlie residcnL-e of tlie Ophites 
who introduced snake worship into Greece. 
According to B^Taot^ Kuboca is from Oubaia 
and mean.-) serpent Inland. The books of the 
Hindoos and the thoughts of the people are not 
ithout grand conceptions of a father of all 
of a future state. But along with thiH 
thcra haTe ercr been atheistic views, a preva- 
lence of nature worship, worship of creature*. 
tike tliC snake, and polytlieism mixed with that 
ftnt worship of the All-iJotxl. — n reverence of 
parents,— a spirit worship, a hero worsliip and 
a pure monotheism. Of the religion of the 
ancient races who dwelt in India, prior to the 
advent of the Ar^-ans, little or notliing iskn'mn.t 

j^ KAGA. 

similarly to ' i or Ltimri Baluch of 

tlie present lo are foxes and tlie 

Cuch^waha rajputs who are tortoiiM^s. The 
snake n->fl<»n «'">m to have made extensive 
concpies'- have spread into North 

America. iui- Abbe Domenech mentions 
an Indian race in America, who traced 
their origin from the snakes of Scythia ; the 
serpents who invaded the kingdom of the 
Lydianjt ju^t before the dovmfikU of Crosus, were 
probably the Scythian Naga (Htrod) race and 
(>eo|ile of this race aecni to have early entered 
India and to have been mliug there when the 
Arj-ans arrived. The dynasty of Mnghada or 
Behar in the time of the Pandava were of 
the Naga nice and they held f>vay there, for 
ten generations. A branch of them, the Nag- 
bunsee cliieftains of RamgTirh Sirgooja, have 
the lunetten of their serpent ancestor engraved 
on their signets in token of their lineage. Whence 
tlie 8cythic Naga came, whether they preceded 
or followed the Vedic Aryans, into India, or 
whether they came from the N.E, whilst the Ary- 
an race advanced from the N.VV. is not known. 
But they seem to have come in contact in th« 
lands where the Jumna joins the Ganges at 
a time when the Aryans were divided as to the 
object of their worship between lodra, Siva 
anil Viflhnu. t>ic of the openingfi<:enea* of the Ma- 
hahharata dtacribos the destruction of the ibreat 
of Khandura and a great ncrifice of serpents; 
and though the application of the term Nag or 
Naga has come to be taken literally, there can 
be no doubt that the descriptions in the MaliA- 
bharata, and t£ to Krishna's exploits again»t 
snakes, relate to the opposing Na^ race. In 
India, the term Nag or Naga, is applied to the 
cobra 8er(>ent, and the race who were so desig- 
natcut. arc believed to have paid tlieir dcvoticms 
to tiiat reptile. There seems no reason to 
donbt that the Nagu ruleiB of India, were a 
Sc^thic or Turanian race, a body of them 
have preservetl tlioir indc]>endence, in Munni- 
pur, up to the jire^ent day, and until the 
beginning of tlie 1 -"^th century hindtunm had not 
made any progress amongst them. The Vedic 
deities, Indra, god of tlie firmament, Varuna,god 
of the waters Yama, thejudgeof the dead, Agni, 
god of ftrc, Surya, the sun, Soma or Chandra^ 
the moon, Vayu, the god of winds, the Manit, 
the Aditya, were mere peisonificationB of the 
powers of nature, which were invoked for aid or 
their wrath deprpcftted. Tlie Ayrans appear not 

They arc alludciL to in ancient )>ooks, an the I to liavt* had idoln nor temples hut they sacri- 

Naga, Rakshasa, Dasya, Asnra. The wh. 

the 8oythiun race are mythically dosc< i 

from a being half-snake and hnlf-woman who 

bons three sons to Heracles (Herod, IV., 9, 

10), the meaning of which probably is that 

the ancortml pair were of two races and the 

offiipriog, took the siuike m tbm embleiD, | nccied 

4 * N 

1 often, the elements being clarilled butter, 
Li, wines or spirii.*^, cakes and parched grain, 
diiowu into the fire : also, the rt)H«ted ox tf 
named as an ofl*cring to Indra, and a borsfi 
w;w iKi-aAionally sacrificed to Indra or the auiL, 
Thwu sacrificial rit»?9 seem to have been con- 
with tbfir meab and probaUy were 



and first oflcjings, to the gods. Up to 
present day, every morning, when perform- 
iiig early worship, a water lilntion 18 pt^ured 
from the ilenkn& or gacriticial spoon, tho 
Aryan brahmin visits bis teinplo and makes 
offeiinp 10 his god»« ercry Hindoo in India every 
Satnfday, offera to the village doity, <!owerH, 
ooeoanafti. and. at least once a month, tlie helot 
raoei make ofTering of cakei, and on great 
^oetdetm^ the uon-hmdoos tuke rice and flour, 
Mfton, Tcnnilion to the callage deities, tlie Ai, 
AmmaaiMl Amman, and uU worship thesnaki*. — 

NAOA, HiSD. A class of Wndoo mendicants 
who go naked and carry anus ; they arc now 
extinct ; but they iwed to form some- 
mercenary bunds III the service of 
princes. All hindoo secta have fnl- 
lf> wh«ira thia doHignation is applied. 
Tilt Naga in all essential i>(>irtu«, arc of th(> 
•me tleacription as ilie Virflgi or Sanyasi, bnt 
iadietr zeal, they used to leave off every kind 
rf eof ering and go naked. They arc the most 
wof^esd and protli^'ate member* of the Hindoo 
rriijion. They always travel widi wcofjons, usnal- 
lyamatchlock, a sword, and shield, andRangiii- 
irf ooatficts have occurred between the hindon 
Naga mtrndicants of opposite sects. The Saiva 
Nafa are very numeroiu in many parts of India, 
they are the particular <.>p[K)nents of the Viragi 
Naga, and were no doubt the leading actors in 
the bloody fra7 at Uaridwar, in 1790, which 
ivB fT<?ra the great fair 
ry came under ilie sway 
Uii that oct-asion IH.OOO I 
\(^cn\ on the firld. A party of 
' (joddards troof^* in their | 
.U aiul Hempur, and on 
10 ol' them aided Sindhia. 
^ijiear their bodies with 
aihes, allow tlieir iiair, bt^ards and whinkers to 
grow and wear tlie projecting braid of hair 
called the jata; Like the Viragi Naga, they 
j».f.i .,, "rrj-j. urm?, and wander about in 
I' ting alnw or levying contributions. 

lilt- l'>;u^:i .Saga are generally the rol\we of the 
Dancti and Atit orders, or men who have no 
inclination fur a life of study or business. Whe7i 
weary of the vagrant and violent habits of the 
Niga, thev re-<jnter one of tbe better dispofied 
rhuntrv, wh-r-h ther hiid originally quitted. The 
lied to a clawi of the Dadii 
I- V L'arrv arms and ^erve 
(iindfrt pnnres n ■\ f«iIHieni. A sect of 

thr fjiTBin an» ' 'rmed Naga, becau^ 

diey perform their ablutionji (Sth'nanam) in a 
«tate of nudity. The Go«ain profe* asceticism, 
hut well infufnied hindixi?^ believe tliat almost 
Aii of tixim ori^aaUy adopt the tcnetn of the 
soet, with th« object of securing a Unng irith- 

out labour, and that few, not more than one in 
a hundred, live a** eelebates, and the itersonal 
appearance of these men, sleek, with well 
covered muscles, supports this view, They 
wander to very distant places, begging ibr their 
math or monastery and have very scanty cloth- 
ing, only a anvdl ^n\p of cloth between their 
thiglis. Iramor: ■ ii detected arc punished 

by fine. The i iixain can withdraw 

from the mona.<iiry tm payment of a line, can 
marry aiul engage in biutine'^. Only the brah- 
man, K.«hetrya ami Ves>Ti are admitted as 
gosains, the head of the math is styled mahanl. 
NAGA, a race, or races, occupying the moun- 
tains bounding to the south, the valley of A»- 
sani, i'vom hit. 25^ N., and long. 93^ E. to hit. 
2«° 40', and long. 9i^* 3(f . But Naga is a 
term applied by Europeans to forty or fifty 
tribes who occupy the spacn between the Khas- 
sya hills on the west, the Singpo on the east, 
As^oju on tlie north and Mimipuron the south. 
They do not coll thcinselvcs Naga, bnt each 
tribe is split up into numeroiw clans and each is 
called atWr ir^ village. The Naga, Mikir, Ka- 
chari, Garo and KnAsia are the five races, in 
whode posscsftion cliiedy are the brv>ad high- 
lands of the .'Vsisam chain extending from the 
N.E, near the bead of the Kynduayn and Nam- 
rup, on one aide, along the valley of the Brah- 
maputra to its souihena bend ruund the west- 
em extremity of the chain, and on the other 
side, south-westerly, along the valley of the 
Burak and Sunnu, these highlands are thtis 
embrace<l by tlie valleys of the Brahmaputra 
and its afiluents on all sides but t}ie S. K.^ 
where tliey slope to the K^-nduajm. The Naga 
dialects are: — 

>ainsttUK, I Mulunc:. I ?focaung, Mnzame An- 

Miiltiuii, Tiiltlotiu'. I Kh.iri, gumj. 

JobriJcji, I 'IVnt^f'a, | Any.imi, 

On the w(»>*t, the Naga march and intermix 
with the Rang-tsii, a bmiich of the Kadiari or 
Bodo. The term Naga w supposed derived from 
the Hindi, Nanga, naked, because tlieyuse little 
clothing, and that is manuf:ictured and dyed by 
their women. They come in contact with the 
Mikir, Kuki and Cachari ; the Naga villages 
of from 20 to luO houses are fixed, and they 
crop and leave fallow their lands. Tlicy inter 
their dead at llie threshold of their dofjre. The 
Naga race are described as simple, social, and 
peaceful, unless when blood hna to be avenged 
and then he la trea<!lierou» and cruel. Scnieo la 
the name of their god of riches, Rupiaba, a ma- 
lignant deity, with one eye in the centre of 
hi« forehead, and Kangaba, is a blind, malici- 
ous deity. The Naga lie nnrth of Munipur and 
its dependencies. The AngamJNagn are a rude 
pagan tribe on the range of hills in upper 
Assam, on the eastern frontier of the MiJkir 
and Cachari. T*hey apeak one of the Naga 
dialects. On the southern Assam frontier we 


hnre tlio numToufl Nwa and Singfpo dialects, 
tlie Mikir ami Anjjnmi. thv lan;?iingcs nf the 
KJiUflfliii ai»(l Jftiiitja liilhimn. the Bt»ro in Ca- 
char, arni ilic Gan* in the hills nf thai nanio. 
ITif K<i»>ki rx'ciipy pari* orTip|>rrah and Chit- 

Uiynni;, am.l llic Mil^' "• in Amikan and 

CliiMiiif»iiiV% Tlie N. It, Hn\Ti, Kup- 

war, Kiranti, Limh' ^ and Bhraruii 

Um^iiw, ijf which tli- . i-^-C'liincwo, and 

the TMi lliinalftyan. : to the prono- 

tiicnalixed cliw* ot' 1 Thr- mountain 

niiige which KmmN A.^-uia un tlu' w>iith w 
IcuowTi l>v a ^Tvx\t ilivoriity of nainov in diflc-T- 
ent |tart- ol* it.i cuurwo, acitirdinjf to thu diffcr- 
pot triJMs hy wh«tiu it it inhnhrfcd. 

The Khntrtifl iiilU r'iM." ahrujitly on tho >*«>nth 
fri>ni ihc plains tir.Silhet to tho hui^rht of about 
4,000 iVet^ anil ihenco inoro ;.T^Iunlly U» n,00t» 
totfi. The culfiiinatiti;; puint in CliiUun;,' Uill, 
the ol«^*ation of wlnrh is almnt ^^tlfHl feel. 

T<> thi' westward of ttie Kha*<«i]ihilU lie (lie 
Garo hills whieli are lower, the iniixiuinni elc- 
vatinii being probably nowhere more than 


clttiri and A«wnno^e wive?. The vilbge* fl; 
small, and ther luivcbut fewdoiucstie anunaU. 
IJke other hill tribes, they acknowhflgc tho 
power of a plundity of g^wls ; and sac-riHeee (/ 
eowa. pigwand tbwli* are otTercHlon all ot^onstnns. 
The KeufnuR Naga, like the Anganii Na^, 
iutvr their dead, and place the f^pear imd shield 
of the deceased iu thoirrave ; a few ytick." with 
flonic egj^ luxd grains tire laid upon it, and tho 
tiineral ccreinnnics ooticlude with laiuencationt 
and feaxtin^, 

la the Keport of the British Affioeiaiion 
lor 1 H4o, Hr. T>athnni ren\ark>i that the 
dij^tinctjon betwt'en tlie lanxua^^e^ of Thil^ft 
and China, aii exhibited by Klaproth, nitist be 
only provi?qtmal : over and alxjvf the graniuif^ 
ticid auahigv there u* un absolute ^lt>«uinal atU- 
nity. Of til e languages of ilie tmns-prngotic 
j>enin>4ula the «ame niav be aAtcrioil. Where 
langiuigCA are nionoAyllahic slight changns inakc 
|ialpahlc ditferenccs. The vocabulaiifvi of Mr, 
Browti, for imirc than a ttcore of tho Bunneie 
and Siamese tongiioa, have provirled tu with 

three or four thou*ianiI feet. T«i the eiust, be- data lor ctluiographiral euni]>ariHins. By deal- 
yonti Jyntoa or Jaintia, whirb is similar in ing with thi"!!** collectively, wc fiml in on*' dift- 

genend chnrf*rter to KbaN»ia, iheiv nj.jtearM to 
bt a wnifliderahle deprL"wion in the range, a 
large river with an open vailey I'cnotruting far 
to the north. To the eaMt of Cachar, again, 
there are lofty hillj*, inhabiKsl by Nnga tribe*', 
l>ut tjuite unexploreil, except in onn pUre, 
where they were crftv^ed by GriWth in 
tnivrlliiig fmm upper Asitani tn the llu- 
kum vidley, on a trihutiirv of tho Irawadi. 
The coiuiirv occupied by the Anganu Noga, 
(»oUth of Now^iong, if bounded on the 
liortli by tJiL* Uhimseercc river, nn the Bouth 
by a high range of mnuntaint, forming the 
boundary between llie Muneeixxir t<'rritory and 
Kow-gi>ng. Poplot^^uac*f l>eing tho nio*i sou- 
thern Angiuni Naga vdlnge witJiin the dis- 
trict. The wcsli'm Ixmnflttry extendi oa far aa 
Hiwang Htijnn. The limit of Uu> eastern Umn- 
dury IB still undefined and umxpliirc*! ; but ihi* 
l>eryoiig river on die norrh-ejwt sejiai-aK's the 
Lotah Naga in tlie Se<>l>j»agnir ilistrict Ihtni 
the Angami Naga. Krom a tubular state- 
nt It uppf'nrs, that thirty-two vi]]nge« cou- 
ined 0,>*U9 houi^c* whirh, nt four perwnw to 
ojich houw, wotdd give a poptdotjon of 2,756 
Ixmons. The Itengma Nagn arc evidently 
dese.rndcH] from the Angami Naga ; it is 
wiid that, in ennsrqupner of oppre«i&ion ami 
feuda in their own tribe*", tboy eniij^ratod to Uie 
h-v.\ ' " r.lbytlieT. ' ' ^- - ; but 

fi: iiti and ai: l.otfth 


led wonU which ha^l been k»st in other*. Tli« 
ChinciH?, Thibetan, Bhootaii, Burmctte. f*iaini!M! 
and all tho so-calJed nmnooyUabic lan^'uages 
hitherto known, are allied to e:K'h oilier. Tlw 
genend alKnitiisi of tlie lnd*>-(.'hi^l^se longiitM 
are rcmurkable. Willi Miirstlen's aud Sir 
Stamford K;dile*)* tidiles on tlie one nido, and 
th»«i' of Brow u imd Klapmih on the t>ihf'r, it 
can be ifhown that a va^t niuubur of Malay 
rcMta are 1 1 ion oityl tabic . The Malay liinguai;t» 
are niontwylUbic oncf, with the dU[H^rn«.ldiuou 
of inflections evolved out of conipwiimn, and 
euphonic proresAn* highly dcvehi|>ed. l)r. I-a- 
tliam ii of opinion that the nalioUD on tho bur- 
dcrs of Brili.-th India, iu tht* nnrth-west, the 
nortJi-<*tt«tl aniJ east, form an t.'t]in>>l<«;.^t(-ai group 
which contains the Tdit'taru. t)ie Nepal tribcft, 
scvemi populutinnfl of the Hub-Ilimalayan 
range, the Buruiti^o, the Siuiiiese, the NiiU\*eii 
of Togu, tho ( uuil)ojianft, llic Owhin (Jhmese 
and the C hinr**', in population* which cover 
f>erhapfl one-fifth of ^\5ia. Their ci^imtric* are 
inoiiitly inltind. and mountiuuouA, but contain 
the water>Uie*l» of mighty riven*, the lndu», Uic 
Brahmaputra, the Irawa^li and the Yellow rivrr. 
The complexion and features of these peopin 
is that to which the term Moiig^jhaji has l>ccn 
applied. Tliuugh wild (laganism and nialmm«»- 
dauisiu exLBt, tiie niujority are «*f the budilhist 
religion, but all ?«peiik a ' '' hiaAtdtt- 

VL'luped of all tlie form- h, bcinn 

'ubic and WiAi Ju:Il j^Kmernf 
V uiiM, Th'-^e fMHt]»h. nr* ar- 

til . . ■ ■ . ■..--*. 

tJiC Co^har tnbwi, aud luany \uvrv mamcd Cb^ { KihiK>lugualiy they nrr rapoblc ol bring ciuMcd 

6 N 



; iWe 8uh-gToii]is. Tlic flwt of 'ucrally uwd by the Naga nn olrnldcr or sheet 
■ T Bot, whioli Is iiscd in coin- j covering thrown over the Inxly. 'I'lie t-ljinate 
luJ wonU &» Biilt in BultUtan, asi But in , 13 not tiivourablt to tlio growtli of cottuu, biit 
lUn, Bet in Tibet, and in the tribe* kuo^ni I they prtK-urt- ubiindunco Ixoni Smnokltoo-Ting. 
Btutia nnd litwriii, and corapri3<?s the I^ittlft I In a larjrt* hiilldinfj called Hangkee or tlie 
M.. .^,- 'Kf. natiTW of Ladak, the TibeUins of j Uakachang, all (he boys ol' the vitlnge reside, 
r ami thn chTcwiy allied tribes ofj uniiJ lliey are raairiod. The building is 
me Uhot area in bounded on the about sixty ti-et lonp, «iid twenty Itij^b, with 
tb by India and (.'ashniir, on the North by gable ends. The inside i^i' the* house mn- 
Tanarv, and on the West by Little sistM of one large n»oni. in the centre of' which 

und Kafiri^tan. Amongst the Bhol 
friopxlav }i.> mentioned the niahoniedan 

Ittuat » . i or Little Tibet, 0!' Hongdo, 

Skavdis iUiktiUi and Khartakiihi. of .Shigur, 
rhnriwirl. *fcr., tiie buddhwt Rot of Lndak, Hun- 
inrnifi (ind Kunnwar, the Blioi of tlic Chinese 
Eoi|(ire ; ihe Tibotans of Rudok, Garo, Goga, 
Ac^ (if Lha.«v and Tiahu Lumbu, the Sifan, 
th< Lh.KUK ..r lUitan, the Tak, the Bhot of Gar- 
» t! and Nepal, the Chepang and prti- 

t bir, the Cliak and Drok, the 

li Further emrt are the Kooeh^ 

iM t>o<lo, arranged into tbe We»- 
' Sikkini and the Butan frontier, 
Tiir- KiiHU-m Bodo or Burro of A.-yanx and 
Cadiflr* — the Garo, tlie Kasia, tlie Mikir. On 
ibe viuth arc the hilt trihen of Assani, the Aka, 
TMjs Ahfv^ Miri and Bor Abor tribes, the 
ttuck, Singhiw and Jili, with the 
>m. The color of the Bliot and 
I'liljitionM are of ^-arioiw shades of 
H- and bnmTi ; while that of the 
:>4 various hues of black. 
I do not consume milk, and cattle 

a wi>xl hre w*» burning on the ground, and 
wintden fltools were «rrtinge<i in rows for the 
boys to sleep upon. At one end, u snmll room 
w ])artitioned off for tlie acoommodatiou of 
an elderly man, who in superintendent of the 
c'ftabli^litiitMit, The lUlokee (a buihiing of 
similar dimcnsioua und eonstruction with the 
Kangkec), is devoted entirely to the use or 
residence of the girb of the village, who live in 
it altogether, in the same manner a^ the boys, 
until the day oi' their marriage. The daiuHels 
are all dcoeuily attired, a large sheet with coloured 
slripcft is worn round tlie waist, extending to 
tlie knecrt, a blue clutli is folded over the 
breast tinder the tlic unns ; a profusion of glfids 
bead necklaoea adorned their necks with a 
number of hnuw enr-ringa of all ahoi. An old 
woman ynporintcuds the e^^tablishment, and 
the utmost order prevails iu Ixjth the liang- 
kee and the Uilokee. The hoys and girla 
take tlieir meals with their pareutj*. work lor 
them during the day, and at night retire to 
tlieir respective asyhuns ; all the youths sec 
the girls during the day without the smallest 
are tkot tipcd for tilling the ground, hut are i reatraint, and tliey select their own wives, and 

kepe chiefly for sacrifices and feasts. They 
bavp many pigs and fowls, and eat every kind 
of dcak. That i^^ the elephant is highly 
Ktecmed and a deiid elephant Is a glnriou.*^ 
^trizc (hr a whole village. It is also said 
that thoy are not aversie to tiger's flesh. 
Thrir hoait09, are gahle-ended, and about 
ilihty nr forty h^nff by twelve or sixteen fret 
wi' ' - divided off into one or 

** , "wb, wife, and children, 

iiaddied tugviher, with the grain in 
riiUni ba-ikets five feet high and lour 
tt ' in lliesame room. In one corner is 

*tvi- „ . -.^u filled with somn kind of fermented 
titjimr tttmiti office, wliioh waa thick and white 
sad muU otfimsive to the »cnse of smell. In 
tUs tnniirfa thify dip their wooden cupej or gourd 
W^ttiv, And aJI the morning the Naga loungi^* 
ikot in the sun in their little court^'ard'*, and 
«9tni upnn n high stonr commanding some 
virrw. (lip this abominable beverage. 
\ manufacmre a strong 
' '\ for their changeable 
't iri nmde of the bark of the 
iij plant, in of a brown colour 
blaci: red stripca, or quite plain, and is ge* 

are raan'ied by the consent ol' their pareuU. 
Mr. Butler relates that **in the afternoon, the 
chief came down to our camp with all tlie 
unmarried girla of the village. Line having 
been formed, and tlie camp aasembled, two 
dauisvlH stepiKid out in front of the party, 
and danced with a peculiar kind of hop-dicp 
on one leg alternately, different from any- 
thing I have ever seen, in excellent time, lo a 
song and clapjiing of hands by thft young men. 
In Htaturu the Naga women are short and 
athletic, with fiat mwe-s, ^rnall sharp eyes, the 
upper front teeth projecting a little ; and the 
hair cut short whilst single, but when nmrriod» 
tlie hair is allowed to grow long. They are 
coarse and plain, which is not to be wondered 
at, H-s they jicrform all manner of drudgery in 
the field, supply the bouse with water and fuel, 
and make whatever clothing is re<iuirGd by the 
family. The Naga he adds eat dogs, rats, 
elephantrt, tigers, rhinocen>8es, cows, pigs and 
fowls ; but, Ptrungo to say they have no ducks. 
The Kooki race, now inhabitants of Northern 
Cachar, in the Nowgong district, avyr thai they 
(the Kt3oki)emigrat<?d from TipjMirahtii Northern 
Cachnr, in the reign of Xijjhon Chunder, about 



A. D. 1800, anJin tlie years 1828, 1820. Gol*1 
Chunilcr, rajah ol' Cachax. employeJ Uieui to 
wage war with Tcmle^ram Seoaputtcc. In the 
year lfi45-47f several colonies of new K<MkJ 
immijaratcd t'roin Tipporttli, via llie bed of the 
Barah river, unU joiaoU their bretlaren in 
Northern Caohiir. The number ol' tribe.-^, and 
the total popnlatinn nfall rlaa^c?^ rteiding inNorth- 
ern Cucltor, in estimated by Uic followiaK table 
at 21,345 MuU, reokuuiug five to each houne^ 

Names of Uafta. 

Number of 


Total of each 

IIuwiA Cncliuri.... ..<.. 




Hill CiwUkri 



Old Koold....„ 

New KooU .., 


They live in the most rriendly terms with tlie 
Kaohang N'aga and Mikir tribes, and are 
greatly reapOcted by them tor their known 
martiul ohanicter. The nmrauding An^mi 
Na^ look on the Ktx>ki witlt awe or respect 
and have, in consequence, never dared to attack 
them. In the Tip|>iir:ih district tliere are 
ionumerable tribes or clans of Rooki under 
the nile of heruditary rajah^ or chiefe. In 
Northern Cacluu* tlie principal old claa'» are 
four in numl)cr, v\2. : Khelemah, llnntlioe, 
Bete, I^mkron, and with the laat colony several 
mjahs or chiets had arrived, whom all the 
Kooki necra to respect. They are divided 
into three clon^ witli 41 villagcfl and 1,515 
hoiwcfi, iw fiillowa : — 

Jangsenclan. 28 .. 007 

Taddat-e „ . 12 .. 550 

Shirigshoon I . . 52 

If a woman lenvo her husband, and ui gtiil^ 
of adultery, the i»jtire«l hiwband, invite* tlie 
members of the council h^ vUit him at his tioiuo, 
places a jug of liquor belorc them, andfitativ* Ins 
ciimplaint. The faiihb*»» woman \$ not taken 
back by her injured hiuliand, but is pGrroiticd 
to remain with the dcfcmluut. 

Tlie dresrtof the An^mmi Naga oonsiflUof a blue 
or bla<.*k kilt, prettily omamenlod vrt*h nyvrriQ 
lU: and a c*.xir»e brown cloth t? itiirk 

ihe nettie-pbint w loosely i i the 

shoulders. The warrior wutir? a coiinr round 
tlie neck, reaching to tlie wai:st. ma<le of k"^^^*- 
hair. dyed red, int*»-rmixed with lon|r Honinj^^ 
lock« of hair of Uic |«'r*"r'^ L.. ha* killed, and 
omamenied with cvs' ' *. No one in 

entitled to wear lhw*e in-i-iut.. jf honour, tinle«s 
ho has killed majiy of his enemies, and bruuj^ht 
li'M '' ' '-. Kvcry Anuanii vil' ' <- \ 
p nieirLn>vcrnn)ent l- 

dcni'Jcr;iU^. Ih'- ■ ci- 

pUbt«d ; tlic reliit a in- 

alSDtly, if ponihle, »{M AT thf murkier, wiiboot 

S N 


ferenee to the coimcil of elders, unless the de- 
linquent take refuge in another village, when he 
may t^:§K:aije for years, but ha is a«ver safe. 
YearA after llic deed hart been committed he may 
%e surprised and killed, for revenge n ctm- 
Hidered a aacred duty never to be neglected or 
forgotten. Adultery ia aUo an olTenco that 
admits of uo comprouLUie. If a man s wife is 
Keduced, the iujurcd husband will surely spear 
the seducer on the fint op^iortuuity. The 
Angami Nagu imagine there are many gods, 
or good and c%il spirilis, residing in their 
hilU. To one, they ofter up sjicrilices of 
cows and mithuu ; to another, do^a ; and 
Co a tbirJ, cocks and spiritiious liquor. At 
sixteen yciu*s of a^c a youth pi4ta on ivory 
armlets^ or else wooden, or red-coloured 
cane collars, rv»uud his ucck. He tiiii4[Hmd^ llie 
eonch sliclU with a black thread, put« braM 
earrings into hia earn*, and wears the black 
Idlt ; and if n man had killed another in war, 
he wears three or four rows of cowrie» round 
tlio kilt, and Lies up his hair with a cotton 
band. If a man has killed anotlier in war» 
he is entitled to wear one feather of the 
diuine'?! bird stuck in hb^ hair, and one feather 
is added for every man he has kille<l, and 
these feathers are also fiu;tened to their shields. 
They also use coloured plaited cone leggings, 
wear tlie war sword, spear, shield, and choonga 
or tube for currying panjics. They also attach 
to the top of the sliield two pieces of woixl in 
the shape of butlalo hom£, with locks of hair 
of human beings killed in action hanging from 
the centre. Before they set out on a war ex- 
pedition, uU assemble together and decide on 
the Tillage to be attaoked^ and the chief ap- 
pointed to command the party consults the 
usual omens, which prtning propitious, a fowl is 
killed and cooked, and all partake of it. They 
then provide tliemnelves with hpeaiv, fcliields, 
and a panjie choonj^a, and cooking two days 
food wrap it up in loaves in baskets with some 
meat, and set out for the >'illage to be attacked, 
near which they lie in luubush during th« 
night till the break of day, when they rush iii 
upon it with a great noise, and spear the fin*t 
they meet with, and alierwards cut off the 
he^id, lmn(U, and fect^ of their enemies, roll 
them up in a cloth, and retuni home. They 
thon take tlio skulU to each house in the vil- 
lage and throw rice and spirits over tliem, and 
ttill tlie skulls to call tlicir relatives. The uaaa 
who has cut off the head keeps it under his 
liedfltead five days : during that time the war- 
rion ehl no food prepared by nomen« and do 
not cook in their uccujitomed cooking pot. 
After the fifth day, however, the heads or 
skulls are buried, and a great feast is given of 
pigs and cow^ after which they bathe and 
it^tum to thoir avocatians. They do not go 





iruads, but in bodii 

two parties Uj take hold of the ends 
oertr give up his revenge : l»c ma«t avenge | of a [.iec« of spear-iroii, and to have it cut into 

tkt de«tli of a relative in some way or other 
wCfapT by Ftealth or surprise ; kill one or two in 
ttCuni. and tarry off their hoadj*, panjyinglhc 

i&er iheir retreat to prevent tlietr being 
I. When* respectable man dies in tht^vl^- 

th« inhabitantadonotquitit ibr tliree iUyt^ 
And keep th« body In the hoiL^e. after which they 
kill oofWA and pigs, and give a feast of rice and 

two pieces, leaving a bit in the hand of each 
party : hut the most sacred oath, it is aaid, is 
for each party to take a fowl, one by the heod 
and the other by the legs, ond in tliifi manner 
to pull i( iwnnder, inlimating that treachery or 
breach of agreement wnuKi merit the samo 
treatment. They likewii*e erect n hirge .stone 
as a monuTucnt on the f^'oasiion of Uiking an 

(iritft to the whole conimuuity. llic hotly is oath, and ftayiliut. " as long as thid stone utandd 
coBfeyed to the burvin^-ground. where it 
red, and a sione tomb Ls huiJt over the 
U ihfee or four feet Iiigh. nnd ull the men, 

drased in their war linhiUm»>.ntfl, mnke a 
DOtse, and jump abnui, and suVi " What 
haa come and killed our frietid "? Where 
roa fled to?" Tli«y then plane oti the 
all the articles of dr'esa worn by tlie 
a* weUa^ his arms, his. sword, ajK^r, 
pouijie tube, we:ii-ing apparel, banilx'H} 
t|iirit-cup, flpirit-gourdbftttJe, waisrhmd, «holk 
wnn r mm..1 iJ)e ncck and iirnw, red cane arin- 
l»:i aidj worn on ihe legs, and coloured 

r.i _-^ and dhunes leathers worn in tlie 

It li 13 the custom on the death of mpn ; 

hii: It a woman die, her peliii-oat Mnistband, 
doitb tied over the hreu;!ibt, bra^j ornainetiis 
worn on the arms, and necklaci/j* and spirit- 
gourd bottle, AliUttle for woaviu^% spinning stick 
fiw cotton, rxtttou tliroinJ, dhriii grain, pestle 
and ranrtar fcr cleaning rice, are all placed on 
hex grave. The skull* of pigs and cnws aru 
likewise stuck upon stickd at one end of the 
grsYe in memory of the h*wpiulity exer- 
amd by the deceased. A wnman may live 
with a man without being married, and then 
go to Etnotber ; but she gives up her progeny, 
■nd tho children remain with the fiiilier. If a 
Nsgft divorce luj wife tor any tatdt, she does 
DOi rfituru to her parentR, but resides in a house 
bv ' -^ ' *'. ind she can marry ngiun. If a ni:iu 
<■ iltery his head is cut off. If a chief 

■ CAU^lit in the fact, he is killed. When the 
AagAlni NAtfa liave nothing to du. Uirv .lit about 
<*o the tomn« in np-oups, ajid pass the day in 
driaking iipint» and gorwippin^r, and fnrm- 
iog pbtn» for ht»»tile inmiuls on their noi^li- 
bour?. The N*;iirn nink pit^ in the Jungles 
i-'' ■. and fill thrill with pan- 

|l' -. :d should fall into the pit 

it wijtild be killed. The iiurthcc of the pit is 
^Mtcod over with bramhes and leaves i»f trees. 
aad the new earth token out. Their mode of 
Uking oath* is «ingular. When they swear lo 
kwp tlie peace, or to perform any promwe, 
1^ ' tlie baiTd of a gfui or a spewr 

i>- r teeth, siguifvin^ by ihii fcremony 

1^.. ■ not art up to their aj^^TeomenJ, 

li 'd to fall by either of thn two 

▼tajKiuji. Aucth^r simple but I'lpially hindinj* 


on the e.irth, no difTerence;* *ihall occiu* between 
us." Tlic only wea{it<iui used by tJic ^Vn^mi 
Naga are a spear and duo, a idiort sword or 
hand-hill. Amongst thr. Na^ it is consider- 
efl a point of honour to recm*er the skulls of 
their friends. It is alwj totally incompatible with 
Naga honour to t>>rogo taking revenge, nnd it 
is incumbent on him to ranaom or recover the 
skull of a relative murdered or captured in war. 
— Buttlrrs TatvfiU and A<it>eiitures %n AMttm, 
pp. 47 — 158 ; IV'iiroM ; Ltttftani : Mr. Ifodtj- 
son Xo. *tf ltttl5, of Jieuff. Am. .S*. of. Jouru.; 
TntVM HajitgOuin^ I'o/., p. 57. Lnthains Dese, 
Kthn.; Lat/uim in R^pfirt Bnti^h AModatian. 
See Mozome ; Kuki ; India, 

NAGA. Bexii. Cyperus periennis. 
jNAO A, aUo Nag, lUxn. The term by whioh^ 
in the Hindi tongue, tlic -Naja snake la detug- 
nated. It in the venomous snake known lo 
Kuri'pcans an th« oohra, also cobra di capcllo, 
the term cobm, Itein? tl»e ordinary mime by 
which Eur©p€an* in India doignate the Naja 
genus of venetnom Colubrine emiltes of the 
family EI:»pidje. There is only one species, the 
Naja Iripitdians, Merr., which has a mode-rate 
bod/ ^vith nither short tail. It ha<* a small 
or moderate eye with a round pupil, a poisiin 
fang in frtmt of the mnxillary, which is but 
little moveable or erectile, and only one tooih 
behind. The anterior ribs are elongate and 
erectile, and the skin of the neck is dUnUble. 
When the cobra ri^cs in pUy, nr for amuse- 
ment, it sprendfl out tho skin of the neck, from 
which it geU the Spjiiiirih name of •' C'ubrii di 
Cu[>ello," in Knglit*h tht' •• Uoodetl Snake." Its 
bile is certain death. It is snid that tlie jioison 
can be comlmtted by injecting (xttnsh itito the 
veiu», but, owin^r to the rapidity of tlie poison* 
action, this, evi-ii if true, is valueless. Not- 
withstanding this, the natives of Ceylon do not 
kill the cobra when cau;iht, but enclose it iu a 
mat bag with some boilod rice for food, and 
place it thus in a lowing stre.Tm. In Guzerat 
tJie IundiK» do not kill (his or any otlier Auake. 
Thereare two varieties of the Naga tripudians ; 
(a,) Tho ppectncled or Rin-otellaie cobra, Inia 
its neck, on the steel brown akin, marked 
with a while, black edged r: or < emhxjing a* 
either exlremity a bliick o4'enus. It is only 
seen when the h'Jod is expanded. !i is found in 

N y 


Southern India and in Burmab ? It grows to 
6J feet, (b,) The monocellate or one marked 
cobra, has a plain white ocellus, with black 
centre, and margin, and grows to 4| feet in 
length. It is the cobra of Central India and 
Btirznah. The cobra is worshipped by all the 
races following liinduism and by nearly all 
the non-Aryan races in British India, and its 
form, as an idol, witli one, three or nine heads, 
in stone or brass, may, in India, be everywhere 
seen. It is generally bending- over the idol 
of the lingam. The cobra sometimes swims 
out to sea. The Indian genera and species of 
the family Elapidse are as under : 

Hamadryas elape, ScAl.^ Andamans. 
Naja tripudians, Merr,y Bengal, Pegu, Tenasserim. 
Syn., N. lutescens, Lour. 
N. kaonthia. Lesson. 
N. sputatrix, Mem. 
N. atra, Cantor. 
Syn., N. larvata. Cantor, 
Var a with spectacles. 

h without spectacles. 
Bongarus caenileus, &A., Calcutta, Pegu, 
tropidonotui?, ScJi. 
ceylonicufl, Gunth., Ceylon. 
Xenurelepe bungaroides. Cantor., Cherrapunji. 
Megfcpoplus flavicepe, Mein., Mergui, Penang. 
Elapa McLoUandii, J?«n., Assam, Pegu. 
meUinurus, Cantor., Pegu, Tenasaerim. 
intestinalis, Lour., Singapore. 
Callophis bivirgatus, Soie. Malay peninsula, 
intestinalis, Lour., Malay peninsula. 
ffra<^is, Gratf. Penang, Singapore. 
McClellandii, Hemh., Himalaya, Xepal. 
annularis, Othr., Afistan. 
trimaculatus, Daud., Tenasserim, Bengal, 
maculicepe, Othr., Malay peninsula, 
nigrescens, Gthr., Neilgherriea. 
NAGAor Scsh Naga, see Indra, Naga-droog. 
NAGA Batta Deva, see Inscriptions. 
NAGABALI, Tel. Chavica betlo, Afiy.— 

Sox. W. J. 

NAGA BULLA, Sajts. Webera tetranda. 
NAGA CESARA, Sans. Mcsua ferrea. 
NAGA-CHAUTI, see Seq)ent. 8nake. 
NAGADANA, Hind. Artemisia vulgaris, L. 
NAGA-DANTE, or Nela-amida. Tel. Jatro- 

pha glauca. 

NAGA DANTI C^HETTU, Tel. Tiaridium 
Indicmn, i/^.— Heliotropium In. JH. 1 454. 
—Bheede, x. 48. W. 456. 

NAGADI have a complexion invariably of 
the deepest black, their hair thick and curly, 
their features brutish, their forms diminutive 
Cam^U p. 23. 

NAGA DONDA, Tel. Bryonia rostrata, 
Bata.— W. 4" A. 1080— B. pilosa, i?. iu. V26. 

NAGA DROOG. Colonel Tod shows, in the 
annals of Marwar, that the Rahtor race con- 
quered Nagore, or Naga-droog, (the Serpents 
castle), from ^e Mohil, who lield fourteen 
hundred and forty villages so late as the 
j^ftlHynA century. So many of the colonies of 
beftowed the name of serpent on 


their settlements, that he was convinced all 
were of the Tak, Takshac, or Nagvansa race 
from Sacadwipa, who, six centuries anterior to 
Vicramaditya, under their leader Sehesnaga, 
conqnered India, and whose era must be Uie 
limit of Agnicula antiquity. — Todtt Bajasthan^ 
Vol' ix.p. 445. 

NAGADSAKA, see Bhattiya. 

NAGA GILI GICHCHA, Tel. Ciotalaria 
trifoliastrum, WilVl—R, iii. 277— W, and A. 
597 ; /c. 421— C. verrucosa, W, and A, 578 
—R. iii. 273. 

NAGAGOLUGU, Tel. Murraya exotica, 
L.—R. ii. 374.— TT. and A. 335 ; le. 96. 

NAGAHA, Shtgh. Meaua ferrea, Linn, B.C. 

NAGA-KESABA, Sa5s., also Naga kesara 
chettu, Tel. ■ Mesua ferrea.— Zinn D.C. 

pamu, Tel. Mesua roxburghii, R IK. III. i., 
127 ; Ic. 118-961.— iJ. ii. 605. 

NAGA-KULI. Battisa-S'iralen is a town in 
Sattara collectorate in lat. 16° 57', N. long. 
74° 15', famous as a place of serpent-worship. 
Here, at the present day, the snakes culled 
Nagakuli, said to be not very poisonous, are 
actually caught on the day of the Nagapan- 
chami, and kept either in earthern pots or 
covered bamboo baskets. They are fed with 
milk and edibles, and worshipped in other res- 
pects, like the snake images and drawings of 
snakes. The day afler the Naga-panchanii, 
they are taken back to the jungles and set free. 
There is at this town a curious tradition in con- 
nection with the Gorakha-chincha tree ( Adanso- 
nia digitata) or the tamarind of Gorakha. Tra- 
dition ascribes this tree to be the result of a 
miracle performed by a saint called Gorakha- 
natha or Gorakshanatha. 

NAGAKUNNY, Tam. A Tinnevelly wood 
of a whitish brown colour, used for building in 
general. — Colonel Frith, 

NAGALAM, Tel. Jatropha curcas. 

NAGALI DUMPA, or Tiragali pendalam, 
Tel. Dioscorea, ^p. 

NAGA MALLE, Tel. Rhinacanthiis com- 
munis, Sees. — W, Ic. 464 — Justicia nasuta, R. 
i. ViSi^Rheede ix. 69., also Jasminum lati- 
folium, R. var. 

pegiree or Nagaleka baljee wanloo are worshij)- 
pers of Siva, in the form of a cobra. 

The Siva Chippaga wanloo, are worshippers 
of Siva» they are foimd in the Bellary coUec- 
torate of the Madras Ceded Districts. 

NAGA-M.VNIPURI, see India. 

NAGAMA VALLE, Maixal. Bauhinia 
anguina . — Roxb, 

NAGA-MOOTHA. HixD. Cyperus rotundus. 

NAGA-MUGHATI. Tam. Calonyction 
grandiflorum. — Choisy. 





.- ."".iini*., 

\ MirSADA, also Naga MiaaHi 

' •* roluhrina. — Linn. 

V MIISHIN. or Tige mushini, Tbl. 

.iminatA, Mirff — ffool- fund Th. 

I"'. W. t\i\d A. 44.^Meni)ipennuni 

ac fi. ai. *i' 10-202 ; but, ot 442. 0*Sh. npp!ie« 

tf tot S^TvrhiV" rnldhritiA ; 
h- ri (o S 

13 jH iiiushti. 

\, SiNH.. from ns^« a sor- 
p- 1, tJie end. 8ee GariKla or 


ii AMI, a festival murli altend- 

«il to liv all the liindoo retis;ioiiLsu of Britiah 
hsAiA. The Nsiga serpent deitv is worship- 
ped by aJl binduott on the NagapancUaiai, 
hM oo tbe liAb lanar day of the 
nooih SnvaiL ; ofierin^ are then made 
to «i*k«9« of miUc, prain and other artidwi 
bolr?. Thp cToat and signatnre of 
"' iir is the head and hood 
jsant. Nagapanchami h 
liisi or hrijiht half of the Umar 
• ravanu, wliicli penerallv cor- 
i*:th Aiijowt and Seplemlier of the 
renr. S'ravana w a month in which 
illy have aorue vratu or cere- 
, 11 every day. and sometimes 

festival occurs on one and the 

fmiTtid into 
tbe r^n 
aia«n < 




more than 

asme <!«t. Tlie fifth tlay of the month 'ia con- 
•blered sncrcd to ihe Noga or serpent. On 
tlu» day, emt^y in the morning, cjich family 
hrift^ »n earthen rppresentalion of a serpent, 
fHuntp a family of five, seven, or ninewr- 
rhh mbb(*d flandnUvood or inrmeric. If 


I 'ple uf the Nagti in the vil- 

sfl**!^ there to perform wor- 

■•'dd»»*4 is worshipped in 

run. The gcxlde}« mother 

pri:;aiding over them 

e and devotion, and, 

. II.' i[i(|'ii''-i. an allegorioal creation. 

iidt -. ri«t'nt worship may be said 

oftto"! piirtly, if not entirely," in the 

i of the people, and in figure* of 



fhief of the nerpentK is Ananca, 

•-'"v endless, of which the univer- 

oA symbol is a coiled snake. 

m ilie support uf Vinhnu, 

I' fathomlcM ilea ofchjwv; 

m eternity,) he is, in the 

having the form of Vishnu 

^» the eternity of Vishnu. 

-trirt in the .South of India 

t to 5erpent-wor-ihip. 

i^onoraily, the N:i;ra- 

tl is eeiebrated. as in the Dek- 

i of th< bright half of SVavana.. 

relatoft (Voyage p. 162) that "the 

term of Nagapoutche 8ip:nifie? olfico of tbe 
fvnakc : women are commonly charj^cd with this 
' ceremony. On certain days of the year, he says 
I when they chixwfi to perform it, Uiey go to the 
I bflnksnf those tankswhere ihearichi, and margo- 
' yier grow ; they carry under these trees a stone 
' tiptire. n-prcHentiuj!: a lingam, between two 
I snakei : thev bathe tbenwelves, and, after ablu- 
wilh more pre- [ li<m, lliey wasli the lingaiii, and burn before it 
bicirrhoria, which I Home pieces of woiwl particularly a'wigiied for 
tliis sacrifice, throw dowers upon it, and aak of 
it riches, or numerous [joslcriiy and a long life 
to fh^ir husbands."' A Singhalese docs not kill 
a cobra, but enclcwes ilina wrjtxlen cage. A Naga 
templct dcilioated to tlic-goddesfiNaga Tambiran, 
exists in the island of Nainatavoe, S. W, of 
Jafi'na, in whic)i conserrated iicrpenis are reared 
by the pnndarams and daily fed at the ex- • 
pense of the wor*hipper8. Such temples are 
to be seen in many pl.tcesin the south of India: 
there are several in the tdwn of Madras, and 
one of great extent at Vattarapad a suburban 
village on it* north, where crowds of brahman 
women come every Sunday morning to wor- 
ship. The priests are the wild Yenadi. 
Amongst the Tartar races, who designated 
their septs al\er some beast, as the Naga or 
Hnake, the lungaha or ^volf, the lumri or 
nnmri or fox, the acnAxi or bare, cutchwah or 
tortoise, &c., the sept reverenced the creature 
from which they took their name. Few subjecta 
have more occupied the notice of the learned 
world than tiic mysterie-i of Ophite worship, 
wliicb are to be traced wherever there existed a 
remnant of civilization, or indeed of humanity ; 
among the sava^^es of the savannahs of 
America, and the magi of Fars, with whom it 
was the type o( evil, their Ahrimanes. The 
Na!?:i, or &er(>eut-i?enii of the JtajjMxiU, have a 
semi-human structure, precisely as Diodorus 
describes the anake-uiother of the Scythoe, in 
whose country originated tliis serpen t-worship, 
engratWd on the tenets of Zerdusht, of the 
Purans. of the priesthood of Kgypt, and on tlie 
fable;* <»f early Greece, Dupuis, Volney, and 
other ex[K>unden< of the niy»tery, have given 
an astronomical solution to what they deem a 
varied ramifiontiou of an ancient fable, of 
which that of Greece, ^* the dragon guarding 
the fruits of Hesperides,** may be considered 
the mn^t elegant ^-t:rsiun. Ilad these learned 
men seen thow ancient sculptures in India, 
which represent "the fall," they might have 
changed their opinion. The traditions of the 
Jains or Rudhist'*, fnriginating in the land of 
the Takyac, or Turkist'lian) assert the creation 
of the human species in pairs, called joogal» 
who, fcl of Lhe ever-fruati tying calpa vrishft, 
which pKSHesses all tlie charftct^rs of the Tree 
of Life, like it bearing 

*■ AmbrosiKl fruit of vegetiibl« gAldf 




liflh WW t«»rnieJ amriui. nml rpmlrrcil tJioni 
iminurtiU. A drawinjf brought bv Col. (\Kiiulift, 
from a sculptTintfl cotumii in a cnve tciiipK' in 
the Bourh tif Inilm. n-prcsenu the first pair at 
the tcwit of thU amhrtisinl troe, an<i a serMnt 
entwinf-il auion^ tho hcnx-ily laHcn Ixitighs, 
presenting to them some of thr fruit from hii* 
mourh. The tempter appears to be at tiiut 
part «7f hid iliacourne, wh^n 

*' )ji4"..'-.i- -..I..*., ".ith ijufl«, 

*• Into hflr hi -yet} woa« 

••FixoJ An t:. 
Thw 13 a cvirioiL* oubject to hts engraved on nn 
ancient pa^n tvmple ; if Jam or Hudhint, tJie 
interest would he fonMi(!era(Oy enhanced. The? 
fifth of Sravan \» tlie N:i;;panchami, or day set 

woati^ni extremity of the chain ; and, on iho 
other Hide. nouiJi-westerly along the valley tif 
Oir Bumk. and Surinii : those highknds ar* 
thiw enibrat'cd hy the V9\\«y§ of t)ie Bralima- 
putm and it* atfluenla on all sides but the S, 
K.,^ where they slope to the Kynduayn. The 
Guro are called by th© viUageia. aid upper 
hill people, Coonch Goto : though they them- 
selves, if asked of nrhnt race they are. will 
answer, " Garo." and not give themselves 
ofhc-r tribal appellation though there are many 
tribes of the Garo. A Gai-o i» a stout, well- 
8ha|*e»i man ; hardy, and able to do much 
work ; of a siirly look ; list oatfre-like nosie ; 
araall ey«, generally blue or brown ; forehead 

apart for the propitiation of the chief of the rep- I wnnkk-il, and over-hanging eye-brow ; with 
tile race, the Naga or seqieut. On tliis festivnl, 
at Oodipoor, as well as throughout India, they 
ptrew particular planti^ about tho tlireshold, 
to prevent the entrance of rvptiles. 

NAGAI'ArrANA, a town in the Hiiiirict of 
T&DJore, with a celebrated (emjale of Naga-na- 
llia: iruide the Itmplcnear the idol of Naga-na- 
tha, there i^ n whit« ant hill to which Inrfj^e 
oflVrin^Tfi arc nx^** in honor of the Ber|»ent-jp>d. 
NAGA-PU8IXG. Malay. The miri<* of a 
specie* i>f anisihiria ',' growing at Sm(?npf»re. 
which display much irritability when warmth 
i» applied. { 

NAGA and KJIASIA IIILr.S. The mnnn- 
tain range which bounds .Is'cim on the flouth i» 
known by a great divewily of names in differ- 
ent parts of its coun*e, accordinB' to the differ- 
ent tribes hy whom it is inhabited. 

The Klio^ia or Cosayah liill** rwe ahniplly on 
the south from the plaints of Silhet to the height 
of about 4,000 feet, and thenco more eradu^v 
to 6,OfH3 feet. The culminating point is Chif- 
loug hill, the elevation of which i« about 
6.000 feet. 

To the wentwaH of the KhnJiia hilljt lie the 
Garo hilK which are lower, the maximum ele- 
vation being probably no where more tlian 
three or four thoananil feet. 
lod Jyutea or Jaintia. which is similar in 
chanurter Ut Khania, tber»» appearti to 
i«id*;rablo dirpreftsion in (he rn.-M'. n 
largo river with an ojieu valley p 

to the north. To the east of r.t ... 

there an? lofty hiU«, inhabiled l»y Na^a trib*^, , 
anf^ idso quite nncxpli>red, except in one place, 
where thry were croMwl by Griffith in travel- 
Hn;^ fmm upper Awam to the llnkum valley, 
on a tribntory of the lrawa#!i. TTje Rurmk and 
J^urrau rivers rim in mllevR of the Aaaam chain. 
*rhf^ Nuga, Mikir, Kachari, Garo, £Uid Kha«- 
fiya, arc the Hve nrejt in whose pottcflsioo 
^ie fly, are the hrv>;id landa of the Aattm chain 
ing from the N. R. near Kynduayn and 
ip on one i!ade, along tho valley of the 
tra to it* aouthem beod round the 


lurjie mouih, thick lipn, and (ace round and 
short : tlioir colour m of a li^ht or deep brown. 
Tlie women are short and squai, wilh maacuUne 
eipresidon of face ; in the features they differ 
little from tho jneu. The dress of tlie^' people 
corresponds with their persona. Thev eat all 
lunmier of food, even dogs, frogs, snakes, and 
ilie blood of all animals. The Ust is baked 
over a slow flre, in hollow green bambyw. till 
it becomes of a nasty dirty green colour. They 
are ibnd of drinking to au excess. Liquor la 
put mto iJie nitjulha i.if iufanLs almost iw soon 
aa they are able to swallow. Their religion ia 
a mixtvl hinduism and wbamunisui, they worship 
Maliadeva ; and at Baunjaur, a paM in the 
hiJU, tlicy wowhij) the sun and moou. To 
ascertain which of the two they are to worship 
upon any particiUar occasion, their priest takes a 
cup of water, and srjme wheat: first calling the 
ntunv of tlie sun. he drufjs a grain into tlte water ; 
I if it sink, tlioy are tlien to worship the oun ; 
I and should jt not sink, they then would dn)p 
nnutlier |rratn in the name of tlie moon, and 
so on till one of the grains sink. All reh- 
I gious ctreraonies nre preceded by a sacrifice 
I to ilieir gv)d, of a bull. g<»»t. ho^, cock, or dog. 
I Kxcvpt milk ihoy use evorydiing. They live 
iu hous** raiA«ed from tho ground on piles. 
Tlie youngest daught^T inherits. The woman 
mr^rrie* tiie brother of her deceased husband ; 
if be die. tlie nt^xt: if all, the father. The 
arc kept four dap, then burnt amidst 
-1 ;iig and drinking nml the aiihes buried on 
the spot. A small dish of bell metal with em- 
bossed figures, called a Doo-Kora is hung up 
as a huuteholdgod and worshipped and sacri- 
ficed to : ;aid tlie Garo believe that when the 
household are aaleep, the Deo or figure of the 
Kora i«8uei in search of food and returns to its 
Kom to reat. The Garo arc under British con- 
trol. They arc clacned as Che-anna (6 Annaa) 
and Dtis Anna (]0 Annas) but they consider 
themselves one and the same people. They um 
I sharp banibii panji or stakes, four inchea loi^ 
I tu a meana of opposing inraaiou. In a treaty 

N 12 

:n 1^45. tbrv coii«>nt*iJ tn abstain from haiig- 

'■: "«■»" «kull« in iheir hoiiiifti. They build 

; on piUa. Tlic Miux|uid of 
- .inscription, hovrever, somewhat 
from the above. He sava they are 
intrt many independent commu- 
T mther claiw, acting together from 
of common orijrin, but without 
1*> head of their league. With 
V, :md authorily descende whol- 

H line. On the death of the 

iTi >f the family po<i«e«Mions mnst 

b*- '-' daughter (if tberti be more 

ttian one.) who is di.-aignatpd as rtiirh, without 
rr^gAfd tn primogeniture, during the life-time of 
htr parent. The widower had a stipend secur- 
ed b> him at tJie time of marriage. A mixler- 
ate portion U given to each of the other sistora, 
A »a receives nothing whatever, it being held 
moag the Goro that a man can always main- 
tun hinnself by Inhoor. The woman acknow- 
ledge u diief :ii each of the clana is called 
Ifc^iar. Her husband 'i» termed Mubarree. 
Ue U her r* preventative in all concerns, but 
obtainf in her property. The clan 

»ill ini. i'T »e« ihc pos&e^ioii^ of the 

llnfaar in LL>ur«e of dia*i]>auon. If a claughter 
be ihe iasur of die miirriiige. a Sf>n of tlio 
MiM <»f th« Muhar'fl father is sought in prefer- 
ence to become her hii^band : and in default 
of mcb a person, the .vin of the near^t female 
nblioa of the Mubar (he being of due iige) 
voqJiI ftaad next for selection. Tlie husbands 
1o the tkten ^ a Muhar are called Lushkur, 
lad ii icft ft denominatioTi to which a notion of 
rank ta itt^hed. 

They bftre frequently made descents on the 
platDL A pftrty of ihem« in May 1860, mur- 
dered §ix!*en natiTea of the plains in (he North 
of ibe Mymeatingh diAirict, and afterwardis 
mntikted the bodies. They confessed the 
crime sad thr?e were exrcuted in their own 
Wllagea before their own people. Their accom- 
pbeca, in ntimber *3me 20 men, were condemn- \ 
ed to tnuMportation for ranou* periods. Their 
object was not so much plunder, an human i 
baub to o6er to their ftpirit of the mountains. 
The rn^ah of Ntwtung one of tlie Kl»:issyah 
ita&es •ttkeequently undcrttxiW to aid in rcpretw- 
ts^ thoe raid*. The Gam hills, are a confusied 
^wrnbbge from l.OQO to 6,000 feet in height 
of estimated area, 4,347, sc^uare miles. Charor- 
fier of country, wild. 'I'he rock formation is 
loppoted to be chicHy of gneiss, or Blratifie<l 
giaaito. 'Hie rujah of Nustung, one of the Om- 
cyah ftlUea, i^i well ni^b independent and the 
ttott powerful and uitlueotiai of all the hill 
thieAi not Jtlonc from his position but from hid 
ohboaI popaiarity. He bad conferred upon him, 
aboQt tbe yoar J 868, the titles of FCajah Baha- 
&>er ia consideration of his uniform loyalty to 

tlic Briiishi notwithstanding tlir strenuonn 
edbrt:3 made to enlii<l him in tlie revolts of the 
liill tribes. The Xustung territory forma the 
Soutli Weut portion of the C-owj'ah diptrict, and 
borders on the Garo country ; and its rajali en- 
tered into a convention with the British that, 
sliould it be at any time requisite to tlie latter 
'power to move tnwps in the Garo hills from tbe 
eastwiu-d, they Bhall have a free passage through 
his territory. His turbulent and refractory 
neighbours are the Jynteah, Cos^iyBb, Garo. 
Bhootani^jio. Naga, and Abor. Pr. Buchanan 
Hamilton says, the under bark of the Celtia 
orientalirt tree, like that of the West India Cel- 
tis, consisting of numerouit reticulated fibres* 
forms a kind of natural cloth, used by the Garo 
for covering their nakedness. ('Lin. Trans.,* 
xvii, p. 209). He also describes it in his re- 
port on Assam, as n kind of rug worn by the 
Garo in the cold weather, and serving them as 
a blanket by night. Captain Reynolds sent a 
sperimcn of it to the Agri-Horticultural So- 
ciety ; the Gan> make severaj such cloths of 
different colours from variotu backs. The Garo 
who come to the plains, generally buy some 
small ends of cloths from the Bengalees^ to at- 
tend the hauia (lairs) in, not as clothing to 
protect them from wind and weatJier." 
Mr. Hodj^son, writing in the Bengal Asiatic 
Society's Journal, inclines to the opinion that 
the aborigines of the Sub- Himalaya, as far 
east as the Dhansri of Assam belong to the 
ThibeUm stock and of that river to the 
Chinese stock — except the Garo and other 
tribes occupying that portion of the hills be- 
tween Assam and Syibet;and that the abori- 
gines of the tarai and forest skirting the entire 
Sub-Himalaya, inclusive of the greater part of 
the margimd circuit of the Assam valley, belong, 
like those la"*t mentioned, to the Tamulian 
slock of aborigines of tljc plains of India gener- 
ally. Mr. Uobinson tells us tliat in the 
Assam valley and its mountain confines, are 
throe claiwes of languages. One of Sanscrit 
origin and the otherrt of two great classes, viz., 
those connected with the Thibetan and those 
derinng their origin from the Tai or Shyan 
stock. Of the Aiwaraese proper, that is the lan- 
guage of tbe valley, eight-tenths of the language 
is identical with Bengali, an<l nearly four-flAhs 
of the words in common use, are derivations 
from the Sanscrit. The country from time 
immemorial had been governed by rulers of 
Shyan origin, and the vexy small number of Tai 
words that can be traced to Tai origin is remark- 
able. The Thibetan and the Tai or Shyan 
languages, all approximate towards the Chinese 
roUoquial system and more or leas poaseaa the 
characteristics of being originally monosyllabic 
and all intonated. The Tai or Shyan class are 
also destitute of inflections. The borders of 

! 13 

xhfi vaTIev aro rpinarkuMc tor thf nnmbpra of it!< 
p(^puIatioiu. Many of thciii are nf that grrat 
Bhnt family which we find exteniUn^ from the 
West of Chinc'te Tftrtary eastwards. All the native 
poi>uh\tiotw here are luore m akin to the 
peoples of the BiirmMe empire, and seem to be 
remnant* of Bhot triben left behind in the 
pre:i3ure uf the larger bodies to the »outh. Se- 
veral writers have noticed the tribes in and 
near the As-iam valley. Dr. W. \V. Hunter, 

the Rlinndur, the Cliak and Drok. the TfnramJ 
llie Knlo. Further East ore the K(»orh» the 
nhimal and Bodo, arranged into the Weftt^rii 
Borlo of Sikkim and the Butan fruni.i<»f, aix] 
the Ijwtern Bexio nr Borro of Amam and C^ 
char,— the Garo. the Ku^ia, the Mikir. On 
the South are the liill tribes of Aasarru th« 
Aka, Dofla, AlM>r, Miri and Bor Abor trib<«, 
the Mishmi, Mntiiick, Sin^hpo atid Jili. *riih 
theNaicn in A^eain. The colon* of Bhnt and Bud- 

nnmcalh-jse of them in the \. E. of Bengal aa [ dhi^t itopuhitioiis are of various *hades of white. 

the Bodo; DijiiniU ; Kocoh ; Garo ; Kactian ; in 
the Ea.'iteru Frontier of Bmirtl nrr the Muni- 
puri ; Mithan XagJi ; Tal ' i ; Kbnri 

Naga ; An^nimi Naga : '.>' Na^a ; 

NowiTong Na^ : Teugsa Naga ; Abtir Miri ; 
Sibmagor Miri ; Deoria Chutia ; Stngh|X). 

Dr. Lailiam observes that the nations on 
the borders of British India, in the north- 
west, the north enat and east, form an ethnolo- 
gical griMip which rontairw the Tihetiuw, the 
Nepal iribea, several populntionit of the Sub- 
Himalayan" ran^, the Burmese, the Siamese, 
the Natives ot'' Pejru, the Caml>oiinn'*, the 
Cochin Chinese and the Chinese, in ]M)pulntions 
which cover pt^rhaps one fifth of Ania. Their 
countries are mo«tly inlnnd, and mountninoui", 
but contain the water-aheds of mi|jhty rivcre, 
the Indiw, the Hr.iUmaputra, the Iniwadi 
and the Yellow river. The t'omplexion and 
features of these peoples are Uiose to which 
the term Moogolian has been applied. Though 
wild paganism and mnhonie<ianiAm exijit, 
the majority are of the buddbist religion, 
but ail Bpeak a langua;rc the least dc- 
Teloped tit all ilie fornvi of human Hpeoeh, 
being monosyllabic atid with little |K>wer of 
grammatical inflexioiw. Tliese people are 
arranged muUr four gTt*at ptditiual ptiwrn*, the 
British, the Bunae!»e. the Siamerfeand Chiru'^e. 
Ethnulogically they arif rapable of Uing claAsed 
in. three considerable sul>-^r«»upi*. The firit of i 
these is the Bhot or Bot. titerm wltlch bi uited in 
compound words as Bidt in Bulti--<tan. — But in 
BuUm. — Bet in Tibet, and in the tribes known 
tu Bhiitia and Btvitia, and couiprutca the four 
little Tlbeums, llie iiativr-s of I,Adak, the Tibe- 
tiiris of Tibet Propi-r and the eloiely allied 
iriben of Hutan. lite Bh«kt .irea i.* Ijoiinded on 
the «outh by imlia. and C:i!»liinir. on tho North 
by Chinese Tartary and on the We!«i by I-ittlr 
EUAhara and Kafiritun- Among*t ibe Fihot 
populiitions may b*' mentiimcd the m:<^ ' 
Bhnt of Bulti/tiin nr l.itilr Tibet, of 
Skardo, Purkuia. .nnd K}i;irt;iks)ii, oi >tii;;^r, 
Chorbad, &c., tb** bnddhi:*t But of I^ulak 
gruTjg and h 
Empire ; *.\ 

&. thr 

Ml ^ rw-al, 

VtsnUKm and >l«pal, thr Uiepang and probably 

14 N 

yellow and brown ; while tiiat of the pagan 
races is various hues of l>lftek. Latfuitn'n />mc. 
iCth n. B/n.A. St*f. Journai A o. rvt . Mn rch , 
IftfJl).— Oz/f Myth. HimL, p. 320; Hasting $ 
!*nv(Uf Jonrjml, Vol, p.p. 132, 316; liotfU 
Fih., PL 317. Buchatutn^ I/antilton, Litin, 
Tr., xvii. p. 209. See Khasaya, Mikir, KuVi. 
Singhpo. India. Krishna, Hind<x), Serpent, Sikh. 

NAG.\R nr Beduur, a town in the northern 
part of Mysore. It belonged to tlie ancient Cha- 
lukj-a dvnajtty. It is usually written Bednore 
but is ainti called Nagnr. The Nagar district* in 
Mysore, is to the north of C"i>org. It corwists t>f 
taMe-topi»ed hills, 4.000 to 5.000 feet in mean 
elevation, the Baba-buden hills are 6,700 feet, 
and scmie parts are 5,t»00 feet. Coflfee la 
largely grown, its climate and vegetation 
appear to be idpiiticnl with that of Malabar. 
For the most part it consists of rounded or 
table-topped hilU, 4-,'>,000 feet in mean eleva- 
tion, often cultivated to tliat height, and rising 
in some place* to upwards of 6,fKM)feet, the por- 
tion called Baba-buden hills being said to l>e 
5,700 feet. As with all other parts of ih« 
western chain the climate of the western fiarts 
is exceitsively humid ; the rains at the town of 
Nagar (or Bednnr) eJemted 4,000 feet on a 
spur to the wc;?tward of the chain are siud to 
lust for nine months, during six of which Ihey 
are &o heavy that the inhabitants cannot leave 
their hotises. — Hool'f.rjf Thomson. Se«ChaIukya. 

NAUAH, a river near Surkolo in BaoJeuli 

NAGAR, IIi7<D., from Nagara, a town, any 
town as Na^ar, Ahmednugger, Vizianagrini. 

NAGARA, SiNoB. A tribe of Guxerati brah- 

NAGARA, harbmir, is an inlet of the sea. 

NAGAKAHARA or Jalalabad, is the Nang- 

gfvlivhfv-lo of the Chinese. Its eapitaj was at 

Hidda, the Ui-lo of the Chinese, and it was the 

Nagara, or Dionysopolis of Ttnlemy. From 

I*atnghnn. the Chinese pilgrim Uwen-Tb«ang 

procee^ied for 100 li, or nearly 17 niib-H. to the 

alier crowing a large river, 

t of ?jagarahara. Both the 

point to the Nagara of 

to the ^ Kabul 

> )iediaie ri>. I • tialabad. 

natural boundaries of Um distiiet are the 


HuTi- I rtouTb-fOsi, and. 

river, am 

^tgiahk Paas on the west, and 0\e Khybar Pms 
cm Um esfttf with the Kubul rirer to Oie north, 
aodkhe Soiled K<^h, nr ftDuvry muuntoiiLfl, to the 
aontk. Within these Uinib* thodircrt mwwure- 
iMents on the map aro al)out 7^ by 30 miles, 
vhidi in Actual road tiisiatice would be about 
tW fune as the Dumbere shitod by llwen- 
Thoag. The position ui' the capital would 
«ppeftr to have bocn at Bcgnun. about two 
cailci Co t}>e west of Jelalah:uK and tive or six 
miloR to the W. N. Hidda, which every 
iD>|innf has identitied with the Hi-lo of the 
ChiaoHR pU(n'ini&. The tuwa of llilu was only 
i. or about three-tjuarters of a mile, 
ii it was celebrated Hir lU poweA- 
kull-bonc of Buddhu, which waa 
a stupa, or solid round tower, and 
. r^uibiled to pilgrinw on pnymcnt of a 
I (^ ilri. Hidrla i* a anuill villtij^'o, five 
miitt lu lb« aouth of Jalalabajl : but it i^ well 
kiurvn for its large coliection of buddhiat 
•t(i|)a*, tumuU, and caves which were explored 
bv Maafion. Similarly the skull-neckUice of 
Siva id called simply the asthi-niala, or bone- 




NAG^UiJU^'A CAVE, oneof the Behar coves, 
in the Tieighbourho«xl of Kajagriha : the milk- 
maids cave and brahman girls cave have in- 
sciiptiona, in the Lath chanu:tor ; they are 
aUiut 200 B. C. and are the most aiu:ieiit vaves 
of India. The Nagarjuni cave and Haft Kha- 
neh or Satghar group are situated in the aoulhern 
arin of the hill at some little distance Irora the 
hralmian girl and niilkniaid's cave. Another 
group lA the neighbouring Karna Clmpara and 
Lomas Rishi caves. Nagarjuria cave, at Buddha 
Gaya, hiw numerous inscriptions in Sanskrit ; but 
requiring the aid of a Pali scholar to tmnslate it. 
The date in Samvat 73 or 74 of the fiopala or 
Bliupala dynaaty of Gaur, corresponding Xi9 
1197 A.D. or 1140? The character used in the 
inscriptions is the Ganr alphabet, the immediate 
parent of the moflern Bengah, and like the 
Harsha. AnumgHt religions or divinities or sages 
mentioned is a salutation to Budda, Mahavira 
swanii. Saliasrapa, the treasurer of the raja, is 
called a coruvientons bodhisatwa. The kings co- 
princes meiirioned are Aw)ka Chauflra Deva ; 
his hrotlicr, Dasaratha Kumara, and Sri Mat 


lace.' Na^aratiara wa« identified by Las- Lakahamana ; l>ova Deva. This inscription is of 

with tlie Nagara <>r DioTi}so|K)Ii8of PtoleniVi 
situated midway between Kabid 
>. The second name suggests the 
lat it may be the same place as the 
riau and Curtius. This name is 
jireserved in the Dinus orDinuz of 
as he places it about midway 

considerable importance, as, by its era of 73, it 
c<)utirnif Mr. C'olcbrookes correction by a 
thousand years of Dr. Wilkin's date of tlic Gaya 
inacriptioq translated by tlie latter. It is of 
great importance, ala<^ as it distinctly ahow« 
the buddhist impression in those days of what 
Nibutti or Nirvana meant, namely — as expressed 

between Kabid and Pariishawar. — Cunniny- in the inscription — '*the ahuorption of his (the 

writers) soul in the Supreme Being," disponing 
of the question of buddhist atheism. The in- 
scription shows that the buddliiats had still a 
hold in India in the twelfth ccnturj-. It waa 
recorded by Sahiisrapada, the treasurer of 
the raja Di»saralha Kumora. The princes 
are not met with in hindu history. In 
another, of date the Ist century B. C. 
the character used in the inscriptions, Is No, 2 
Lat. — Yajna Varma. Ananta Varma lu-c men- 
tioned. This remarkable inscription, found in- 
B<:ribcd in a buddhist cave, records the consecra- 
tion of the saiva iraages, Dheeiapati and Devi. 
In the Budda Gaya vaulted cavern, or 
.Nagarjuni, other iui^criptions in the Sans- 
krit arc of tJie date after Alhihabad No. 2 
and of the ninth or tenth century. The c>mr- 
aoterused in tlic inscriptions is the Gaya ; and 
differs slightly from the Gujarat aljthabct of 
Mr. Watlien, having many compound letters, 
and is therefore more modern than it. Yama 
is mentioned, also s«m of Ananta Varma. The*e 
inscriptions, in the same cliaracter aa the pre- 
ceding, only contain praises of the Vanua princes, 
who, Mr. J. Prinsep thinks, were of the Gupta 
I'amily, They are all in the Buddha cave of 
Nagarjuna. — Vbh v. p. G60 ;xvi.^, 505 ; See 
Burabur Caves, Inscriptions. 

i*f Anrt47it (UiHjraplut nf ludia, p. 44, 4C 
NAGA-RAMA-KATTl. Tkl. Calonyction 
gnodiHonim. It has very large, pure white 
licrverK is a native of the \V. Indies but culli- 
""'-^ 'p. India. — CKounf. 

.ARATKi\, a hindw sect who appear 
iu u«->' I ' *' to tlie Vaishnava and Saiva 
cr««4fL,- • ingthe^enel,<loftheLinga^'Htu. 

— Bm^'^*^", " Jnurnrif fatm MtulrAS throtujh 
AftfXiRrr^ i^anara and MtMKir. 
'" ' '' T in bt, VJ^ la' N.; long. 70* 35' K. 
iijc, a small village on the southern 
L*- ^'>^n gtmt bangnlo is 40U feet 

^ I. — A. Schl. 

■n lat. 13^ 21' N., long. 
ik, a piL<M in the eastern 
gratis 'J op 01 the ghat is 558 feet. — «bVA/,, A. 
\\C\VA, HdD. Kolttting to a town or 
civ . especially, to the alphabet of the 

■u^'. .1 ..tii^'usige ; and it^ modifications in 
Hindi. Marj»t)ii, Ac, sometimtrs with deva- 
(d; - '"- ' -IS Devanagari. At the present 

(b ignc is written in Deva Nagari 

cKj , . I . Ill <^<; in the Pali, the Tamil, 

Tt'iL. I. fi; ar, -' , M;ihr»ti, Maleulum, Bengali, 
Goserstii. ' '. "-^ -^ud uibers have each their own 

NAGAK JAMIAN, Hind. Ficus reticulata. 
15 N 


NAGARKOTE, .<ee Kiithi or Kalti. 

NAGAR MOTH A, or Na^tar mothi, HwD. 
C'vpcnu jancilbtim, hJjd C^pema Icmgnst &"<) 
C*. pjtundu^, &c. 

NAGA-RUNGA» also Swodoo Naringn, Saxs. 

NAGAKU TIGE. Tbl. Tephmam ruccmuaa, 
n*. and --(. 055.— Ribinia rue. K, iii 329. 

NAGASAKI, a chief &eii-port town in Ja- 
pftn. The entrance to Nagasaki harbour U 
lovoly. porcelain made at Nagaflold i»Kiiki and 
at tho samu time elegant. It \a a government 
monopoly. To procure a senicc for twelve 
^ pcrvms, the permiaaion of the ntuhorities 
won required, and then, aii ordinarily huncl- 
•ome one would coet at lea*r. i,*10. Kxiiniftiie- 
ly worked baakci cups of the iliiu p<irLcUiii i» 
bound by a flue net-work of cAnc or youn^r 
bambim, no neatly w^ven that the meah*^ art 
imperceptihie. Tliere are some gn'isser sjioci- 
mens of ihin workniatiAhip, but the weU-tinitthed 
platting U inimitable. The origin of this 
beautiful texture waw, no doubt, a prolvotion 
to the fingers of tea-tlrinkera : and many are sn 
well done, that tliey appear to have J»eeu paint- 
ed on the cup. The French word, biblo* com- 
prehends in '\\s meatiin^ anytlitn;c. and all 
thin^ which have no use. but rttill are curiixii- 
liej or ornaments, and iHiu^dit as ftilch. — Frert 
Aiitijjvfiea, p, 388. Sec Jupan, Kiu-«tu. 

NAGA SAMPANGUTia.? Meaua (rrr«i. 

NAGA SARA, Tkl. AmphidoiuiX karka. 

NAGAHSAUIAM. Rumf*h Amh,. Meaua 
ferreAt Linn. JJC. 

NAGA SARA TIGE, Tbc. From Kondavid, 
in Guntur with the following remarks, *' lioot 
a tulwr, rrecjift on the ground. Mowers m 
Auji:U9t and fruitx in November." 

NAGA TALI. Tf.l. Acoo^ling to Br. 1242, I 

** a medicinal plant useful in snake hitcs,** . 
'• Trichceanthcji anguiua.**? 

NAGATAM.MA, -oe Hindo.i. ' 

NAGA TUM.MA or Kasturi tuimiia. Tkl- | 
Vachellia Farnpsiann, H'. and -I. 

NAGA VALI-I, or Tamala paku. Sakii.,Tkl. 
Chavica betie, .U17. 

NAGA VAMd. SiN9. Cantluum parvifltv 
rum, also Hnubinia tsejindeiut. 


NAG HALA. Ihxn. Alysit 

ifnliiM, aW AIv<wicarpu« numinniaria. 

NAGA-BAUYAI>A, Krvn. Sida alhn. 

NAG-BEU nt5P. (httvica- »ert>xci, Mig., 
ahvt Pip«Lr b^i-tel. and liaiihinia an^r^ina. 

NAG-»Ul-A, Hiwo, Sida aJKa. 



^\j!0 Pynaru, Mia^ C^», I 

SU{)hyt«i cnodi. Abr- I 

!'*»*• ns, I 

Hi>n. Artttnisia tulgari*, L, 

10 N 

' NAG n<>WNA. Hind.? Of Bombay C 
aaiatioum, in other district*, Cnnum toxic 
aln Aflparmf^uB oJ&cinalu, abo Artanisia r 
guris.— WUhf. iferh, 

NAGEESAR, Hixd., asperiea ofGarrinm; 
' on tlieCalcuttasideof Indiaitis the M«niaf< 
i Throughout his travels in India, Dr. Hooker 
I waa struck with the undue reliance placed 
un native names of plants, and information 
oi kinds. It is a very prevalent, but erro- 
neous impression, that fla>-age and hall^ 
ctviliflod people hare an accurate knowledge of 
objecta f»f nacuinl history, and a uiuftmn 
nomenclature for tliem.— £ro«t«r, Him. Jour. 
Vol, ii, i>. 3aS. 

NA(;E!A PUTK^W^nVA. RotK Syn, a| 
Pniranjiva Koxbur^'hii, Wall. 

NAGKL. also SpikiT, Gbr. \aila. 

NA(;ELN.R<mjMEN. Dwr. Clovwi. 

NAGEM" HALA KURA, Tkl. An ama- 
rantacooufl plant «j named by the Konda Do- 
rnlu, probably a var. oi Digera nmncata. 

N.'VGKRKOT. not far from Xagerkoic, is 
JoallamiNiky, a temple built m*er the stubterrane- 
ons Are. — Prutianft IHndooMan, Vol, i, p. 3«, 

NAGERY. a vilhige about 30 milw N. E. 
of >fadra«t, in the tVdlectorate o| North Arx^ot. 
Ii is built near a hill, the projecting |)oint of 
which in lat. 13° 25* N. ia known to mariners 
aa Nagery niii'e. 

NAGESAR, Mesua ferrca. 

NAfiKSH-ALl^ Tel. Cassia Buds. 

NA(K;aN KOT. See India. 
^ NAGHA-MUGHATL ai«> Valad ambu, Tak. 
Calonyction grandirtonmi, C/ww/. 

NA GHEE, BtTRic, A timber of Tena«e- 
rim, uf maximunt girth ^i cubital, and maximum 
length 15 feet. When senwmed Jt float* in 
water. It is a tolerably good wood, used for 
mai)«t», but not durable enough to be reconi- 
mendetl. — Cophun Datiee, 

NAGH(»UI. Gc«. A tribe of mohamma- 
damt m (juzcrat^ uiually employed in driring 
carts and keeping cattle. 

NAGILI'M PALAM, Taji. I^>megT1lnate. 

NAGISHVORO. iritu. Of Ganjam and 
Gumstir. supr)ci(»e<l to be Mrsua frrrea ? Ita 
eTtreme height \% '.KW fpct, circumference 3^ 

'. and hrit:ht from the ground to the intcr- 

[ .in of rhe Jirxt brunch, Si teet. A medicine 
use<! ''I rhcuiiiiitixm iic., ijt rxiract- 

ed fi'>in ■ 1 . The flnwrrt are nl«> worn 

by the Dnya* and the raj nlwi •tuff their pij- 
lown with them. The trer is tolerably com- 
mon, but nn UAT seornM to be made of th« wood. 

NAGKKS AR, Hi^n.,Mr«nn t>fTPa,/.in». n.C. 
In hindfxi ntythology, ihr five arrown of Kama. 
the hinrloo go"! *if love, are each tipper) with thr 
hlcHiom of a Hower, which l^ derotcd 10, and 

to prrsido <»v«'r. a si3n<w» : the fl-ttrm 
a brAtinjT, itiHaiiiiii^ •{ttoliiy : a^d art- 
nanuyi, amd w**!) (UscrilK'il, in lUo. liiips nl' 
iIj. Tr. iim hy Sir WiUiaiii Joiies. whirl 
^ •'|ian 

ju— ... ■ . :-. trii-mi : 
*"llc W'Uik (he ItLsriouit ranc, and twiVu th^ 

WTjtli litt«a^ liow sm'prt ! but, iili ! how kei*u 

liieir sliiifr t 
lf«» with livr fli«rrnt» fipd thoir n(thIo*< durts, 
Wbjcii ihroHg^li tivcd^BSfU pierce enraptiird 

f^tronp ( htinipn, rirli in rxloroiw pT>!d ; 

W'nrTT! Anirr. hurs'd Sit lwav«>rily mould; 
. ill (tilvtT HMiditiir ; 
ftur spiipo I'f'^'uiliii;-': 

Auii l:iM. lukindJe fl^-fo llie*fr^»n-liinj:; tianie, 

r, w>!nft, which pr»«U hrijfht Ik-la uaHM-** 

• iripu, or Champa. nK»i*e tlatoiriillv 
*■' ipnku. w the tlK*Miolieliu rhainiKica 

•'( > (x.v(iiiiif)iA: it U of two Korm, wliiu^ 

•toi w iiw«. jiiiiill, luid in it-? tMiiLge like an 
«Xf«ude^ tuiu'-bud, ItindiHi (rardcnora niaUo, 
«r. ' II thr »ho|Ki, ohnplet:^ niid Iim;; strings 

<•' ;ir*.with«hich tht hiinlti wonitfii.oii 

tilt 3tj}.{jU3:tii-m tliut iu fr.iptiiiw'o oxoite«fnvoiir- 
^v(^ «^r*«^ri*>nH iM the votnrirs uf Kmua, dt^iK 
Ti- wont nmud thoir noolw ; 

»'- r, *» pT*^iit, that ncn'*?s 

ti 'd lo It run *«i'arci?ly hear \U i«ltHir 

*. '•- AiKtrbiT th'Wer comiiioiiiy callt'd i 

tniifrn, or raojrri, \a of thr same dcw^ripti-nt. 

II iL^ 

sapcion liinieilnliuiu alftt> ot' Mesua f^rrefl. Th4 
root of the M&wia lerren tree is eonsiderf^ 
OAiring^ut ftiKl rvlri^orant: one tola w tafccni 

ir William Jones, whirli pciiiit j int«rnaJly: in HjipUed externally iueymioche. ' 

n^ the bow ami'ts lur hi:i j Cr^»/. .!/(«/. 7\ip. //. H7. 

NAliKKSSL K. Giz., Caasia budd ? 

AAU-KLM*AI,A, see Sirs. 

-\A<j|-A, Oiik. Kleusiue corooana. <7<Fr^ 

NAi.'I.A I{\<;KK. Si»f (.Trnminarcrp, Mnp:}, 

N'A(iKKI.\, also (;i'WHr/-NHlken,G Kit. C'lov 

NAUKKIN. t;r.R., Clovca. 

NAGXA. sve -Iain, 

NAGODK nitil 0.xhriTn. Like Knttp, (lie 
state nf <><tohru*a ww* "rii^'inully iiK-hiilix:! aa 
one of the liMKlniorio.-* of rminuh in the suTintid 
granted lo r«j;i KisliiWe Sui^. 'Jlie rjja 
rendered ^mhmI st-i-viee iluriMfr llie miitiniea, auj 
was rewarded with the print of ajagtdru IVhiti 
iJie ronfiii^ared estate of Hijeeragognrh, He 
ufcw reeeiTud the ri^rUt ul* nilopiiuii. Th« ores 
of this petty stare is 454) sijiuirr? inilesi, and 
the j>opu!a(iuii r<',00l> ; tiu} rereniica are nt- 
pet'd 72,4*Mt. 

iVAUdklC, ft small town nn the Coroinnnde! 
Coaflt, iu irt(. lO"^ 40" N., 4 nide^ from NV^- 
pataui. It is a senjiurt town, in Tanjore, chiutly 
inhabited l>y inaUoiuiHlauH wf the Lalthi race. — 

XALiOUK. a river neaf Uhiiplaliin Pnrneah. 

N'AtjOKKOn:. we Kiuhi. 

NAG<_)l'RKK a river near Raniponr. 

NAGPHANXI-KAND, Brno. Arum cara- 

NAIMMIKNA, Beco. Hedge Priokly Pear, 

tftd cnaTi perhn|»*, he one of thes*^claaHirally 
namftl \n iKe hiinn, The fragrance of the 

^liQmpA \» m wry Mntnj; timt I»ee8 refuse to I Opimtia l>i!!enii. 

Miraei honey from ii a circnnistanee that 

Amid not erteajie the keen eye of the hindu 

pijrttt ; antl ihey tlceordinjrly (eigu the Chumjia 

t» be (tadly niortitle«l at this neglect. They 

haiv, howereT,aff»TnIe»lilcnn!M)lation, dedicalinj^ 

i blaek deity, a:* they, omtrary 
in jioelical natiirahsU, e«^nAi- 
littr uttiuii uf yellow and black |>eenliarly 
litifril. Krishna i^ rnoHtly seen profuselv 
'if* of flowers. The (.'hinn- 
I -I hv the preferenee it has 
obtajnr^t ni bedwkinj^ the phxiy I'xrkst of hiaek 
liatrvfi «lain.H«lii. a^ jiwt notii<e<l.alm> iu the fut- 
tKiwinff ittnn/3i, literally«ilau*d fr<ini the 
SanRkriC : — That thou art not honoureil by 
tbe ilt-dt>par«ed hco, why, O Chant pakn I dost 
l^a fo heavdy lanient ? The loeks of lotos- 
cTod ilftmcelsi, m»enihling the tire^h dark rtoudu 
ing th» sky : let tlieiie enibellinh thee.— 
■Wianiffifiiy. Vol. /I. See Kama. 

~>Hni, Bewo. Mesua fcrrea, ZAnn. 
iA* :'>xliurghii. 

U'A-JAMHA B«Na. Hisd. 

NAlfKi'>9L*K, HxXD., flower huiU of Caly- 

NAG-PJl<>t;LEE, BfOKQ. Heliutropium corn- 

XACi-IHjOT, Hisn. Bauhinia anguina. 

NAGHOUK, or Nagpur in the name of a 
lown and a provinee in t'entral lndia» the 
Nagjiore Jialrirt now forming' fmrt of the Cen- 
tral Provinces. The Na^mr district is bounded 
on the norlh-wcyt by a siiort srreteli ol'tlie river 
Wardha, on the north by the di(4triotfl of Chiiid- 
wara and Seoni. and on the east by the disiriet 
ofBhandnra. A hiuhII portion of the I'hHnda 
distrlLtudjoinji itA extreme southern frontier, and 
througlunit its whole len^'th. from north-weftt 
to the sovith-eait, it is bounded by the new dis- 
trict of Wurdhn. T!ie early history of the la.nt 
Nagpore rulini^ family 10 .somewhat obseure, but 
its iinportanee in Indian hiHlory may be said 
to (hvte from liaghojee, wlio, as a leailer of pre- 
datory expedition:!, had, at the time of bin death, 
in 17^5, eAtablished ihe Mahralta supremacy 
over lUo country between tlie Nerbudda and 
the Godavcry, from the Adjuniah hilla east- 
ward to the sea. Chi ihe death of Madhojee iii 
I 1 788, the uiu'ontrolled power devolved ott 
! Raghnjee, who waa then twenty-eight yeara al* 

N 17 

ifjliojee tlietl in IMIO, aiiii waasuci 
ej by hUuiily son riir*^jee. Tliia prince being 
inoapacitale*! for gi>vprumeut by a com{ilic2ttiou 
of diisea*«3, a regency was funneil under Mad- 
hojeo Bhonsla, better known as Appa Saliib, 
Pursnjce's cousin. In 1817 Purenj^e diwi sud- 
denly, having been murderwi, aa waa afierwar<ls 
discovered, by Appa Sahib. Soon after his 
accession, Appa Sahih made conunou cause with 
the pctiliwu, who was then inciting all the 
MuhratLUd to unite against the English. After 
an unfluccewful attempt U> regain his hold of I principal chief;* in the Contra I Province* are U»e 


quit rent. BcHiJesi these tlierc were thirty-lwo 
zamindar!* iu l)ie Wyn Gun^'A dlsirivM^ who 
|>.'\id a total iribute of Kiipees 1,41,5VH, but 
with wiiom no writti-n cnga^metits were form- 
ed. The Na;:pore territory and the SailgoT 
and Nerbndda territory have been formed iofio 
a »t*parate admini.itnilioa under a chief Com- 
inisstoncr, to which have been added Sumbul- 
porc and its dependenoen. The lerritorie* 
under the jurisdiction of the rhtef Commissioner 
urc now known ns the Central Provinces. The 

Nagpore, he fled to IlindiMtan in Kobrunry 
1819. He died at Jodhi->re in \S40. On the 
deposition of Appa Sahib, a gnrndiM^n of Ragli(»- 
jee by hi* dau>«Iit*.-r wtis placed in jiiiwcr on 
2Gth June ISM<. In 1820, when the rajah 
attained his mnjority and was entrusted 
with the a<lininistration. a Treaty was 
made with him, by which lie ceded for ever 
territories t»> pay tlie ami of the snl»sidiary 
force, and rucHl^ne*! landt as n gtuirantec for llie 
jfaymcnt of the Iroops which he wus l>ound to 
maintain, and wliich were iheuccl^irth to be 
under the contntl of tlic HritiAh government. 
hojee retaino*! the admitiistTiitinn of a^uir^ 

rujahd of Hii5tar, Kliamnd, and Mukrai. to all 
of whom thf right of adoption has been 
(Hinccded. IIk* riijah ol' Uiistar {Ays an 
auniuil trihuit iif KufHC<4 4,4KH>. The Kharond 
chief p.'»ys lCn|j*:*es 4,6W. The revenues of 
Bustar and Kharond are rwpeclively Rupees 
2o,k7*N and Hnpee^ 2*.),«7^, and tiic population 
aUiut bilJHMt in <>ach suite. 

Madhoj i*ssouh wore l^puji,Parfinji, and Sabaji, 
contemjjoraries <'f the great Sivaji, and in His 
niiUtary service. Piirsoji only wju* distinguish- 
ed ; and under S;ihu Itaja he «»s entrusted 
with an extensive military command and the 
collection of " chautb'* m IWmr. He died 
the day of his death, llth DcccmlK-r 185H. ' about tike year a.d, 1709 and was suc»Vff«l«d by 
He died witltout a son, without anv licir what- ; his son Raiilioji, who fixed his residence at 
ever, and wiilio»it any adopted child, and it was | Bham in Iter;»r. Itjiglntji Hhonsla wat the son 
determined ;•> inc*trpitnite with the Hritish of Bimbaji, thr ihinl »tn of liapuji, tiie bn»titer 
territories the \agf>ore slate, which liad, in ' of Paranji. Taking advantage of the diflioui- 
1918. been forfeited by the treachery and ln>*ii- I ties in whicJi the IWiwa found liimself place<l 
lity of Appa Siihib, had been declare<l to belong iu 1744, iCagluji t-htainwl for himself a sanad 
to the British Government by right nfc«nque*t, t'outerring on Itini the ri;^hl of collecting all 

MM < 

bad been conferred by free gift on Raghojeo, 
bia hoirn an<l succewors by the Treaty of 182*>, 
had uow la]isk>tl to the Briti^th <toverninotit 
default of heirs. In 1H,">, the nurviWng 
widowd of the lato rajah miopteil as ihcir mu 
and heir. Janojce Hlionsla, a colUtteral relation 
uf the rajah in the female line. In considem- 
lioa of tUo loyalty of the family tluring the 
rebellion of 18^7* tho title of liajuh liahadikir t>f 
Deor, and the lands of Deor in the diniricE iif 
Battara, were conferred in perpetuity 'ui Jano< 
jee and hi;* heirs, whether by h|i-»d ur by 
adoption. The fauitly pe\;«i%o [tenni* "iw .-unount- 
log at prv^nt to Rui>ei^4 lj.3:i,<i4Ki a year. 
The ramindara witli whnnt written oogtige- 
ments were contracted were tht«e of 
ChutAigurh, Cl^andn, and Dcogurh nr Cland- 
wara. The Ciiutc*gurli zainindam, ificludiiii? 
the rajah of Hastiir. with wlmm a to|tarato 
Treaty had hern <*nnrtiidnd. and tlie 
n^alia of K hart>nd and Kakair, were 
twanty-sevnn in number, and paid au atinual 
tribute of Uupem I. :^.(K*1:2. In Chanda there 
were cighteon putty Otmd xamindnrs, paying 
ftItQg«thnr A tribute of ordy Hiip<t«s 4^>, The 
iiftnd xamiudapA nf Dongurh were liiurteuD 

on him the ri^hl 
reventteandroMlributionj* lri»m Lueknow, Pntiui, 
and liower liengnl, including IW^hnr. And vest- 
ing him with the s>>lc authority ut \e\\ tribute 
frtm the whi'le territory from liemr toCuttwk. 
IVild and do itive in a«'tion, he was the perfect 
Tv|>e of a >tar.iiba leader. He saw in the 
tniuble^ of other states only an opening fur hU 
own ambition ; ho did not wait even t4>r a pre- 
text for pluuili-r and invasion. I'hoiigh he was 
unsrruimlouii iu his doalings with liia nrigh- 
lK)un, yet he was tikod aiid admired by his 
c**untrymen, who even now kjok with pride to 
Ba^dtoji Bhon^U. the first and greatest of the 
Nagpur houMC. With liim oi-tMirre^l the great 
influx of Alnrathaii, which re»utte«l in theRjipead 
of the Kunhi and cognate Maratlia tribes over 
the entire district. And m iUis there was deep 
pt>Ii»V, as tlio lShonMa.H woidd br jicen lioldin;; 
tho Nagpur tiTritnry fn»m the (itindu, and not 
subject to the panunount power at l^na, and 
thus deriving a position superior to ihnt of 
other military chiefs of the MiiratHa empire, 
who owpd their elevation to the Pcshwa, and 
held tlictr fiefs by his favotir. Rsghoji was 
sticeoede<l io A.D. 17o5, by his akkai aoo 
.Innoji, though not without nppositiaii fi«ai 

in number, who umiatty paifl only a trifling the other bn>ther Mudhoji. After the death 
18 ' N IW 

y», before Mmllioji with ha vontliful 
nji ilie lato kiiif:'« nf-ftliew ami hoir 
ailoptKm, cniiM rriu-li Nu^|iiir, Sabuji, 
bmtlier M' Janoji, had uflur|KMl the 
cnt. Hi* was sucecwiod by his son 
iWiwji — a niau blind, lame, ami paralysed. 
Vrry »ni)n aftvr hi>» aieewinn the new raja be- 
oun* touJiy itnboeile, and it w:ia ncrc!i.snry tu 
^ifvinkl • regoi^t, A iVw days ulb?r his de- 
fttnoft Uie K;via wa;a lound dead m his bed — 
paiamcd. by hiM euiuin Appa S:ihib. 

TTit? Rfr. Stephen HisJop of Nagpr^re, writ- 
Jtijf oa the ape nf the <*f»;il MtnUn in Werttorn 
hmgal on<i Central Inilci, nb^n'es that T>er- 
l«pH tb*5 roowt intCTe-stin^ jwirt, in n -leitinn nf 
therwlcfl of (.Vnlral India, is the pinction of the 
tliitfk lt^dud8an<taroneu)>ove,wi(}i thelnmtnntetl \ 
strata below. The latter, however ravimts ihey | 
Bwr b« in different loealitie^ as regards their 
litiiolo^c and wimetrniea even tborr i>al!i'ont>- 
feftliir<^«, may readily enon^fh be distin- | 
)•••! by Uieir relation to tho superior beds, 
identity* again w suffirienlty iiltcsted by 
inin bsinds which run thrntigli their mnAS, \ 
i"Mi« sanii*tone is well devplnpcd at i 
va Hills, in the north of the pn>- 
fimt; »d Nft^'pore, in the vif'inity if ibe eity It- 
ftdf, itnd 3t Kota on the Prnnhitn, in the do- J 
miiiiikru of the Xiz.ini. The sid»ioined secliona 
rrprcsPDt tlie sueni^ion of the strata at theae 
|»lKn ivapectively, as fiir na they ar« known : | 



1 1 

















iM -^^ -US -yn w:s 

*IJ'.'C "U!S 



•JWJ )0» 



1 V 



5" ^ i' 






?|l - 


^ 1 

















•wi -goB iioe 





Wj Bi 













» O 



ii ^^-5 



li'jX H'^ 


Immediately under the upper anndatone^ 
I laminated rtK'ka are seen in all. In section lat^ 
the alialcd are bituminous and c3rbr>nact,*ou«, 
, wliile in section 2nd, they arc of urgillooooiv 
I Mnd. But tliey are of the same age, inanf 
' species of foaails being c^iinmon to both. Sectioa 
I 3rd, iastead of ha^nng the linieMono nil collec- 
le<l in the lower part the section, as is the case 
at Niippore and in many parts of- the Kiznm'a 
country, has it inle rat ratified with the shale j 
but the bituminou<i strata occnpy the samepoax- 
tJon as in section Ist: choosing section 2ml, as 
being Iwtter known (or oompflrison with it, in- 
stead of section Ist^givc^iLs. in descending order 
sandstone and clay, red shale and limestone. It 
has been a question whether the fern-bearing 
coal shales and laminated sandstones of Nag- 
fiore are the same as the llsh-produoing bitumin- 
ous shales of Kota. The Kola fishes that rewarded 
the researches of Drs. Walkur and Bell were pro- 
nounced by Sir P. Egerton to be true Oolitic 
Ibrms, anil jirobably of the age of the Lias ; 
between Nagjwre and Chanda, the upper sand- 
stone has the usual iron bantls. and the lower 
iarninatetl beds the common vegetable remains, 
there is n district with Mangali as the centre 
(sixty miles S. of Nagpore) where the superior 
sandstone is leas ferruginous, and the inferior 
or laminated beds are coloured by iron of a 
deep brick red. In the latter strata the re- 
mains of reptiles, fisliea and entoinostraca pre- 
dominate, while the few vegetables that aro 
found, are generally very ditTerent from those 
occurring in other jwrte of the Nagp<tre terri- 
tory. Tlie skull of a I^byrinthodont, name<l 
Bnichyo[(fl laticepn by Owen, might suggest for 
it a TriaA*ic or even Carlxmifi-rous age, but the 
plentifulness of scales of lej>idotoid flahes for- 
hitla iw to assign a more ancient epoch than the 
JumAsic ; and the conchisiou is unavoidable, 
not that our tuminntcd sandstone is older than 
the age we have attributed to it, but that in 
India any Ivabyrinthodont family has comedown 
to a more recent |M?riod than in Europe. 

The vegetable remains are TwuioptetTS, 
Equisctum laterale, Twniopteris mngnifolia, 
Phylothct^aa, Knorria, Lcpidodendron, Aphyl- 
lum, Aspidiara, Enlomostraca belonging to the 
gema Esiheria. 

In the bituminoas shales of the Mahadevaa 
we have the following Bengal fi»9il plants: 
Tryzj'gia specioso, Vertebraria indica, and a 
species of Phyllothcc^i. a fragment of which is 
figured by Dr. McCcUand as Poacites minor. 
Geol. Surv. Tab. XVI. f. 1. In the carbona- 
ceous nbalcfl of Umret, besides the Phyllotheca 
now alluded to, another stem, but unfurrowed, 
which seems to resemble McClelland's Poacites 
muricata Tab. XIV. f. 6. In the laminated 
sandstone of Kamptee, in addition to Verte- 
braxin and the two Poacites as above, T»aioi>- 

N 19 

teris, pcrliap:* o(* the same iiifuiffl as at Raj- Ja!*lipttr to Rtinchi, miwisl nf m^t;lmoTJ>^^Iff 

rnalml, firwl M''t*l<*l):in<i'a Hecopleris :ifHmsTiih. rtxk^ with th<» rxci'ptioii otnciip ot' trap niul 

XU. f. n. Am which in Na^pirp is :» wi'll laroritcoii ALiin I'at. 
miirkt'ii sjH*<ie.'« with (i tripiimatc Iruml. 1 liiirK'ntimift M tho cxijiloiicc of coai si^iinM 

111 all lhf!*c I'lcolitio' the j/omL« Glcwv^ptprui wotr iitforrled hy theocriirTMirr (»t' tra^iiii*ntx<»f 

altotiii(l<<. Nnpjwri* iwoma to Imve cMit«iripiH'ti ccwil in t)ir rivor.-*. fwppcinllv in tUo Miind, h^ 

North KiM»t«Tit imha in (.'yrloptcrii* iinO wvrral ftrnm) n ffvr scam* iioor t'hitra, twelve iniliM 

other vo^tAhlc remRitu, but it dec k Icily be- wo>it of Itihkiib and iiojirlv thirty rniAt of Korb«, 

liiml in r<^nrtl tn iho CycjulacwD. Thi- only 'i'wo or f hrpe niv .«»o*^n in )Ue Mand aliovit !hf««* Ut 

np^ciiiipn |irtx:ur(!cl w a siimll fni^ncnt i'nmi f<nir mile* eiwt-iinrih-viwt iH' (.'liitni, but they 

liic f»:rticl;*l<mo nf K-uniptcn, thp leatlcto of wliivh iirmnly friun a fi>»»l lo IS inrhi^ in IhirkneM. 
am iiatp'vrtT than a miinitr* blu»lc nf ^niw. | In n small fironm, tlir K"l<a Xaihii. which ruiw 

Tlwuch uiu<iiijrj*t the (.'uttth *M>litic fttnita j«>u!h nf C'liiira, oric noain about tliTfC foot in 

mmic arc L'vidontly iiuirino, yet from wlial Mr. 
HviflcTji liail *Ci^u oi' lhrt!*t* in the Uoiian or 
thiisc in Bi'ngnh nnno at' them in pithrr of 
those dmlrtri^ cxl^ihit the Iciwt evidrme of 
liAvinjr boon iK'|Kiniied in thy ?*ou ur ncoun : 
all iwom to he of tVoAjh-watr-r uri-'in. 

tluokiioss is j«Hrn noiir thr viltajjotif Toiulumurt, 
itmiv than a mile rtitnth-west tifihitni. It ia 
ru'jirly horizontal, hiiviii;: a very low irregular 
dip to liie woul or (i.»u(h-wei*i. rurtcoiLsi>it!4of 
fair t'oai, the roniaindor in Kliuhy. 

Tin- nnly *»cam oxamit)i*d fn.»ni wlii»h il w 

In L'hamla ftnd litMr, oito *'f the preal [>o«^ihlv lliut a netful nnppiv of fiud niivht \h' 
i>o(iro«% of douht iwt to tJie extent of the rojjl ohlaiiKxl, is e\]H»ui1 in iho same ••tream ralhor 
deficits rose fruin the favl that the UrU in ; nearer lo Chitm, l«'in;^ uIk^uI a mile from tluU 
tho pmtip of riK'kii in whioli the eonl here | village. eUtw to the boumlary of the village of 
oociirH (known to Indian Ut'»)Io;ri9t» ftd tlw ' Tendumuri, it ap|»ear* to bo of con.«iderablo 
Hnrakitr protip) had iavariahly a tendency lo thiekne.**. |H'rhn|ii^ 20 fi'ot, and the Iimer i>or- 
exhiliit very preai variatioiw both iu ihiekne« tionapiK'ared tolte lairittplnoe^. Thoclipii^nltoiit 
and (joality within !*luirt dialanro*. They h re lo" lo n'irth-nnrlh-wo-*l. Lieutenant Scde, of 
often of preai thickncsH livaHy. but ihin out the C'hola Ni^rpur Toitoj^raphieal Survi-^■ ti_<uiid 
and nearly difopftoar within tthort disuancofl: a seam of otud about four mile!i uorih-woAt of 
thiii nirintion alfio bi'ing not otdy in the thick- . ICabkub iu u suudi stream ninnin^' iutti Uio 
nefw. bm nUo in the quality of iht- betls, w Maud, anil thi.^ may Im* tlicAouree of the blocks 
that what 6ibo*-s a« a bed of ;.'Oinl roal iti one in the river hi-*!. 

pla*'^ may, within a ll-w runb* or a few hun- Several iiml tocnlities have been lately fimnd 
drcd vatd*, pa-*.* iiilo a .■'hiile with»»tit cnni or i by the ortierr* of th*' Topdjrmphiial Siir^'cv nud 
even into a naniUtono. Oul was li>und alwiut reooideil iu tho'ir mi»|»^. I'liey are all uwrth uf 
ttfteen TTiiles iinrth of Dunta^nidiam. near tlte < Kfirha and (Mipiir. The rajah of J.'i>hpnr 
j«nct»»Mi of the Tal river near Jjn^tla. tojtl that ixial <Hrurred in hi;* territory in th« 

Mr. .\ledlirt>tt is of opinion that the pn^wnt Khuroa louniry. tweuty-lour mdos unrtii-woH 
UluitA of the coiU niefuure field.4 in \orlh India of Jashpur Na>fnr, niNHit one hundrod inihii or 
eoincvlo nppn»xinmtely with llio original linut* rktiuT nM»rc wi^t by tumlh uf Uu no Ih, 
»f driy«aitiiin and are not the rmult **1" faulting, Thr KewStepheu H i-<l<>p makea the li>llf>niu({ 
Of even mainly <'f drnudatitm. All thew* ituc- remnrkN n» the a^ tiC tlic tuftidtilerous, tliin- 
Cirti.-i.ivc heiU (jnwsihly with the cxceptiim nf bi^'lileil sintUtone and coal of the pnnincc of 
tho Talehir) repTi;j*'ntiti>r an onormrvus la[»«e ' Xap-pur. 

of lillio» ayne in one respeot. that tlu-y i»n*iu 
in l*e punlv frejdwwalvr (lluviatih* <*r Huvii>- 
lacu»nrino) or e-ftunriile depntiib^. I'he l£«in)- 
pihj, the Jherriu, tho lt<ikjiri\ the h'am^diur. 
and the Kannipuru Ib'td-^ all Udou^' tn thr 
(Intina^e hrutin of the liauitidah river. 

Naf!|Mir I'indr. — If with a railiiL«> nf 14 
milrs a einle Im' drawn anuiud the eity <»f Nag- 
pur, it will inchide nitliiu its n<irth*>m hull* 
Kampti, Iktkhara. Silewada, 'l^ondnklir-iri. Iki- 
hulkhfda and Hharaluada ; hut it will leavu 
•'Ut Arajniol, which lies 20 niiles west • if Nag- 

Mr. W. T. UbufinT"! roj*<>rfc» that the eoa|{» pur. and i'horklieiri, wliirh \» iJo mih^ to the 
ki}{ (rhiuii«^hilO befli of Knrbn r\iend for north-vaAt, while (hamla m .lituated HA uulcn 
nbout l«^iiy inde* lo il«" . »*i«rird, iw fur w lo the *uilh. At all thtve pincort the lhi«-l»eii- 
Itultkuh in I'dipur (« \. 'Itiov nlso ded saudstnnc with ve^tahlo nTmairu 1a the 

extend far to thr jumtli- ..-I .• .\.*nU lianjfpiir, i jtame, a* it presentj* the wune nppcanuiee l»ath 
rttid to ilio imrthwanii towartlH Sir^iija, and in » jKilaHintoIojrieid and litludo^ical. 
alt p^dlabiIi^\- me oontinuou*. or nenrU i«i, lkirk<>iand Mnhiideva Hilb. — ^Ileiuieertaineil 
*V^llh ifie deiKwit." "ftho «i!ue nalun' known tn that thi« thin-hrddrd «ind*toue ia iflculival 
iMtrit'tn. Mum i'At auit ihe witli iho roal->4ha]o at Kittle liurkoi near 
, and all thr t'oimtri on the I'mret, and ftl the ba*o of the M.diadeva HilU, 
tuAd Uwju M.tju I'at througli Cliaudarpirli awl , in the N. N. W. part of Nagpur i»roTiucc. 

2" N 20 



oxavi;r of iiitrrts uitil ontniiiti- 
iiilrrrcil llieir ftintomjwirano'Hb*- 

Mr. H. h. 

Kfi^ on tha I'raiihuu. — lutitr a ^reat 
(liickueft^ of tfoanw iroii-baiiJpd siimUtonr, 
i{«ifc[nf^ti in iUc nri^liUnirin^ ItilU wr have 
tliin-bedilrti stmta al*uuiuliu^^ it* ut .Maii^tih, 
ia onmrnl r^nt.iinft, iurludin^f, LcpiUiftuH iloc- 
cMvKtjAiA, L. lon;zier(Mi. I>. bi'evicepA. unci 
.iiidiDM*^ Juft r^crtoni. in mldi titni to t hnm^ 
»i»l li*h«M obt«i«o<l liy thr late Urji, Wttlker 
B««ll, Mr. Hinlop fnxn'mnl Ironi tJw wime 
tktc tl 
-a" IT.' 

■i"m thi* dijut'vorv "iwluu a|<(K>nr» 

M-A III' jfltitiMKiiUTiji lit K<»tiL, ho w;ts 

iH'lii^itin lh;it llir r«»i'k» tluTc an» 

. a)»p wiili rlimw rif»r \a;/[inr. 

KilU. — Thf iipiivaU'tits lO* lln» 

; •i;||ia| ImiIm }ia%'f IhtH TUCt IVItll bv 

M**«iliooir, oil rlie Murd Hvit, a 
tt' iliif Noi'lxhitiji. 
■ to I if. i HdUaiiiV views tlie n^c 

.^...i.ftii cMl-tit'UU ln.'twcfn rUr imrallcrU 

a( ^if arul 2o° N.. ia upper rnr]Hinili'mi» 
uf 9 Rktln^f btvr At.'!^ tlifui ilmt nl* ihe 
raal mrasuffs nf Brit-iin, nur| mon^ cIim^Iv 
" f**rii-«'<*iir' norifv ofSUwrn. Sniu' 
I't^Ti rxprrMf'fl aw to tlif» corrci't- 
' . at len*»t nf tin* n^^r* of the 
i-. which are knitwn In rost 
tm hiiK'.sU'Ui^'^ L;4>Mt)iiiiii^^ hir^e rnnjiirti hiuI 
other liM<iil(i of thr carUiiiirHroii.t liincAttmo. 
'I'hr liilbv«ing rs a hriHr6iliimi;irv ot' the loniia- 
)it* the Ih'iiun rfiiiiiHulu in nscenduig 
iH* di^'ribeil bv I'r. ()I«lUani : — 
K Ijiureulaiu ^runituid jiiieias — hipblv 
mruumrpliic ntud IravnrAtl hy innuinoruhlo 
trap livke*. t'^U k iIr* Htmr ol' all the other 
fornuttihUM. f 

2. Qiuiri-»"i. niJ' :icoou^ and horublctidk- 
rot'Wb tiiui-h fiMitorietl. 

i<. I^twcr Silurinn. or Cambrian. — Sub-nir- 
taii»t»r|>litc iM^liUt.« ami tna;«ii^tve oou|;l<jiii<nitni nf 
ileal rvk«. Tbcsc ntckA occnr in the uajitern 

4. I ' — I'br Vimlhyan «'rip», priu- 

ri^ialU . disiribuiiHl into fonr '^'rou|M. 

Ti. I .'iM — (rtj Mmnilaiii hme- 

wu^av or nin^f^r. (*lu«.iliud u.'^ sueb I'min 

tiH! Niwil9 <fiU*Ht«l by J>r. Kioininfr.— (/».) 
TLe T*li"h<?or <M^ri«*, wufiMonos of a peculiar 
WiAtftrier »nd colntir« rcMtin^' on a " l>ouIcic>r 
W^l," or •noeiit fthin^lo bcac-b. — (r.J The 
ixol-bcAriug rxK'k.-) of Imim funning tlio coal- 
fteiiii uf ItaniUiii, Xrrlillilda^ i&c. 
fl, Penuian? or intcnnodiatn.— UetU wilh 
iiiiiiiv', r<'pre'J**nlinff in I>r. < >ld- 
ri ill*' |ih\^iral break bnlwren the 
. ;ijk1 In•:^y>/oio pcrituht t>f Kurupe. 
rat«d bt-rc a.* donbtfully permian. 
7. Triaasit'. n|>i><T nnrl lower. — In tbt^ lat- 
br »h«tr»t arc \*v^in '^f Umeatonc with ccratilcs 



t*. Rbactiir IkuU — with i-haniclcrijitir fu»«it*<« * 
0. Lio^sie Group — dividLHl into un upper 
and h>wtr s^-riea. 

lO* Jura9:jic Group — with rwiulca;. I)i- 
I vidiHl into upper, midille and lower stages. 

11. I'retaeeoiw SeriiT* — with line forma of 
ummonitps and oilipr shelln. 

12. Koi-L-ne.— f*r.> Nunnnulitic lintrjttonet*. 
— ^&>. J'rexb water dr|KHirfl of lakes, over and 
ihroujrb whirh slieet»»if lava liavr l»een erupte*!. 

18. Mioeene. — l^aturile, and other airam 
of several kind<*. 

1 4. Pliiii'cne. — OssiteroiM frntYeb, einvfl, &r. * 

' 15- Reeent. — GravoLs, rlavs. and mud of 

, rivets*, J(fe. It ir ini]HiA4ihle ta go over rh<* 

I alMive great wries of* }»^ truly reprea^-nra- 

I live a* they arc of the Kuro|K'an .ly.steui, and 

I pre:*entin^r iilU-n in ndnute dflail a nmrkuil t 

I iiirreAjiftiidenec with the Knglisli 9nh-«h visions » 

and tunnutions witluMit bein^^ xrriuk with tiie 

Wonderful unifonnity of miliire's o|icrationK in 

aneient tinuv9 over va^t portions of the globe. 

The stratigraphiejil rc^temblatites are aUo not 

\&^ rennirkable titan the {lidieoutologiral Ibr 

the genera and Hoiue speeios of foK^ils of the 

I triaiwic, llasi*ie and tretaeeons lomuttiouii are 

identieal with thoee of Kuroiw. 
I Tlie ;;reiit draina^n* lnwin of the Codavery 
inelude.-* .Nagpiu", lihanilani, Wardab, ('Imnda 
and Sironcha. Thei»e ili**rrirl.s have no eon- 
I sidenihle deration^ Nagymr and Bbiuidara 
, are priiu-iiwdly ou giieiMsrwe r<K-ks, with niueh 
' trap in \agpnr. Wardah U ahmwt entirely 
! ou traj) riK'ks ; Chanda and Sironeha have 
ii very varied strueLure iiiehidiuK more or 
le^ of all the ti>nnauons that have betii named. 
I The cry«tallme and metamorphic rtwks eonftist' 
of gneiM of ditt'oreut varieties, often highl)- 
^rrunitoid and lonn the subittrattnn of llie whole* 
area, and are set-n all around Uic In^nier of 
the trapjk-ixn nn-ks. 
The Nag|)*irc district has.*i popuhuion 034,121 : 

KuropejuiH 2^4&2. 

Maratlia, Kunbi and eojjnatea. . . . 177,133 
KauMir, Sipi. Soimr, Clurao, Hcldar, 
Barhai, Ktwhii. Dhobi, Khatik. 
i Nai, l5hoi, Dlouiar, iiunjrra. Ma- 
j ilrassee, Bhanitya, imil Itiingari.. llH.Oi'i) 
I Mher, (baniart Mbang, Hliangi Il4f4(>7 

l\irde»i, Teli, Mali, Ahir, Panlhan, 

I IWai 106,48,'^ 

liunia, Ponwar, Manvari, Halwai, 

! Kalid 17,118 

Brahman 26,597 


1 liajptit 

I Vidiir (illegitimate brahmins) 

I t.niMain 

tlnnd with a few Knrkti and Hhil. . 
I ^lahonicilan 

I The language is a mixture oi 


ilitidi au'I 

Mnrathi. The bulk n( tUc |vi|>iiI.ition wo^liip 
Sivu ns M:ilt;ul«*vrt. Tlie ajfrirtilttirifta are 
oliic'riy llie Kunbi, Mnrallii, I'lirdwi. IVli, 1>rI- 
Ui, Mtili, Harai, aii«l Pardhan, ol' whinn llw 
Ktmlil H the bo^t ami the inmt nuinerouA. 

The Kortbti and l)h*T are wcavcM. 

Klmhur ur B->yar race, arc in the nortli n( 
Chnta NiiRiiiir. TJie Government of India 
roiMtituted a acjvirate ('hief roninitssioncwhip 

wiven milej in circuit ; it h 85 miles (o the 
north ofChundu. It 'i» tlic bcail-nu.irters of U>e 
Chiet*0.mmii*t»iouer : the BritUU Military C'an- 
toumcnt ol' Kaniptec U in its neii,dilx»urhood« 
The Illuinsla rajaa of Na^jmr commenced in 
1734, when K;tghoji Bhon^la wan m>mina(ed 
Sena Saliib Suba or general of the MaUraltii 
confedenicy. The lamily became extinct in 
ld(ia during tlie administration of Lord Dallimi* 

from th*- N;*;,'pore Pruvince and the S.mgor and *ie. on the denii^ of (Juozur, grand^n of Ritjr- 
Nerbudda icrritiirifH, which wa^de^i^iated the Itoji, wh<», in 181 H, had been sented on iJie 
I'cntndPrtivinew, and U u'lminist<?rod nn a By«- | throne when Mudaji (Appa Sahib) wiudejMwed. 
t<.*ni similar, in nimt n"-<|»efUi, ti> thai vvluch exists | Nagpnr i.^ situatttl in an extensive plain, and 

the Punjab and in Ondh. The tbll*)wing dia- 
trietaareeompriftwl in ih«('eiitrul Pruvmcei: — 

N'\aroRF Pbovixciw, vtz. 

I{aei»*>re, (( 'hutlee?*- 

With dcj>en'Vncie« of 

BtL^tJirand Kuronde. 
SivonR AXD \KRnruni TKRRiruRiB*, viz. 

Nag pore. 


Tho prinripal 

timlicr.4 in the Nagpore Pro- 

vmre are tiA under : cr.indi«, Teak. Eno. S&gwan, Him>. 
ThMkka niftriiin. Tam. 

Pterwar]'"'* niiir4ii]iium. Bt«Jfui«r or BojaMl, 
HiMi». Bheulah, Maiik. VfUK'ay ninrum, TaM. 

Peutjiptcra toiufut^jsa Eyno.lltsn. Ain or E.\Tie, 
MttiR. Maru'Um maruni. Tam. 

Diojtp>Ttw *d»num, T»^n»!on. Ilr\r>. T*iniinmor 
Tendo.*, M *Hn. ToomWe maram. Tam. 

UmoliDa arbofea, Se«'vuiu or Soovwu, Ulm>. 
M^UR. C«>3mniy nianun, Tam. 

Ba!»ia IntifoUa, Mnwah. Ilixn. M'«ho, M^nn. 

Terminmlio chplmU. Hurra or llurtla, Bi?«n., 
Kmliirai marnw.TAW. Pdla nmrUh luirum, Tam. 

Aeacia wlomtiesimo. SiwA. llivii. i;h«f:hooiili or 
euakmur (?) (Jom>. Sirrif, Maiih. Cnrry vaUKay 
marani, Tam. 

Er>-thnna indica, Pauujerah, Hrvo. Moocboo 
maranif Tam. 

" ocATptw Utifoli*,Thoura. IltND. MvUR.,Vellfty 
martiui. Tam. 
wietenia fe^irif^ufa, Rnhun« II (Nn. Ruhuni. 

D^lbergta aiMO, 8«y.'Aum, Hind. Yett«e aianim, 

Acacl* arabica, B*hool, Hind. B*b(»ol, Uauh, 
Curvalla nmriiin, TaVi. 

Butea Odwunii. (?) Wiamin, Dhamun, 

Cedrc*ta l'>ina. Tho»n. Hod.. Mahr., Thoona 
marum. Tam. 

Pcnt«pt*'r» arjoona, Arjoon or tnjon, Ilu«n 






II ilixD. M vnn. 

\ . iul. 




lltNP.. M%nR. 

I \ItK. 

, , iiiM» Bhera, Mmih. 
lUhflahor Behta 'T Bbwla, 


Nagfiur tuwu i» Urge aud straggling, about 

ia, iiirictly speaking, an open city. A ranijKirt 
in the luiinl native style, with occasioiiial round 
towers, bml on some former ocoasion ht^n 
coinnicncetl, b»»t had in no place l>een carried 
Ui a greater height tlian eight feet, and ia 
in general k^-^. The extent of the city, aa 
dertne<l by this imfintshed rampart, is scarcely 
three miles, but the suburbs, wiiich nm cluetc 
up lo the city wall, are not leiu than seren 
mih» in circumference, extending chicHy un 
the north and caat aidcA, aiid not exceeding 400 
^nirds in depth on the west and south. — HiMortf 
of th« Sikfia^ dipt, Cunniiufhant, p. 35 ; 
Qnartartt/ Joarnal of Gfohnjirnl tS'tcuiv, ^0^. 
xv\u A*upist 1601, ;vi. 47, -Jt:*, 4'J.34*i"; Toi. 
xi,/>. 555. 

iVAEK, or Noidu, many of the Tiling race 
are called Naidu. the plural of Nnik, an hono- 
ritic term applied to mailers or chieCs of tril»e*. 
The bulk of the Tihng Audra race take thia 
honorilic appellation, aec Naik. 

NAGUANGA, alao Jamblra, Sim. Citrus 
aaraiitium, Linn. 

NAGRE, Hixo. Arundtnaria falcita. 

NAGRK, U250., lli^i>. Euphorbia auii«iu'j- 

NAGSAUA. or Nagkesur, Hixn. Mcsuii 

NAGUA, or Nuka, Rce Hindoo. 

NAGU BE.N'DA, Tel. Abutilon indicum. 

NAGUNI, in tlie liinduiain of Rajputanah, 
figure** half-«'rj>ent, half-woman. Tlu' Graa w 
the griffin of iCajputanah. At Iliirolli. the Graa 
and Naguni arc represented in a highly finished 
sculpture. — TtHft Jiitjasthftn, Vol. ii, p. 710. 

NAGUR M(X)THA, aLw Nagur Muthi, 
Bbxo., Dirx., Hi.VD, Cyperua jtuicifoliiw, als«j 
Cvperu* pertcnuijt. — Roxh, 
'NAGYR,ftce Tibet. 

KAHANl, Hi5D., of liavi. Valeriana hord- 
wickii. Wall. 

N A 11 AK of Central India. Foli^ tigria. Linn. 

NAI1AR,Ar.. Psiu. AriTor. 

NAH.UIAIN.V, or Nahrain. the Neharajim of 
Llie si-ripttire* ; in Syriac, Nahrim. ia u pure 
Semitic word, signifying the country Wween 
the two rircra, the Mc*->p«itamia of th<i Greekj, 






Jrxinli, or island of the Arnb^ nn*! the 
»b o] ludia. — Layat\l Aiim'fh^ Vol. U, p. 

XAEI CADAGIIOO, Tam. Polanisia icu- 
oodrA H', tinti A., also Polanisia viscosa. 

iliAHlKf A strath, (he Moltadeo Koli reside in 

iToUe^s uf the Syhadri range, extemlinf^ (>i>in 
8* \V. Ui Poena, northwards to Trimhuk, 
ih» MKUve ot' tlie Gtxlavery rivtr, between lat. 
l^ 15* and 20° N. and long. 73^ and 74^ E. 
Iheaa amail valleys are known »« MavriL. Kbo- 
nh, Nafttirand Dang. i. <., valtev^ g]ciu,Mraiha 
jnd wilda. Tiie Mahadeo Koli are classed inti) 
H kula or dans, each of which has many awb- j Reptiles. 
4twwMpa. XUeir number;) in 1837, were ead- ', NAIA-VKU, 
abuut 5U,<M><> fioub. The members of IT. foiW .1. 
KuU du not intermarry. With tlin , XAIIJ, Ahah., 
exception uf the cow and viUage hop, the Koli Nabob. 

pipe, &o., atjd Anbnn or Aubunali, a ba^^ inml* 
of the skin taken entire uti' a ttheep. It in a 
niiLsical in»lriunciil not often steen in IVmIn 
beyond the Oarinsir (or '* warm region") about 
Buflhahr. In luiund &% in make it resembles the 
bag-pipe : which in expre^twl by its name, nai 
ambanah, or nceording to ihc nsual pmnnncia- 
tion here, nai ainbo<ta:di. — OuuU*f'» Trnt'tth^ 
Vol. i. p. 241. 

NAIA TUIPL'DIANS. J^/r, the f obra di 
(.'a[>ello Miakc, coinnion in hII parts of Britisli 
India, Ceylon, the Malay pftninsula. There arc 
Heveral varieties. Bee tVibni, Nuga, Ophidiii, 

CBt ail other animaU. The women are gene- 
ntly slender and well forme^i with a pleading 
rxptwion of features and some are rery pretty. 
'Iliey are chaste and liarc Uirge families. The 
Kola are lund of charms and amulets. — Captain 
JtficH)KAtoa& iH A/fb/nu Lit, Hoc. Jt/urn. Sec 

NAHI UUOOVI, TjUC. Achyranthes aspera. 

NAH-OO, BvHU. This tree of liurmah, 
Atiaiiis a diameter of eighteen or twenty inclien. 
B toii oi n very beautiful and fagrant, yellow, size 
flC'a large rose ; grows only in wet placca. Tim- 
ber is very worthless. 

NAHCKJU. or Ncrvaie. also Sna, Tin. Oris 
ano. The Nahoor, if not identical, is Tcry 
cloaely alTicd to the bnrrel of the Borendo pa»fl. 
Ik it called the naiioo in La<lakh, and is the ana 
of Tibet ; and, judging from the quantity of its 
knm»4m tho chaits ami cairnn of Wh countries. 
it wfiuld appear to bt? their most common wild 
ruminant. Mr. Rlyih'ii distinctions between the 
two wrt* of burrcl have reference chiefly to the 
itrm ttf the horn. He says the burrel m more 
mtmdt^], the annual dents are better marked, 
«itli larger bulging^ between them. — Atfnnig. 

NAHOR, gnindiather of Abraham, who set 
!jui from Ur of tho Chaldeca. — Hnusrn, 

NAHOWN, the fairy bath. 

NAIIR, Urfii. ^Vrab., a canal. 

N.UlRi. HtxD. of Jlmng district. &c. Canal 
% • ' '■ .d. 

, *ee Bactria. 

^A11L >HA, sec Hindoo. 

KAI. HriTD. Arundo donax, oLjo Hordcum 

Tax. Polaniaia icosandra ; 
a deputy ; pluml, Xawah : 

NAI-OARANA, Uobt. Mil. C>>wiUh 

na pniriens. 

NAK'H.V or Nccha, Ilwp. The moutb-pieco 
and drnwing lube of a hukku. 

N'AIDAM PAIXI, Ihe Malayala name of a 
tree which mcann long Paini. It grows to 
about two ft-et in dininH«T, ami wventy feet 
high, and pFodiues a »ort of varnish which ia 
iwod with wiH)d-oil for paint or wixni. The 
natives use the j>pani for rafting tinilier down 
the riverft, and for tin: yartU* of small vetweU. 
It is a woofl of little value, being neither strong 
nor dnrable. — &itie. Mnl. Cttn. 

NAI^l^ a division of the Tiling sinlra race. 


N.VIGRE SEKD, an article of export from 
Malabar ; it U probably the name of the seed 
of Pongnmia glabra. 

NAIK, a division of the Tiling sudnw, com- 
monly slated Xaidu aa Lutchman \aidu. Al*i 
the titulary distinction of the Uhil chieftains, 

NAI-KAUL'GA, Tasi. Cloome viscosa. 

NAI-KADUGOO, Tam. Gyuandn^iwis pcn- 
taphvlla.— /). C\ W. ami A, 

NAIKAN, a slave class in Kamata.— Wir. 

NAI-KAKMA, Maleal, Mucuna prurita, 

NAIKKR, sec Naek : Naidoo, Polyandry. 

NAIKUA, a tribe in the hills of Udipur 
said to bo like the Bhil, but leas humauixed. 
— Campbell, pp. 30 4o-ti. 

NAI-KUDE, a Gond tribe tliat inhabit the 
jungles on both banks of the PuinGanga, especial- 
ly in Uie tract between Digara* and ITmarkher 
and found about Aparawa|»et and as far aa Nir- 
I nml. They Iwve adopted tho hindn drc:* and 
1 will not eat beef; but Uiey live by iIm! chai«, 
1 anil im\m and are a terror to their 

. itin. Ia gynonimous with the Italian 
Uusnara i^ being the bed of a mountain 

ffcneraJlydry but converted by a few I cut wood an<l gr:ii« 
rain into a raging torrent. Arrian menUons neighbourhood, by their depredations. 
km incurred Kv Alexander's army in con- NAI KUDUGA. Tam, Oynandropsis penta 
of encamping too cioec Uy one of ihcse phylla, ^^•^'- ^^^^ „ . _ 

N \1-AMBANA, Pers. Nai, signifies a reed, I Sapindu-^ emarginatus. 

23 N 28 

Maleal. Fruits of 



tt« nn tmnatiirul iuoiist<»r wen? he 
■urn ai^ny of ^rriel' ut the tlealli *.*( 
nliioli, iVoiii \*>i\ii C'tliul>itn(iim (ttid lovi.- witli ltd 
Tam. *^*^th*'i'* !><' iiii^ht .tiippiwo t<t l>o liis own, ivn he 

I <lit[ »t the t\vu\]\ ot' a rhilJ of hw !»i!*tor. A. 
I iiianV luiithor in;iiia|/ej; his tumilv. :iih1 iiOrr her 

I>iT. Pn^t'H, TrtHT- 

i-'u. liwv*di, Kus. 

CIttV»»!«, S|'. 

rhlodl.Chiovi. ARiifi. It. (Jnllu, 

Tiikii, Mkuv. 

Siiiiill nirin! »|»ik**s. — 3/r<^«//uM*« f.Vmjiifr- clvath liis chlcAt mMt-r ihsiiiiiw iI»o (hrf«*tion. 

Urotlien uhiuMt atwavA Hvf* uiuKt the '^aimr 
roof: — -but, if one of the fnniity Hepjirutc from 
the ruMt, he It alwavi* a<*i'L>iii(i»iik*4l hv hi« 
faviiritv mnter. Kvcii t'<nij<init, to titc mt*t rfK 
innl** tle>fT«*e of kitulrifl, in the* ft'rniile linr. ge- 
nonilly live logc-tiu-r in prwit hBrnioitv : t"r in 

citil JJirtionnrtf, p. Sll. 

NAlMNAXn. th*' yjml Buddha. 8«! Xim- 

NAl MCNI. ^e*- NcpU. 
NAINSI'KH. A vhIIpv in ka^iwin liitmni.- 
for ghcf, whirh is tjuite s-ilnl and ouIk like 

pheest* ; iiWit a tloiri-n mnleA, hidon wilh llii^ this [Mirt of iho conntrv, love*, jealoiwv, or di*- 

triwt, novtT can dwrnrb t!»o pemv of n Naif 
family. A miiu's movablo projK*nv, fifter hi« 
doitlh. ifl diviHH p<]nallv amt'nig the Htrx* and 
dftnphtcrs of .ill hie j-inreifi. His land f«!al<» is 
ninniipwl Ity \\\v ^UXi^x mnh- of Oif ftnnilv, hiii 
rnch individiml han a ri)?hi to a ?h5ir«* of the 
ifiaimf. In ra?* of \\\p rldrM nialo being un- 
ahh'. frotn innrmity or in<^af»aniTi h> maiiflg^ 
the aAkirs of ihv family, the next in niiilc doei 
oth^ rarr'fi uliti* Ui(h iherp and ill othor j>arl8 uf it in the name of hitt rtenior. Lender lhe»e 
India, fnim ihi.s cnuntm rrsnlts the rnrioiw *K*ial rnlca it is not t-ajiy m >n?t' thr inducement 
tirHCtifC thai n man's heira are uoi \m U\ \\w N'air to marry» (w h^ hnA nil iho burthen 
own, but bin «*i«lvr'H i-bildien. [n liriliiih , wriihout any <d' th<< tkujoynit^ntn i>f \vo*Med lift*. 
India tli<» Kiwiii, the Ko*»*h and the Nair ract-H, ' An l>athnin statw*. * no N'air -tftn knows hi.'t own 
a-H also (be Brti/,nnn tliL- Toer nire and kmu« of ^ fnthtT. and viro Vfri*^. no Njiir falht-r knows 
the Moplah ntahoniediinm of Malabar havf' this hiHoun j*on, Tliu pixtjKTty of thf litLiband, 

•s*'onds to thr rliildren of liij* ftiHler^. 

wnnmofiitv pai«?«tHl Dr. Clejrhorn daily. — C/'-;/- 
httrn V'litltxh lUfift p, 17^- 

NAIPAI.A, ».^e Nt-pal. 

NAirKS. i^v. Cards. 

N'AIK,it r:(<-»'ontbi> Mabibnr Coast. foUowing 
the bindno rolipon ami r!uimii»g to be o»' tlu- 
Budnt fuste. Tlie royal family of Travaurfrf 
are of ihi» ran-; iIm' nholr of the Nair raci- 
follow (he ruh' of fenialr ilesrvnt, bulaasfcilh 

tustiMn; aninuji; tlu- Hnnlar in Tulava. aU\ a 

nmn'ji |iT»\)*'riv do«t m»l di-^ivnd to hi* ^nvu tfiirrte^^ 

fblldr*'!!, but to those of bis »i^ter. M«*l y( women 

the }>ecipk' of Malabiif, nolwilhi^Ciuiding th»^ \h* an 

name divornitY *^*' ^»*^*« '^ '** ••**'«'•' pnivim^ej*. yir^iiM 

CKivdii aj« still Mig that the Nair 

rr-jfarti aK^x'iation with m*>n to 

ijttilittitioii m holy (hat thoy U^lievH 

to U' HtHliultMl fnmi [»ar»diM', but 

all a^Tit;* in tbi- u.-«ge of Inmsiuilting |jrniK:rly ihiH »eemi» nicr^-ly un t-xruse put fi'rwanl bv 

thntugll fentalefl only. It i« the curtioni in tooniu one ^•l' tlu* nwc, wli« Jias In^cn ^iMliamed 

Travauwiiv, among all the rsuv^ except Pouan of tlii« (social ciwtom. A Naur wrilrr obrtrrrfHi 
and th« Namburi briibmin**. The Naire marry , that the Teyeitec or Teeyer wom^n, arc notori- 

btffore ihev are tea vtnira of age, but ih<^ hnn- oud hariot« and iKH'oine the eomubini^M of 

bund ntrver aftenHanU ux'Mxiuloa with bis wife. Bimngcrtt of any eutttu or religion, and tbi.« wilh- 

Sucb a ciriMintftamc, indred, would b*? i-on- out the leaj*t prejudice lu their iy^n caste or any 

ftidfred ait verv indee^nt. He allows her oil, Iom of e^leeiu in ooejet): iHi the other liand. any 

rlothtng, 4:)mam«nt« and l(v>l ; but the livm in such act pl^ved ug-.iitutt any It-males of the 

lier mother's hou*e, uftur her parent.'^ death 
with her brotbcTfl, and iNilmbits with any jn'r*«>n 
Cimt die r1if«Me*<, ufaii o<|ub1 «k- hifihcrrank than 
her own. If A'l'X't***! in afwomating with any 
low man she Iwconw* an oiiipjiAte. It i-* no kiti*l 
of rerteclion on n wonianN cliaraclcr tit »ay thul 
jthe has Hn-med the oh»o*t intimacy with many 

other eatkien* subjtfvtH the pernun to exr«j|iitnuni- 
cation fn>m ciuste, l»:ini«hnt(.iit from K*«-ietv, 
and all reH^nnun mlvuntagi's. The TeeytT fe- 
muhsK of .South .Malabar however, do i)<>t, «a 
readily uj* ihos*- y*\' the North, yirl.l ibemvelvos 
to x\\\» practice. 

With the N;iir, the Tee%ifr, and indeed all 

pCTMinii ; tm tli« oonlrary, Nair women ore the otlwr numerous cajrtea of Malabar (inelud- 

fvmud of reckoniiif^ aniung their favoured lover? ing the (Whin and Tnivamnre ruimtries, thcflc 

iminy brahmins, r-vjaM. or other perHons. of buiuig indeed the moni atriking in tliis rcupcct), 

high-binh. In con»e<]Uence oi this strangi' roftmnatioa \a much needetl. It ia. he «a>*», 

manner of propagating ih*» R|»rci«B, no Nair very hunentabh' to Imd th«m dormant in their 

known hist father; and ^stry man loi>k* uf^n original state \>i deprewion iutd U'»t weking for 

\\\* «i»tcr*A children lit \i\^ b«'>nt. He, indenl, relbrmation rather than gnwitig blindly proud 

loi»ks u|on Uuni with the »ftno- fondncw* that of tlieir vain and diUercnt caatert and privib^eA 

&lbcnt in other parta of the world have tiir ftnd ready to run any riak even Umi of hazard- 

ibfir own children ; and he vutiid b<^ conaidcr- ing ilieif lives only to prt*«erve their rnste». 

24 IV 24 



mca. The customs are alluded to by I thrust by fear, rather tlian adopted, into the 
hotp.u in tho Ifith, Fryer in the 17th, Vedic paniheou — tlie germ of the Mix>dy Kali 
ami Buchanan and Day in the 19th century, and the murderess, Uhawani, in a day mcrci- 
The Zaiuorin of Calicut ijs a Nair. Naira are fully late, and to the Vedic men far away in 

of IJ claasea, the Villinm are namburs and 
Wahmanx. The Nair people of the Malaya 
sod TulAva country are frequently educated 
and good acccountants ; they hold many public 
(ifioeauid compete lor ofKce emplnyments with 
the brahmans. The Xairs are a good sized, well 
f«*tQr«d r»ce» but rather dark. They serve as 
joIdii^rB. The Naira of Malahnr were former- 
iMviwfnmed to duelling. The practice waa 
rn, but hired champions were oflen 

may be mentioned, while noticing the 
I'f tlie Nair race, that among tho Lim- 
tribe io N. E. India, near DarjeeJing, the 
TNf(N>ini> the property of the father on his 
p:i nother a jimall sum of money, when 

ih. lamed, and entera hia father's tribe, 

gir vith the mother, and belong to their 

iw/. Among the Batta of Sumatra, the 
to the chiefsbipfl does not go, in the 
, to the son of the deceased, but to 
bv a sister, the same rule, with res- 
•^rty in general, prevails also 
asofthat partofthe island, and 
w- ;ieifthbourhood of Padang. — 7Vn- 

ii/i ,,. Vol. ii.,7?. 459; Perry t Bird* 

£y« I'W«% Ck. ijv., JO. 84; As. R^uarehes, 
JV. v^ p, 12 ; Buchanan^ Mysore, VoL ii. p. 
412 ; BkMff, Am. Soe. Joum. Vol. ix. p. 834 ; 
BteiJ^Hum ITamiUoH quoted in Journ. Jn Arch,, 
Vol. iu., iSo. 6^ June 1849; Luhhod\ Origin of 
CM, p. 106; Pimrt, Vol. vi.,p. 242; Mirf. 
p. 54 ; p. 75 ; WiU., Gloss ; See India, Kuki, 
KtimmzkLiT, Korambar, Marumaka-Tayam, 

' '' 'T.a non-commissioned rank in the 

nr. equal to a corporal. See Nack. 

M 1 AL, in lat. 29° 23" 6 ; L. 79° 30' 9 ; 

M>n, a sanitarium in the outer ranges 

oi : . ! (Uya. The cistern of the barometer 

V. i . i loiel, showed a height of 6,565 feet. 

NAIBANJAR. the ancient name of a river, 
aemr thp town of Gaya it is now called Phalgu, 
is apfOAito Gaya, and the name of Lilajan, or 
XilsjaiL, is restricted to the western branch, 
which joihA the Mohani 5 miles above Gaya. 
The toiru was thinly peopled, but it contained 
About 1^000 fiimilies of brahmana. The city is 
•till called Brahm-Gaya, to distinguish it from 
Batkldli-Ga^'a. — Cunmnghams Ancient Qeo- 
ym^y af India, p. 45. 

NAIRITTI or N'iritti, the dread earth god- 
deivi, of whom terror and deprecation were the 
only worship, is all but certainly the evil god- 
do* of the hill tribes to whom the Khonds tiJl 
y otfSwvd homaji victims. She seems 

25 N 

the future. The Arians performed hiunan 
sacrifices ? In a legend, tliere is mention of a 
king so devoting his eon. There are bonds 
alluded to in the Vedas, most probably, allego- 
rical, but there is little doubt that tl»e imagery 
is drawn from real human sacrifices, offered by 
the wild tribes in the neighbourhood to Nairitti, 
" with unfriendly looks," oa she is expressly 
named in tliis Sakta. The legend may per- 
haps point to an eurliur practice, which Viawa- 
mitra and his party set thenwelves against. A 
god named Noirita, of a fierce and evil nature, 
is said to have been worshipped by the Sakas. 
See Bniliminicidc, Hindoo, India. 

NALSO GATA, Japa.5. Grampus sieboldii. 

NAT URtrVI, Tam. Acbyranthes aspera, 
Linn,: Jioxb. 

NAI VEDYA, Hem. Food offered to a 
hindoo god, a meat offering, belonging to the 
puja or worship of a hindoo deity, 

NAI VELLA, Tam., also Nai-Veli. Gynan- 
dropsis i>eotaj»hyll3, />C., Cleome viscosa, IK. 

NAJA BAMJ, Mal. Bauhinia scandena, 

NAJACK^EfLiW/., an order of plaats com- 
prising, ^> gen., 24 .«p.. viz.: — 1 Caulinia ; 4 
Najits; 1 Ruppia; 1 Zamichellia; 13 Pota- 
mogcton ; 4 Spatbium. 

NAJAF, according to some mahomedans, the 
place where Adam was buried : See Abu-kubuya. 

NAJI, BuRM. Pterocarpus acerifoUum : 
Pterocarpus subaccri folium. 

NAJRAN, a town in the north of Yemen ; it 
waa once filled 'witli christians, Dzu Nowaa 
obtained poe.HesHion of it by treachery, and 
gave it up to phmdcr. Large pita were dug in 
the neighbourhood and Riled with burning fiiol, 
and all who refused to abjiu-e their faith, amount- 
ing to many thousands, were committed to the 

NAJITK, Bewq. Mimosa pudica, £inn., Roxb.: 
Sensitive plant. 

NAK, Hiyo. Pvnis communis. 

NAKA BALLl, sec Hindoo. 

NAKAL, see Mahabliarata. 

NAKANDA, a kind of rice, of Kangra. 

NAKA PL'TA CIIETrU, Tkl. Roatcllarla 
procumbcns, Neex. 

NAKARA, HiNDw a drum : a kettle-drum ; 
nakarah khanab, literally signifies the "kettle- 
drum house," from nakareh, a small brazen 
bodied drum ; and khanah a house. But it ia 
generally used to express an assemblage, of 
military, or field musicians, whose instrumentn, 
are loud, har?th and tliaigrceablo, long brazen 
irumpctfl, called Karrena, the sounds of which, 



iy bo comparo>] to the braying of anes, ami 
Sunia, in appcnrance noi unlike clarioneta, 
but sending forth notes such as might be eK- 
pect«l from two dUcoolant bag-pipes without 
a (Irono. Tlie royal Nakarah Khanah, at 
Ttfhran, does not I'Xcitt? a more favourable 
opinion of die Persian field niasic. The Sihtara, 

le Kaniancheh and nthcr fttring-instrumcntA ; 

wluce with goinl voice* in chamber concerts, 
very m^fl and pleading melody. — On*elty*s Tra- 
vtU^ Vol, i. 

NAKAREE, a river near X'iltooreeah in 
Cboia Na^TX>re. 

NAKATIYA, Smon., an astrologer; tlie 
practice of aatrology at the present day, in 
Ceylon, and the preparation of the ephemeria 
predicting the weather and other partionlar* 
of the forthcoming year, appe&n to have 
undergone little or no chanjre pince this cti»- 
tom of the inhabitants of India wofl described 
by Arrian and Strabo. But in latter rimes the 
brahmans and tlic buddhista have sui>eradded 
to that occupation the ousting of nativitiea and 
the competition of horoscopes for individuals, 
from which the Sophists described by Arrian 
abstained. It is practi*ed alike by the highest 
and mtjjit humble ca.^tc3 of Singhalese and bud- 
dhiat, from the VcUala or agricultural aristo- 
cracy, to the beaters uf tom-toms, who have 
thus acquired the title of " Nakatiya" or astro- 
logers. The attendance on particular cere- 
monies, however, called Bali, which are con- 
nected with divinition, belongs exclusively to 
the latter class. Amongst tlie mnhomedaiui of 
Britisli India, astrology is almost unheard of, 
though they keep their calender, or Jantri, and 
the hindoo JmIu calculates the ephemeria. Tlic 
hindooa also have their calender or Panjnngam, 
but ihcy all practice divinitiou from Ixwka, of 
which tlic Chintamini pastokam is in use in the 
ioutli of India* 

NAKBEL, HiXD. Bocrhaavia diffusa. 

NAK-CUJKAUA. The leaves of a small 
plant found about Ajmeer, also imported from 
Delhi : are very hot, and a good gtemutntory : 
three ina&see are given in pills, as a dose, in 
colic, vr^ ■ •'' - 'id to be tliua speedily relieved. 
—Ot^ ^..,ji. 147. 

NAK'- ii(n..W. Hind. Myriogyne minuta. 

NAK CHILXI, Dtrx. Epicarpus oricntalis, 

NAKDOUN, Hum. Aspangua officinalis, 

NAKED, th*» pmctJce of appearing naked, is 
alluded to I , 43, in Job x\ii. 6, 

and 24, 7, i 7 and 1 0, Matthew 

XZT, 116 and 44. and l!ud Corinth, xi 20 James, 

i irrrU w Nakcru, Tkl. Cor- 
^'AKUiVE, ft fiibulous race, dwelling under 

the earth. — Bishop PaUeyoix : Bourrint^^s Siam^ 
Vol i, ;». 40. 

NAKIICHINKN'l, HixD. Myriogyne minuta. 

NAKHl, see Hindoo. 

NAK HIS, religious ascetic mendicants, 
amonpsl tlie hindoos, who lire by bejyring ; they 
resemble the Urddha-bahu and Akas-mukhi. 


Ue^"iLs date palm, n dwarf-giant of palma which 
gn^ws near Zanzibar. It has no trunk, but t)ie 
mid rib of each branch is thick as a man's 
thigh. Eccentric in foliage and fmndage, it" 
projects over the waves its gracefVilly curred 
arnii*, sometimes thirty and forty feet long. — 
Blacl; Mag. .\farch 1858. ;>. 285. 

NA-KHONG-VAT. a great temple in Cambo- 
dia, which seems to have been built in the 
tenth ccntur}'. It is 000 feet in the base, nnd 
in the centre ISO feet high. Every angle of 
the roof, every entablature, e\eiy cornice bcurs 
the seven-headed serpent. — Horthuryh, 

NAKHODA from Nao, a vewel, and Kiioda, 
lord or master, a ship captain. 

NAKHTAH, Hijtd. Cedrus deodara, Pinus 
longi folia; the generic name of pines among 
the ^Vffghans, of which there arc several kinds, 
perhafKt fraom Nashtar a lancet, owing to the 
sharp points of its leaves. — CUffhornB Pta^ah 
Report^ p. 215. 

NAKHTHAN. Hixn. Faba ^-ulgari^, 

NAKHUD, Pers. Cicer arictinum, Lum^ 
Bengal gram. 

NAKHUN. HiKD. A kind of sheU used as 
a drug. It is like a finger nail, hence the 

NAKIRI GADDI or Nakkn korra, Tsu 
Panicum helvolum, L. 

NAKKA, Tel. Cams aureus. Linn, Bly. 
The jackall. 

NAKKA DOSA or Dosa, Tbi.. Cucumis 
utillissimiw, R, var. This variety is grown 
largely by tlic ryots in their grain field*. 

NAKK.\ KORRA. Tn. Panicum hdvolnm, 
L.—V. glaucum. R. i. 284. 

NAKKA NARAYANA, Tst. Indigofera. 
*p, Thisnamc was attoclied to a dried specimen 
from KtiTidavid, which was not I. trita. 

NAKKA NARU, Tix. Indigofera trita, 
L,— W, ^ A. B.36 : le. 315-386.— if. iii, 
371 ; I. cinorea, R. iii, d,T2—RhefiU ix. 3fl, 
also Poa ka'nigii, A'u^uA, or Poa intcrrupta, R, 
i. 335. 

NAKKA NERKDU, Tsl. Flacourtia sapida, 
R^h. W. 4- A. 

NAKK^V NEIiEDU, Tw.. Flacourtia aaptda, 
7?. iii, 835 ; Cor. 69— W. ^ A. 104, Ic 84. 
aUo applied to ArdLsia solanacea. 

NAKKA PASITPU or Kondfl rasnpu,Tn« 
Curcuma. */>. Wild tiirmrrir. P. mnntana or 
C. angusiifoUa. 





RENU, c 
ha, «. 
NAKKA TOKA GAODl. Tel. Foa $p. 

Fox-tail RTttss. 

U^ofwiUee. /)'C.— IT. ^ A, 6S9 : also 
Hetnimiitii coHifoIia, R, The niime nicuns 
*■-' ^ 'iil pUvHl" flyn. Dhavani, W. 444. 

.K.KAV1R1 CHETTU, Tbl. Cucuuiks y. 
ti: 4 v; — where it is eiplained by CJruvaru^W. 
U>>5. ' I - Tt of cucumber." 

NAKKENA. Tel. Canthium didymum, 
GVrf„._if. i, 535.— W, tj- A.,1301. 

' MU or Ura nakkeru, Tri., Cor- 
«ii />. — i?. i, 5'JO. — Rheede^ iv, 37, also 

Xsrueiiii liinencdna, j^. 

NAKL, Bbnu. Tree. 

NAKJ^KIiWAJA— ? Buchanaiiia Utirolia. 

Wk-I. OOS SilAYTAN, Akab. The 
I) pahu»atlwarf-^iaHt of pnln« prruws 

itt:». ^...^^.iiy^iT. It has no trunk, bat tlic mid 
rib of each branch ia thick Od a dulu*«i thigh. 
Gcicentric in foliage and fronda^^ it projects 
wrer the waves ilagracefoliy cvirved arms, aome- 
and forty feet long. — BkicJc. Mtvj.^ 


Their naincs arc :- 

} BhAimni or AnUk&m. 
3 &ntik& or kgaxjt^ 
A W^*h/iYi or BnJuBuun. 

fl Aidn, or tUudnL 

'lia, Kunawer. 

a river and town in Almorah. 
. UiifO. Hyena striata, Zim- 

'i5D. Lawaonia inermla. 
Iltd. Fuba rulgaria. 
\. a Lunar mansion. Inhindoo 

:ire 27, ol' 13^20' <'ach. 

15 Swriti. 
IS Vaisiklui. 
17 AntirsiihJi. 
IS Jye^ttu. 
10 Keriti or MuU. 

3) Purv» A«hnrhft. 
21 Utt«r» AfiUarliA. 
23 SraviLnu. 
23 Sra-nshtUii. 
2\ SaUbhi^hA. 
25 p. BlmdripQ-^la. 
2tf II. Bhadrapadft, 
27 iiavfcti or r*ufthna. 

7 Punftnraas, or Aditra. 
S Puaiiiym or TUhiya. 
* Jjl«i0k& or SttRMm. 
10 M«ghft or PitrixAm. 
U FumPbatgum. 

13 Vvtu% Phalfunt 
U RMtB, or Ark». 

14 C1uitf«. 
See Hicdu ; Surya. 

NAKSHATRA-MALA, agarhmd of twenty- 

tenen Deatls. the number of the Nakaliatra or 

^Uimi. Theai, Vol/iup.m. 

:. U...TiI .J.-..N DI, HciT). A raohammadun 
G^keer or dan-esh, characterized by carrying a 
'•-"•■ 'H lamp in one hand and going about ding- 
- s«« in honor of the prophet, »Scc., they 
u« their in3titution and name from Khaja 
Gkiiia-ud-<tin of N'aksh-band. 

MC£JEB. Sculptures in the moun- 
iiiat, iifl,^r Pf-rsopolia. 

■ lie rocks nn which the 

-tm are sculptured, 

Uiicbaoeof Koh-i-Hoossaia; they form the 



vullcy of Kaniin and serve for a nortliern boun 
liary to tlie district of Hafrek. They arc rugged 
cUtfe of wliite and yellowiah marble with hardly 
any sIojh; towards tiie plain. The more ancit^ut 
sculptures arc kiuiwn by the designation Royal 
Ttnnha. Those are seven in number, of which 
four tire at Nakah-i-Ruitooin, and tliree in tho 
rocks of Ralimet, at Taklit-i-Jainshid. The 
foniier arc supposed to contain tbe lour Persian 
monarchii who imuiwiiatfly followed Cyrus, 
namely, Cambysos, Dariiw I., Xcries and 
Artaxen:e$ I. The remaining throe king* of 
the Aclicmenid race are supposed to have been 
interred in tlie three other tomba in the rook 
of l^hmat. at Tiikht-i-Jam.Hhid. — Baron C. A, 
DeBodes TravtU in Laristan and Aral^istaa, 
pp. 1)7. 08, »9. 

NAKTRU8A. Hixd. Sisymbrium iris. 

NAKULA, one of the five Pandava. 

NA-KYEKN, Bciuc. This la the soondri wood 
of Calcutta, Hcritieru oiinor, where it is ao 
common as to serve for firewood, altliough, 
from its superior qualities for bu(.^gy-8lmha, 
hackery or cort nxlea and whnela and 
otlier purposes j'equiring great strength and 
toughness, it ia highly prized. In Amherst 
the timber is employed for house posts and 
raflere.— C«<. Ex. 180:2. 

NAL, HrsD. Armdo donax. 

NAL, also Nul, BE.'va, Amphidonax karkn, 

NAL, HrNT). A Iwllow reed or tane, a tube, 
a pipe. The reeds iwed as pens or kalm, for 
writing in the Persian cliaractcr. The heat arc 
red without, while within, and hard as stone. 
See Grarainaceaj. 

NAL, also meAns *a tube,* whence the war- 
like nal-gola, a kind of aninebuss ; a hall pro- 
pelled by whatever force from a tube ; a term 
used by the old martial poet« of India for a 
warlike engine, long before gunpowder was 
known in Europe, A single barrelled gtui is 
ek-uaUi-ka-bandu'.| ; do-nali-ka-banduq, a double 
barrel.— Jute's Travels, p. 25, 

NAL, Tam. Day. 

NAL. see Kelat. 

NAL (?) Hptd. A gang of freelKwters :n 
Bundelkhund as Saiioria, or Uthaigir. 

NALA, Iii5D. Is a tenn applied to a raountiiin 
stream, from nal, * a defde,' iiidica-ting that tJie 
counie of a stream always prcj^ents some mode 
of penetrating into mountainous regions. Vulg. 
a nullah, a watcr-couree or stream : often a 
long inlet from one of the great rivers and re- 
ceiving the drainage of the coimlry, but not 
having any origin in a spring or snow bed, aa 
rivers and streams have; usually a rivulet, a 
chaoael cut in the soil by rain-water, or water- 

NALA and Damayanli, a story of ancioi* 

N 27 

Hindoo life, in the Inter Vedic period preceding 
brahmaaum. Nala inhabiujcl Nishada, the Bhil 
coiuLtry ami Damayanti waa u <iaughter of the 
Vidarbha, in the moflorn Berar. NaU, lout, 
for a time, both his kingdom and hia faithful 
wife Dnmayanti. The rajah of Jeypore claims 
to have jiprung from the ancient rajah Nala of 
rouiautic memory. 

NALANDA.a farooos moiuutcry in Magadha, 
near Gayn, novr called Uami^aon, It \n tlie 
most famous buddhist mnnastery in all India. — 
Cunuituffuim's A7tnfnt Qf/)g. a/ India^ p. 15. 

NALA!»ANA KULLNGOO, Curouligo orchi- 

KAL RAXS, UxxD. Bambusa anindinacea. 
The bsnilKKi, 

N/VIjCHIC, «ce Kunawer. 
NALDRUG, a fortress in the western partof the 
Hyderabad dominions, 27 miles from Sholapore. 
NAL ENNE, Tam. Oil of Seaamum orien- 
tale, Giiigelly or Scsannim oil. 

NALI, Tbl. UIma«« initgrifoliua, Rcah, 
N'ALI, HiXD. Ipomiea repcans. 
NALKAPCK, ir 17'; T'J^ 48'. in the 
Dekiian, 32 miles east of Hyderabad. Mean 
height of the village, above tJie sea is 1,591 ft. 
NALKKE, Bra-o. Hibiscus cannabinus. 
NALKI, a kind of palam^uin. 
NALKIA, HisD. Tulipa stellata. 
NiVLL, HisD. A hollow bamboo. See Nal, 
NALLA, Tkl. Black, hence 
Nalla-HAiai, or Aviai, Trl. Liaum luitatiiHJmum, 
Z..Saiifl. Atflsi. IF. 16. 
V ariU, Trl. Muaa paradiitiBca, var. also Mi- 
cheliA, tp. Sk. explains it hy Champa which 
W., 316, rfmlcrs t>oth Micli«lta aud a Tar. of 
the ploiiUiiu. 
„ aaakolu, Tel. PaApalum, tp.t 
„ativua,TEL. Curcuiiu ccs^io^ 7£., t, 29. Ooe 
of Uio Sans. syn. is S&ti which W^ &*, aaya, 
is a kind of Curcuma, ami in B«n|zal, C. ccaaia 
10 still c&lM bliiok Hal'li and Xil&kKnthiL. 
^ baJusu, or Nakkona, Tax.. Coathiuai iltdy* 

mum, (tcertn. 
„ bu'lAnia, Tkl. Cucumla tuTbioaUu. JZ.. iii, 723, 

IV. and .(- I".v.i. 
„ obftQialit. imirailiare, /ia/n. i?.i,3O0. 

„ chandnt .Trl. Acacia siuidni, D( 

„ cliikku'iu. Tkl. l-ildub, tp, 
„ cUitra mulum, Tki,. riuuil"4[n capeitfu. TA, 
„ cbukkn kodii. Tkl. Eln-.ti-f »oronam, DC. 
W. and ..-i. 711. Rnxb. lias Nalla sors kada 
evidently n mi»-pTini for Xalla sukka or 
chnkkft kftda, i. *.. " black spot" from the 
dark iiinrk \n the mHfllf* '^t each If'aflit. 
„ dadugn. ' n^J/ook./. and 

Th. r * 

^ ijiuti - ■ .1 '. 1 11 t iuuria tematea, L. 

^ dog;. Aninniiitus spithMUS, L, A 

rlri' . -' ' - " Mumo was sent from 

K'l.!.'- ' ''Vv rt'ft'r* niurc pro- 


JL .-■ 

hdi or puTpl« spotirti 




Nalla giri giligichcha. Tkl. ClotalariB linifoUa,Z. 
H'. and .f . 6d9 -C. cowpitoea, Jt iii, 2G9. So 
called from the ovoid, black legume — nalla, 
black ; giri round. 

„ gilikami, Tkl. Nigella aativa. 

„ Dftllft trinivft, Tel. Ck-cnra in 8k. as the equiva- 
b niof Kaubbi which If. 180, make* to be 
C&rdiosptirmum halicacabum also CUtoria. 

„ guli vinda or Guliviada, Abrus precatorius, JL, 
y. melanoBpenuuA, Roxb. ii, 3Q2, applies 
the same name to Cardiospermuin haheaca- 
bum, the seeds of which are black with a 
white spot, very like the aeeda of Abrus pTD- 

„ gunta kalagara or Gunta, Kalama eclipta, ^.f 
Tlie Sans. syn. is Maha bnring&h or great 
Eclipta, not in W. 

„ gurujinja, Tkl. Abrus precatoriua, Lmru 

„ iPUgudiTEL. Dalberj^latifoUa,ir.a:^.; JL 

„ iawara, Tsl, AristolochLa acimiiuata, L,~R. iii, 

„ Jidi cbettu or Jidi chettu, Semecarinii anocar- 

dium, L.—S. u, 83 ; Cor, 12— W.and A,, 623j 

/c. 568. 
„ Jlla karra, Nigella satlva, Z., 3 Indica, DC, 

Jilakarra or Jira is cumin, black, or Kali 

jira, XigtUa sativa. 
„ Jiilivlu or Jilledu, Calotropis prucera, Jt Mr, 

This application is made from the dark color 

of the flowers. Hamilton identifles this 

*p. with C. UamiltuniL k. H*. 
„ jiluga, Cassia pumila, tarn. — W. md A . 904 — j 

Senna prostrata, R. ii, 3,'>2. ^^H 

„ kakamui>hti'r' Dio6pyroe,i7f.— D.sylvaticH, J^^H 

A doubtful name. Mushti is StrjThno»-^^ 

Beddome adds, "only found in fruit, 

D. sylvatica ?" or Gata, p. 58. It is more 

tnt>l4bly D. cordifolia. See Kaka ulimera ami 

Nalla ulimera. 
„ kakara, ilomordica, »p. From Kondarid. 
„ kakasi, or Derata malle, lOuiUa uli^inoea, i>C 
„ kaluva, Nymphoea stellata, WiW.~W. and A. 

bb; Jc. 178— it u, 679; N. cj-anea, 577; 

Nilotpalam, If. 486. 
„ kamanchi or Kamanchi, Solanum rubnuu, 

^fiB. — fi, melaoopyrenum. 
„ kaaaca, Ormocarpiim seonoides, Bethtv.—W, 

and A. 672; Jc. :«7-Hedy»anun len. A 

„ kavani, Dicerma biarticuUtum, DC. ; W, and 

A. 710; Ic. 419 -Hedysarum bi., li. ui, 33t5. 
„ kukkita, Ipomflca ohecura, jr#r— Conv. ob*.. 

li. i, 472. 
H kuppi, also Nalla opie. Tel. ( ..ii 

inerme, Gtert. Syn. of Vulkamei ^ U 

„ madaorM&da, Ancennia t'T!.' u; - /; m, t:i8L 
„ maddi, Temunalin tompot>-.i ll .-n/^.'JTS; 

Ic. 1B5.— PentApt^ra u»m, A. ii. ■*4*i, aUo 

Maba huxifolia, pKRt-. Tlu- bark dyps hlack. 
„ mamja, Randia, up. Perhajw R. uiiginoaa, 
„ mam. Ficus f 
„ mulu goranta, Barleria obovata, Z— R. boxi- 

foUa, R iii, 37. Tlie nya, is flairiyaka. IV. 

944. — Common in Mysore and Malaimr wiUj 

pinkish violet Uowers: another vjtriety oo 

cure in Ounlurwitb pure white flowers, or 

t«llA mulu goranta. 
M nela gunuuufhi itj Uliuchakra gadda. Batata* 

itaiiiculAtA, CA, ? 
„ nitanilmri. Krauthemum nervosum, R. Bf.~ 

K. pulchvllum. R. i. Ill ; JusVicia pu]., Cor. 

:' |NuJmam. Kur\ale ferox, Sati*6,', >'ym- 

'\ stflllatA, Wilid. ? NaJIani paduiam'iii a 

mack or jntrple lotua. The only species an- 



swrrin^ to Una description ia Eurynle ferox, Nalla 
which oowever is unknown in ihe&ouih, but 
it ta only ^^tm in 8k. as a bju. of Uie Sftns. 
wor*l P«<linft. 

tuornalla purugu<iu, Tel. Ani- 

ilora, ft. W. 

i'l.v'i uiii pallera, Tel. Indigofera echi- 

n»t«,FVaW.— ii.ui.371— »r.m«iH.til7;/t\3l6. 

pAmuUgeddA, Tel. Spilorais chc«la, Dituti. 

peddA gonnta, B&rlena chstata, X. — JZ. lii, 

37-W. /c.463. 

lu orpeMlu, Tel. Phaseolus miingo, L^—fi. 
meiAniwpenuu*— Ph. uiai., It, (not Z.) UL 
lv>Qaku. PeltopboTua royurus, Blain, — Maniau- 

Tvamy.,Jt i, 351 ; Cor. 117. 

palugudu or purui^iidu, Antaunema luultiflora, 

M.IV. Phyihmthusmul^A.iii.OtrJ— /M««fe, 

X, 27. Fruit black. Tho reference tu Rheede 

Wigbt'e. Dillwyn assigUA the figure to Ph. 

ida deprena, JUtx.^ R, i,, 351 . — 
t dep., BcQuv, 

puTTtila ufruUi. Allium, ip. The words mean 
black-Aowcrred onion. 

raotu, Endopoaou. »p. ThiA waa the name 
given by the Konda Uoralu at Sinhachalani 
to* >er5' prttty #p, with pale blue flowers, 
whether An KnJupogon or a Steniftiphuniuin, 

XAtiffa. Tbu Vitia quadraugularis, WaU.; W. 
4 .<.. W. Ic, Mctd*. 

rcf^u, AouUA amara, WiUil.— W.aiid A. BiS— 
UinuMaam, Ji. li, MS; Cor. 122. 

WRi^' ■ ' . Hemideamufl indicufl, H. Br. 
^ vers are always dark purple or 

tl». »...., .^i there are several well marked 

ta>K inM'la, aIm nalla-tata-gudda, Tf.l. Curcu- 
li^ ' =, Gt^rt, Set^ 5(uali. 

tap* . i'htisorixeiwis, fl.ui,402. Br. un- 

UexurJa ;appeta3d9,has'*uauie ufatree** and 
^ds the syn. tfrishma sun<laramu, which W. 

3"' " ' ^ ' '^ •■ ''^'ul of pot-herb, quot- 

in. iiii) centfturoidea !— 

V t^ . : - _ i-rs aonch. orix. and 

otcnceua to be the same— tappeta ia Asyata- 

t«fpii1a or Teguda. Black t^g^la. The Sana. 
wrn. given is paluida wliich according to W. 
&3J. IS jaaniinum pubesct^ns; palindi is ex- 
pUiMwi to be teori, and piUiudhi to he the 
black t*wri. Teori oo^-'ura in l*id. Ind. in 
Sr^ede's calendar and in Vuigt, asthehindoo 
nam*' nf Ip^nacBa turftethiun. Teori is also the 
hi- ' L;»thyriifi sativum, the expressed 

ci: '.'ods of which, is, ai.'ci;trdinff to 

rful T'ii!i.'ii*"ive. and mi itnaa 
.-, t ■■ -iuiilarity of the 
' tli! use of tlie term 
he nx)t of Ip. turpe- 
t ((iialitiefu 
lciuiocarx>uB fruteecens. — 


il , l^-\\ 


Mm.-- \Vr.^ 


may ! 1 ■'. ■ ■ 



tbuxn poatft'^' 

tige or 

ilia kati^ 

JL Br 




: «,«>. £r. 428, under 
, ''eoony," but, goes 
rin. Tlie uame in the 
l..- _ ii. metannxylon. 

taimua« Acseui arabicH, Wiid.- W. ^ A, 858. — 
Mimoss ar., H- »>. ^'""ii fV. MO; £r. 428. 
Jtmr. Am. Soc., Caic., vi. 392. 
vmwptta, TiiL. Uaiura fadtuo«a, .Vrff. Hoxb. 
t»t*1».Tbl. fimtlanisaa vulgaris, also vitex 
ne^un'Io, Lmn^ Ji**-ib.. II'. 7c. | 

50 N 

,, Tel. Sinapts glauca, Jt iiL, 1 18. Saxs. 

Syn. kristmika. 

„ vondi karra, a name gi^*eu by the Konda Do- 

ralu to an imdeterminefl tr^e at Sinhaehalani. 

„ vatti veru,or vatti veni,andropogon murica- 

tus, lietz. The sj-n. in Ft- II, Jolasayah, W. 

345. i? stated to be Khashhos. 

„ vftvili, Vitex negundo, L.^R. iii, 70— IT. Ic, 

519- Rhetde'n., 12. 
„ vegisa or vegisa, Ptexocar^ us, tp, 
„ Tisnou kranta, or Vishnu kninta, EvoItuIua 

alsiaoides, L, 
„ udata, or ball komraa, Cansjera itieedii, Gm,, 
fT. 7c. 1861.— C.9candenfl,Ai,44l; Cor. I U3., 
Rheede vii, 2-4. OpUia amentacva, R. ii, 87 ; 
Cor. 158, This name is applied to both 
plants by the Konda Doralu. 
„ uduga^ or uduga, Alangium hexapetelum, Imth, 
-ir. 7c. 1&4. IQ. m-Rhtcde iv. aV This 
name was given to R]>eciniPufl frnm Konda- 
vid. It TB prubably the shiuo op Rhcede's 
karanK'^huii which Uillwyn identilW with 
A. hexajjetaluin, Lam. (not WilUt.) Arc tht>y 
different P V. Wiqht, HI, ii, 2. 
„ ulimera, or Kaka ulimera, Diusiivros cordifo- 

„ ummetta, Datura fastuosa, MiU.—R. i, 561 — 

IF. 7c. 139«). 
„ uppi, Capoarip sepiaria, Z.— 7?. ii, 668-IV. *■ 
A. 92, Br. 105, under Uppi quotes this name, 
and also Monetia which is Telia uppi adding 
a "thorny, medicinal, styptic slirub, with a 
ligneous, hollow fruit or gall, aa lai^e as a 
nut*niog" and gives as a syn. Mciuktika 
„ itnmida, or nalla nlimera, Diospyroa cordifo- 

„ yirugudu chettu, Dalbergia latifolia, R. lii. 
221 ; Cor. 113- H'. * ^. 814; 7c. U55. D. lati- 
folis ie called Sweta sal, i. e.» white sal in N. 
India. The Krishna aimsuita which ie the 
syn. cif Nalla yirugudu in Sk. seeniB to refer 
til another species, V. Patsa ^-irugudu cbet- 
X\U but the Tel. name exactly corrceiwndB 
with its Eng, »yn. "* blark-wuod." 
„ nalttTu, Vitis cissup quojlrnngiilarifi, WaU.~ 
W, ^ A, 410— IK 7c. 51-7^. 1, 407. Rr. 48(). 
„ nalli or merlakftTa, Grewia pilosa. Lnm. Rr. 480. 
NALLA-<5AD1LV, Tel. Aquila nfevia. — 

NALLA JUTK, Ajtolo-Brxo. Corchonia 

NALLAK, Tel. The male binj of Eudy- 
n&mia orientalis, Linn. 

NALLA MALI-A, two hill ranges new Cud- 

NALLA-PAT. Beno, Jute. 
NALUENNAI, Tjui. Gingelly oil. 
NALl^RU. Tel. Vitis quatJrangulari.?. — 
Wall., ir. 4' A., W, 7c., RJu^dr. 

NAL-SAHIB (lit. Mr. Horse-shoe,) an 
Alam or standard of mabomodans. 

NALTA-PAT, Bkxg., Hixn. Corchonu cap- 

NATjU, Hmn. Arundo donax. 
NAM, HiNU. A name. 
NAMA, Hind. A name appliwl to the 
marka which the sects of hindooa wear on their 
NAMA, Amb. jVrenga saccharifcra, Lo^iW, 


NAMA, also Nama dnrapo, Tel. Apono- 
gclon iuwou6U»chyon, H'Ulde. 

NAMA K^VKANA, SA?t8. From nania a 
name, unJ kree, to make, a hiiidoo ceremony of 
uniiiing H i'liild. 

NAM.\K-ARANAM, see Hindoo. 

NAMAK DULLA, Hisd. A salt of 5f)da, a 
natron saJt from the ^'aters of the lake of 
Loouar. It is n^'^d in dyeing* in medicine and 
the artd. 

NAMAfRKTri GADALU, Trl. Apono- 
geton uionoaUchyon, WilhU. 

XAMA KIRTANA. In the Uindoo religion 
the coiutant repetition of any of the names uf 
the deity. 

NAMAK K.V TEZAB, Hi.nb. Muriatic acid. 

NAMALLI litU, Tam. FlUs rubiginoaa, 
Is, Geoff, 

NAMA SIVAYA. the principal Mantra of 
the Saivn »oct of hiiidooa. 

NAMA.SKAKA is a reverential aalutatiou to 
an idol or a bruhman. 

NAMASL'DKA. comiptly» Numoo9oodr(?) 
Bexo. A low cudte, a chan<iuln. 

NAMAZ. Pww.. Hdoi. Prayer. The maho- 
medan prayer-time occurs five time* daily. 


NAfttBU VETUVAR? a claas of alavea in 

NAMBYARA, Mal. A tribe of Nayar, or 

Nair in JIalabar. 

NAMCUL« near Salem, a fortified detached 
hill «*ith a pretty large t^iwu at the foot. 
The hill w .steep bui nor; high : its rock is eicnitic, 
ill which while quart! and foUpar prevail : in 
some places it coittai?\s ^'arnets in iiornhlcnde 
and a greeiutone which poswcsacs the cluiractcrs 
of fcUpar and ia composed of the Siime con- 
stituents ; tiie tatter comjkouud seemed to prevail 
particularly in tJie lower country- The sand 
in the iiutluii uml m some port ufthe n>ad was 
mostly an nggregate of small garnets und 

NAMDAH. Hrxn. Pers. A thick felt i»ed 
hy the noTuade races of Persia and Afghanistan 
for their tents, hence the term uomajtle. The 
numdn is al^o largely uscit as a sleeping nig and 
for rurpctini;. See Naminad. 

NAMDL'NG, a river at Rungpoor. 

NAMEOK. A rnther hard, very line, cl«»e- 
grnined, heavy Ceylon wood, 

NAMKlA'DlMKiGOO. Tsx. 8cc Jnnplce 
shumhnli>o, lh.vj>. 

NAM I, a root of the f »rm i»f u larKe potato^ 
whicli grows in Mindoru, cultivated also in Ti- 
Kuwol -lUiiMl midmm. ^^^ ,„j j j„ ^j^^ M„luociw. It is Slid to he Uie 

^T»iU CaOuuf, Vol. 11. p. 400. Manioc or Crissnva of South America. 

NAMBAIX PAIO, M-vLKiL. Kugenia ma- NAMILLE, Tw,. Ulmus iutegrifolia. ifoo*. 
laccenais, Z-mn. NAMMAD, Phks. Narrow strips of thick 

NAMBI, TaM., MalbH. goft felt, handsomely ornamented vfitU various 

X»mbiy»a», Kau, I Nuiubiy.n, Tak. ^i^^^^ ^j^i^.), j^^c placed round tlie rooms in 

>Bmbii4i. MAJ.BA1.. | ' n ■ j l- i- i • . i ^ 

The tiUe of an inferior chutf of brahmami ^<^^'^ ""^ Kooriiistan, anrl serve insula*! of 
said to be sprung frt-m a Kshatriya mother w>f'w an<l chajr?.— ^iM * r««/f».« i« Ki>ordt$~ 
and brahmin lather, and usually officiaUng "»» ''«'- »• /'• ^^- "^^^ Namdah. 
u priest in Vaishiiava teiuplea in th« South NAM.MA DUMPA. or Gotti gadda« Tct. 
of India. Spnihium chinonjic, Lour. 

N.VilBOGCM, Maleu.. See Tibilebu. NAMMAM, Aba». Thymus chamajdrys. 

NAMBLU)1RI, commonly pronounced and ' N-\M MK, Buiui. A river. 
written Namhuri, M\r.., Vku, A bralmian | NAMO, or LaxAo Inland, called also Nan 
of tlifl highest order in Malabar. The Nam- , Gauu, on the south ciuat uf China, is 12 nulcs 
buri bnihmnn race of Malabar are nrrang- | long from cost to west, and a j milo^ bruiul. It 
into two tribe*, the Panniur gramumkar is very barrc-n, but well |»e<:ipled by a fishing 
Boor-vilUgert, and liio Choour gramma- population.— //vf^/miv/A. 
kar or Hird-rillagem. Wlien the Namburi bnih- i NAMOOXE-KCX >KE, a mountain near 
man women aro guUty of c<>aMnftion with BadidU in Ceylon, nearly 7,000 feet high. 
inferior casir-*, they are ' by iheir NAM I'APATA, Pavetui tomon|i»a> -S'r/t — 

relatives and chicllyltt the Hi -.n Mapilla. Ixora torn, R. 1. USO — IK. /c, 18(3. 

Under the terms head-price and brtvv*i-pncL', NAM-PHKIK. A Rjiuce tiscd by all clfttfca 
thcprincesof Malabar, in granting certain tandn in 8uim, it ia pre[iared by bnming a quantity 
to the cUriitians in i. D. 316. allowed thorn the of re<l [irppor in a mortar, to which are added 
revenues derivM from Uiu sale of mulos and kapi (paste <vf shrimps or prawn*). Iilack i»*.'ppcr 
fcmalf3< for serious cmtlc offences, a practice garlic, and onions. Tlieso being tl»orcin;jnIy 
which tho Namburi continue. A Nambiui | mixed, a small quantity of brine and citroti- 
brtthman of Malabar is always thi* Kawol or | juice in added. Ginger, taniarintis, und gmird 
CI of the temple of Ha<iarin.iih in tlie s^nls are n\<n omf>loypd. Th<» nam-phrik is a 

M of the liimalaya. — IW*?h. See ^ nioAt app*?tite-cx<'iiing c»>ridinicni. — Bou'rim*ji*$ 

I Ach*ri. I 6'wm, Vol. i.. />. 105. 

30 N 30 

VAKHUD. Niue tmlat (ron\ Ba^'hdad is 

Ifcr 'I i^-'^-'Toiif, the ^Toxind aroiuid ilie 

r.i 1 by tbe Arabs Tall Namru'l, 

«nH u\ w.f i rirk» Namrurt Tapassi. Both 
ihoe tenitf mean t}ie Kill, not the Uiwer. of 
Nimrvvl and the term Akarkouf or A^ar^'ouf 
rttn hv the Ani1». b intended to sigitit) the 
■^nmnJ it. 
<1, Ka>?*. Namesake. 

p:i^m irihe on tlic hilU 
■ f n fruntier of the Mikir 
11 See India. Nti^i. 

I, Tam. Pipeclay. 
NAMUM, tlie luarks hiudooH make on tlieir 

IL'M, TAJf. The marks on tlie foro- 
....»,- .'i' the hindoos indicating the sects to 
which they belong. That of the Ratnanuja 
oonnsSft of tiro perpendicular whi te 1 1 iies. 
dmvn firom each root iit* tlic hair to the 
oommencenient of the eyebrow, and con- 
a«ct«d by a transverse streak across the root of 
ti»e D(9e. In the centre i» a jf^rpendit^ular 
Mnmk of red, made \rith red Sanders or with 
Roh, a pieparatjon of* mrmcric and lime. They 
have aim* patches of (iopi diandana with a 
eeatnJ rel xtrcak nn the hrcaat and each up- 
per arou The rrmrks are <inp[K»ed to repre- 
asaitfae Sankh <.Shfll), Chakm (Discus), Gada 
(ClqbV and Pflilma (Lotn^). 

NAMUTI, Bexo. Grangea Maderaspatana, 

NAMZAD BA2I, Pww. Puahto, in Affghan- 
iilan a ci^toni of allowing the engaged couple 
ID s« each other. 

NAM ZETLANICA, Linn. Syn. of Hy- 
dmlea z«yhuuca« VaAL 

V K\", Pmtfl. Learened bread. 

N W. a dependency of Siam, N. E. of Ban- 

koU. lu rapitai \m in a fertile valley. of 

the lj\n» •riries, areperpetuaJly .at war with Xan. 

V&iB. pEBs. Mint, Mentha sativa. 

^(4Ba- Ben-teak. 

;ALA, Tw.. Euphorbia hirta, L. — 

> ANA KAR-VAVES. see Bajl Rao. 

'. V V TI, the Tamil naiue of a tree, pro- 

vlnrinda citrifoUa, which grows in 

■■ i .Malabar to about twelve feet 

ri inches in diameter. It ii 

£ turv'ii in its gnTO'th, iind very Soft 

and Ueht. U resembles tl»e American red- 

\. LTain. The native car- 

I frames of small vowels. 

xaIuk: iQ consequence of its early 

Is a very large tree, 

rod. sixc of a small plum, 

lilt of hard, white triangular 

fily by the Nataves. — Malcouij 



NANAII, Mvnu. I*ageriitrrenua pnrvirtt.ra, 
U. nlsii Lu^emtncmia macrocarpa. — Roxh. * 

NAXAK, wiw the son of a grain-factor at 
Talwuiidee, in the neighbourhood of Lahore. 
He was Wn in the year 1469, and in early 
life deserted the humble shop of his fiilhcT to 
seek, in study and retirement, a more genial 
occupation for b uatumlly reHective mind. The 
tenets of tlic hindoo and malioraedan of tliat 
day alike dissatisfied him ; and he caoie forward 
as a reformer of his coimtrys faith. He began 
to teach a. d. 1490. For tlie ^jms p*ilytbeism 
of hindno mytholtigy he substituted what muy 
be defin*:rd a high phiUwophic deism, and succeed- 
ed in collecting together a large body of follow- 
ers, whom he calle<l Sikh, or '* disciples ;*' and 
these he organized under a theocratic form of 
polity, being himself recognised as their Gooroo, 
or ** teacher." For many years this rapidly 
increasing body oi' converts continued to lead a 
peaceful meditative life, absorbed in the study 
of their holy Ixxik, the *' Gruiith,*' which con- 
tained :ill the recnrdotJ dogmas of their founder. 
They gradually spread over other parte of Jndia, 
a college of them existed so tar south us 
Patna, probably foundetl by gooroo Tegh Baha- 
dur. An interesting account of this college is 
given in an early number of the Asiatic Society's 
Journal, trom the pen of C. Wilkias Esq., dated 
March 17, 1781. But in the beg:inning of the 
seventeenth century, Govind Singh, the tenth 
gooroo. gave a new cliaracter to this religious 
community. He was a man of a naturally war- 
like spirit and ambitious views, and. thirsting to 
be revenge! for domestic wrongs, soon convert- 
ed tlio hitherto contemplative Siklis into a band 
of warriors. Tliese were the men who a century 
afterwards formed the flower of Runjeet Singh a 
army, and whose rampant fanaticism presented 
so formidable an array on the different battle 
fields during the Suilej and Punjab campaign, 
NANAK SHAHl, religious mendicants or 
vagrants. Sec Kubir panthi. 

NANAMBOO, Tam. A wood of Travancore, 
of a brown odour. Used for common build- 
ings. — Cal. Frith. 

NANA PADiVM, Tkj.. Bleaching. 
NANA K.\0, or the Nana sahib, of Bithoor, 
who claimed to be an adopted son of Baji Rao 
the last Mahratta Peshwa was infamous for his 
cruel outrages at Cawnpore in 1857 against 
helpless men, women and children. He joined 
early in the revolt of li5o7-8-9 and his crucl- 
UeA in Cawnpore were great. The moat nolo-' 
rious and distinguished characters among the 
rebels in 1S57 were Tantia Topee, once 
a shroff in the Oudh bazaar and subse- 
quently servant of the Nana at Bithoor ; Jwalla 
Pcrshad, the Kotwal of Cawnpore, subsequently 
Commander-in-Chief of the Nanas Army 
Rhan Bahadoor Klian of Bareilly, an old servant 

N 31 

and pensioner of the Britwh Government, and 
Iting the successful leaJer of revolt inliia district — 
all three werehangecl. Mumraoo Khan, a low 
menial whom the paasionaof the Befumof Luck- 
now raiHcd from the kennel to power, was trana- 
port<'<lti> the Andaman*. His paramour and her 
boy Brijis Kudr. who claimed tlie throne of Oudh 
went t/i Katmandoo, under the careof theXepau- 
lene, where aUn the Rane*? Chunda of Lahore, 
thai Meaulina of Indian history, had long found 
an a^yhim. Bala Rao, the brother of tlic Nana : 
Azeciuoolah whom, once u khitmutgar, he sent 
to Ix^ndon a^^ hU Agent and who waa his con- 
fidant tliroiig-hout the revolt, and the Nanahim- 
»elf ure said to have died in the Dookurh 
valley of fever. Fcroz Shall, the aspirant 
to tlie honoum of Delhi and the compa- 
nion oi'Tantia Topee, was never captured. The 
three claimants for power in India were the 
Nana, Brijis Kudr and Ferox Shah. The claim 
of the second was to Oudh and of the third to 

NANAS, Malay. Pine Apple. 

NANAftAI? Mahr. A religioua mendicant 
in Uic woat of India, whoextortj* alms from the 
•hop-keepejs and others by importunities, abuse, 
and Oireats. Tliese seem to be the Nanak shabi, 
vagrant mendicants, professing to be fi^owen o( 
Nanak shah, the fovmder of the sikh religion. 

NA-NAT, BxTRM.Pine Apple. Ananas sativus. 

NAN BAI, HncD. A bread^eller, a baker. 

NANCOWRY, in laf S^ 0', long 93° 46' E. 
one of the Nicobar Islands. 

NANDA, a pcP*on not of princely extrac- 
tion, who AucceMhilly rebelled against Pinga- 
makha, the Isst of the Sisunnga kings of Mag- 
hatllia, captured Patalipura and ascended tlie 
tbmne., a. c. I-tTf*. His younger brother was de- 
throned and kilted by Chandragupta, B. c. 313. 
Nanda, and his sons, a. c. 378 to 313, and the 
Maury dynasty, it. c. 312. 5. iii, 641. 

NANDA, the cow-keeper foster-father of 
Krishna, in whn^e house Krishna grew up. 
Gokul is a small town on the banks of the 
Jmnna, below Mathura, and Kadha, the mis- 
tren of Krishna was wife of a cowherd of Gokul. 
Hence one of Krishna's titles is Gokul Nath, 
lord of Gokul. Gokul, is almost an island, and 
is one of the prettiest spots in the holy land of 
the hindoos. The scene there is still as pastoral 
as it had been three thousand and five hundred 
years ago. Large herds of heavy-uddered kinc 
remind us of the daj'S of Nanda, though their 
number is far short of nine lacs, possessed by 
that shepherd-chief of old. Sec Kasyapa, 
Krishna, Mngadha. 

NANDA DEVI, a pcftk in the Himalaya, 

,749 frrt high, 3.2.S3 feet len than Gauri- 

Ear. The villagra in mo^t caset are built 

'Vftvdera.bly ihovo Um bed of the river, soine- 

limeson terrace-s remaining wit! tin the orodc-d 
channel, but more generally upon the sloptt 
above the erosion. 

N^VNDA MAHAPADMA a. c. 416, but 
Wilson 340 and Jones 1602. " HewiU bring 
the whole earth under one umbrella. He will 
have eight sons, Sumalya and others, who will 
reign after Mahapadma. He and his sons will 
govern for 100 years. The brahman Kautilva 
will root out the nine Nandas," See Bhatlya, 
Barhadratha, Chandragupta, Inscriptions, 

NANDAN SAK, a small lake in the Pir 
Panjal range. 

NAND BANSA, a branch of the Ahir. 

NANDER. 19° 9': 77^ 20'. in the Dekhan, 
on the left bank of tlie Godaveri : Level of lh« 
Godaveri here is 1,152 feet. The mean height 
of the village 1,27Q feeU—CulL 

N.VNDI, also called Basavi, also Rishaba, the 
sacred buU of Mahadeva, or Siva: it is hif 
vahan, and by some described as the emblem 
of justice, in the institutes of Menu, Cb. 
8, Vol. 16, the divine form of jnstice ii 
represented as Vrisha, or a bull ; and th« 
gods consider him who violates justice as a 
Vrishala, or one who slays a bull. Nandi U 
the epithet always given to the vehicle of Siva. 
We sometimes find it is used in speaking of 
Ganida, the vehicle of Vishnu, and oftho gooM 
or swan. Hanaaa, the vahan of Brahma; but 
the term Vahan would be more correct. — Moor. 
See Bull, Burabur caves, Hindoo, Lustra! 
ceremonies, Mahadeva, Siva, Vrishala. 

NANDI, Tel. Cedrela toona.— i2oa?6., Cor,, 
W,^ A. 

NANT)IAL, a town in the Cuddapah district. 
There is a forest race in tlie district called 
Chenchwar. They have no language of their 
own, but speak Telugu, with a harsh and pea*- 
liar pronunciation. Brahmans say they for- 
merly were shepherds of the Terra GoUa cast«. 
They have large dogs, and a few are employed 
as hill police, in the pass from the Kuman to 
Budwail. The Nandial Chenchwar, asB«rt 
their ignorance of a god or a soul. They have 
no images. They are polygamists ; they bnry 
their dead, but sometimes bum, and like the 
Tartare, the Nandial Chpnchvrar carry the de- 
ceased's weapons to the grave. They have th« 
spear, hatchet, the matchlock and a bamboo 
bow and reed arrow tipped with iron. 
They look on weaving and otiier manufacturing 
arts with contempt, and they have in g«n^ 
ral only a rag for covering. They are 
and docile. It is suggested by Mr. 
that the Chemmar are a oontinuadon of 
wild forest Hurali of the mountainous trarta, 
further north in the line of tlie Eastern Ghats. 
Vocabularies of six of the non-Arian tongius^ 
the Kond, Savara, Gadaba, Verukala, aod 




jeliow dye. This «nl tJie Chanipa'iih, are 
■peciea of arU^carpus iuto^rUiilia. mm\ dillVr 
from each other in tlie smaller aize, arnl hairy 
•terns of the latter. — WiUl,; Low*$ Saruwak^ 
p, 73. 

N.VNGKE. IIixD. Ribes rubnrni. 

NANG KOD, the name ippliod to Bald by 
the hard race. 

NANGO. In feccnding from Naniro in Emi 
Ne[rftl, Dr. Hooker piiMed at first tlirough 
Bho»Jodondron and Juniper, then tlmmgli Black 
silver iir (Abica webbiana), and below tliat 
near tlic river, he came to the IliniaJayan iarih, 
a tree quite; onknown, eikO.ept Cpom a notice in 
tlie JoTimab of Mr. Grilfitli, who found it in 
Bfaotan. It is a small tree, twenty to forty feet 
high, perfectly similar in general cliaracters to 

Enn)]iean larch, but with larger coue^, which 
erect upon the very long, pensile, whip-like 
branches. He adds, ltd leaves, now rc<l, were 
falling, and covering the rocky ground on whicii 
it grew, scattered amongst other trccd. It is 
called '* Saar" by Ujc Lepchaa and C'is-Iiima- 
lyan Tibetans, and " Boarga«eUa^ by the 
!, who say it is found as far west as the 
of the Gm river : it does not inliabit 
Central or West Nepal, nor tlic Norih-Wost 

NANG-PUT, Hnn». Bauhinia anguina. — 

NANING. an inland territory in the Malay 
peninsula, in length al»out forty and in breadth 
about ten miles, to the north of the old Portu- 
guese capital. It ia an undulating district, com- 
poeed of jungly kimlls and round valleys — •in- 
habited chicliy by Malays — al>out fi,000 in 
number. They dwell in rudely built villages. — 
•/oAn'i Iriftian Archipelwfo, VqL ii, />• 91. 

NANKA. Nankin. 

NANKA ISLANDS are three in number, 
and are nituatcd about four or fire miles from 
th« Banca shore, in the Straits of Banca. — 

NANKAU. Tlicrc :iT<i two kinds of recog- 

niae<l pcniui^ittai which landholders enjuy in 

Oudo. aud in m '■ "vrts of India — the 

nankar and the - The Nankar is a 

rtion of ilie rotyuiscd rent-roll, acknowledged 

the ruler to bo duo lo the landholder for tlie 

coat auil trouble »)f management, aud i'ur 

y^\a T.rr.iii"^!'.- Ill lur.-ditary proprietor <»f the 

' ''Tit, isc^'nlidc»^ to another. 

iii;i> .-« i< I, t.. »• ■■*"i hundred prr cent. 

the rciit-r\)l' tte, which w recof;- 

in the puhur «*;■ .-aiits, as tlic holder 

ti tw an I'bjcia of fear (•r of fiivour, or 

J and the rt-al rent-roll ni»y be more 

lian that which is recognised in the 

r laudi arc tlioetr 

I ihcir larailics till 

iLvaudviv. or Uy looan^ of thcir ficrt^Lnts or | 

;I4 N 

bijed cultivutoM. Generally tlicy .ire n«it 
culored at all in the rent-rolls ; and when they 
arc entered, it is at luss rates than rue paid fiir 
the other lands. ITie difference between the 
no ren(, or less rates, and the full rates is port 
of their perquisitea. These lands are generally 
shared out among the members of the family as 
hereditary possessions. The word Nankar used 
to me;in a grant to zemindan and other 
hereditary local officers, is a compi>unil Persian 
phrase of Nan ** bread," and Kar '* work," 
meaning support for service. Some o{ them in 
Mahva have rich endowments. The zemindary 
of Nolya is estimated at above sixty thtnisond 
rupeo.s per annum. — SUemftns Jotirtuy^ VoL'ui, 
pp. 23-6 ; Malcolm's Central Indian FoL i, 

NAN-KllOAH, pERfl. Ajwiun seed, Ptjr- 
chotw ajowain. 

NANKKEX, also Nankin. 
Nauldags linnon, VVT. [ Nankin, UtVI). 

Toilc-dA-NanjEiB, Fr. N-uitinlno, Jr. 

Nfuikhit;, ^^ lAiitfking, BLtLAT. 

Nankiii, Gl'Z. I Knnquino, Sr. 

A Chinese cotton cloth eather of white, blu«, 
or brownish -yellow colour. In point of strength 
and durability, it is unrivalled by any of tli« 
cotton fabrics of Eun>pe. In some of tlie souUi- 
em parti of Enro|>e, the warmer ports of 
AmerioA, and the Britisli settlements in Africa, 
Nanl;cen is warn by Itoth sexes all the year 
round, and cjumtitntfs the. principle article of 
atiire.InGnui Britain and India it isnowalmovt 
disused. Thift kind of c-otton cloth is so namtd 
from Nanking, where the reddish threads were 
orij^ioally made. Nankeens are also mano* 
factured in Canton and other parts of the «m* 
pire, but the fabric is of an inferior quality. 
Thofic made in Canton still maintain thcir ai>- 
pcr^ority in colour and texture over the imitft* 
tions of otlier countries. The price variea from 
S 45 ti S 90 per humlred pieces. This cloth ia 
extensively worn by the Chinese themselves, who 
usually dye it with indigo. The exportation ia 
now trilling. The duty, which was formerly a 
rfliscriniinating one, luulieen equalized under the 
new tariif, and includes nankeens and all other 
kind.1 of native cotton cloths. The durable cot- 
ton cloth made in the central pnnnnces of China, 
cjilled Nan-keen by foreigners, is the chief pro- 
duce of Chinese Ioimun frum Cotton, the a.*rial 
muslins so highly admired by the hind<nTS tvH 
being woven. The uankecn is generally ex- 
jmrted without dyeing, hut the people usualljr 
colour it blue before making it into ganucoU. 
The import of raw an<l raanufiictured .cottoa 
conntitut^ a !arg« item in the foreign trade, but 
f^miis a small part of the native consumption. 
In preparing the cottcm fur spinning, it is cleau- 
tn\ and freed l'n>m knot* by placing the string; 
of a Ik>w under the hc;ip, and striking it with ft 
beater ; the recoil tqiaratcs ii into flpcki ivltik- 

prg g natH tritb naplitlia. In Uie peninsula of 
Abcherau, on the western sliore olthe Cajipiaw, 
naphihuntes UiroLi^h a tnarly soil in vapour, 
and is collected by sinking pita sevcrjil yartls 
in depth, into wliich the naphtlm flow*. It 
is zbo procured from Monte Ciaro ne^r Piiiccusa 
in Italy, by sinking pita in the horizontal beds 
of argillite, which gradually fill with water; 
and the naphtha oozee out of the rock and 
floaU upon tlie surface, from which it is skim- 
med uif. There is an abundant spriji|< near 
^mlatui, in the Duchy of Parma. The spring 
at Amiuna is used for iJluminating the city of 
Genoa. Mr. Duna says ihatin the United Slates 
itwxH formerly cuUeetod fur sale by the Seneca 
Bud other Indians ; llie petruleum is therefore 
commonly called Gensee or 8enecn oil, under 
whitli name it is tH^ld in the market. This 
sulutance has also been obtained pure in a liquid 
form fronj tJie ci>al-pits of Dcrbyslure. In tlic 
Bumum empire, on one of tlic branches of tlie 
river Ira wiuldy, there arc upwards of 600 naph- 
tlui and petroleum welU, wliicb atl'ord annually 
'U2,0(»0 hogslioiwls. The Bumiab petroleum 
cont;iins the compound Farafine. Petroleum is 
used aii lamp-oil in Uunnah, and when mixed 
with earth or aslies as fuel, naphtha is used l)oth 
for fuel and light by the inhabitants of Bakou, 
on the Caspian. The vapour is nmdc to pass 
through earthen tnbes, and is inflamed as it 
poases out, and u^ed in cooking. Naphtha 
may be obtained by the distillation of petni- 
leura, it is als*3 one of the results o( the 
destructive distillation of coal, it often paasea 
with the gas to the distant parts of the appara- 
tus, and may be found in gas-meters and gas- 
meter tanks, and even in the mains. Care- 
fully rectified naphtha, whetlier from natural 
or artiticiaJ sources, appears to poascss similar 
properties. The flp. gr, of the purest Persian 
and Italian naphtha is said to vary from 0*750 
to 0*7*50, while that of coal-naphtha may be 
•820 or higher. The odour of the ixaiural 
naphtha is bituminous but not miplfasant; that 
of ooal is penetrating and diso^^roeable. It does 
not congeal at Zero. It ignites readily, and 
bums witli a vuluminotis sooty flame. It is not 

ublc in water, although it communicates its 
ur ro that fluid. It dissolves in absolute 
hoi, in etlier and the oils. The boihng- 

int varic* in different spt^eimens from 3'^)^ 
to 3C5°. Naphtha has been found U) be a good 
•timuUnt in some chronic diseases. It has but'n 
cxtcxnally appUod aia lotion in cutaneous af- 
ff.^»!..,>^ »• is «.>metim6S substituted for drj'ing 
o i^ paints. It is also employed for 

p> ho metals of i}ic alkalies, potaaalum 

ai , which cajutol bo kept in contact 

» -'en. It is 

i-^ e friction 

ut u^djiui^rjf M 4 sut^utiiU; tor »^crm-oil. It 



is now obtained aitificially from cooJ, and alio 
in a solid iorm, from which candles are mtule. 
Naphtha dissolves the greater nimibcr of t}ie<»- 
sentiol oils, and thcresina; and is extensively 
used for dis»i:»lving caoutchouc to render cloth 
waterproof; with certain vegetable oils, it forma 
a good varnish and for this purpose is sometimes 
substituted for turpeutine. The naphtha pit near 
Kifri is in the pass through which the Ak-au 
penetrates to the plains. The hills are about 
a mile .S. E. v( the towuofTuzkurmatti ctuoe 
to the gypseous hills of Kifri and llie pit 
being iu the bed of the torrent is some- 
times ovcrllowed by it, and, for a time, 
spoilt. The pit is about fil^eun feet deep^ 
and, to the heiglit often feet filled with water; 
on the !iurface of which black nil nf naphtha 
floats, small air-bubble« contmually riHUig to tlio 
Rurlace. They skim o^the naphtha, and ladle 
out the wate.r into a channel, wliich dislrihutcs 
it into a set of oblong, shailuw, compartments, 
made in the gravel, where they allow it to 
crystallize, when it becomes very good salt, of 
a fine, white, brilliant grain, without any inter- 
mixture of bitterness. Great qtiantities of this 
are exported into Koordistan ; and it is worth 
annually about 1*0,000 piastre^s, whicli is disiri- 
buled among the diflerent mcnibenK of the 
family of the late daftcrdar. The oil of naphtha 
is the property of the village. Part of it is con- 
sumed by the manzil khaneh, or sold for ila 
ftupport, and part for religious establishments, 
&c. About two jars, each containing six oaka, 
or one Bagdad batman, of uaphtlia, may be 
skiuuued from this well in twenty-four hooxi. 
The spring is at tlie bottom of tlio pit, and 
once a year they cleanse tlie well, on which 
occasion the whole village turns out, victnala 
ai'e distributed to all the poor, and sacrifices <\£ 
sheep are made, to the sound of drums and 
oboes, in order to insure the good flowing of the 
spring again — a ceremony, in all ppohability, 
derived from remote antiquity. The princi[iaJ 
naphtha springs arc in the hills, a considerable 
distance south of this. Cowards Kifri. They an 
five or six in number, and are much more pro- 
ductive than tliis pit, but no salt is found thrr«, is probable that naphtha may befonnd 
in almt.iiitany partof thU chain. Near the naph- 
tha-pit in the hills are alum (zak or sheb) and 
cJialk (tabashir ), of a very fine chise white grain, 
but the natives make no U4e of these productiona. 
An earth is fouud, which they employ to give 
an acid flavour to some of their dishes, no doubt 
it is vitriohc. Sulphur is also foimd, and is 
used by the peasants to cure the itch in their 
cattle and themselves. Naphtha is obtained 
near Kirkckok. It is scooped out with ladles into 
bags made of skins, which arc carrie<l on the 
bftcks of asses to this town, or to any otlier mart 
fi>r iti tale. The proftu aro estimated at thirty 





or furty tliotisand pttuitrGS annually. The Kir- 
kotit tiAphtha id pnncifially cou^umed hy iIjo 
ciarkeU iu liie Houtli-west of KunlirttiiD, while 
tim pits not far irom Kilri (?ce Kitri) :»upp]y 
BiUpuitl Mod its environs. The Kirkc3ok naphtiia 
ii bbck ; and cinftc to its wells lie u great poo] 
at sla^ant water, very muddy, and* covered 
with a thick scum deeply tinged with sulplnir. 
A lew hundred yards to the cnstvnird on the 
mmiaic of t)ie same hill, is a Hat circular sjmH, 
mKOauritig tiAy feet in diameter, full offlmall 
bale% In the numherofa hundred at; whence 
atfoe BS many clear llames without an aMni of 
cnoke« but iuiiellin^ inoet Kulphiiroously. In fact, 
lite whole fforfuce of thi» perforated plotofground ' 
•p|wrcd a crust of sulphur over a body of tire 
-"♦li^n : and an Major Porter digging a hole into 

: his dagger, to a depth of ten or twelve 
n- ;!►'*, a new tUme inntantly burst forth. From 
tbi» spot the governraent derive* another source 
of ret«mxe from the jiaie of its sulphur. The 
■aittv<!» call the place Baba Giirgur. (rur being 
in Arabic nsaae for naphtha or bitumen. Mr. 
Rich dcaciibes the principal bitumen-pit at 
(which plaj:e miist have lumished the builders 
of B*bylotl>&3 having two sources and being diri- 
6tA bya mdl, on one side of which the bitumen 
bobhlei op, and on the other theoiJ of naphtha. 
The muuier of qualifying the bitumen for use as 
a oein«iit, he observes, ia very troublesome, for 
lo render it capable of adhering to the brick it 
nra»t be bailed with a certain proportion of oil. 
Ig» diief purpoiie. when appUed to building, 
appcan to hare been in the lower parts aa a 
pntaervatiTe a^ratnat damp ; and at present it 
is vtmd Ibr coating cisterns, batlm. caidkiiig 
baate» &c. ; in short, to every thing put in the 
war of injury from water. The black naphtha 
ipntHS at Baku, on the Coapifln, arc of simitar 
hencnt to the inhahitanta of that pnrt of the 
country ; and Junaa Hanway deacribca tlf^ir 
appvaraaoefi and applications, to he nearly the 
MBDC a» they exist at the present day. He 
moKtionBr that when the weather u thick and 
faaoTt che springs boil up higher ; and that the 
napntho, sometimes taking (ire on the surface of 
th* earth, nin«Ukebuminghivainto the sea. In 
**»^"*g orer, the oily substance makes so strong 
- -' ":?i5tency as to gradually become a thick 
auhstance all round the mouth oC the pit. 
\iz poorer sort of people UAe it a^ we would do 
to lamps, to boil their food. They find it 

beat with a small mixture of ashes : but. 
Cor imr of accidents, thc-y presence it in earthen 
under c^und, and at !«)mc distance 

their dweUings, There is also a white 
itha, of a thinner Huid thnn the black, and 
ixifxi in tnch great quantities. It is some- 
&Aia rBOomincnded laedjcinally, inwardly, for 
thert covnpiamts, aiul outwardly, for cramps 
sad rhcumatianis. Both it and tlie block are 

used for varnish. When it takes fire by accident, 
the cnnsecpieikces have adf.u heeu fatal ; and 
Straho, who calls it liquid bitumen, asserts that 
its rtnme cannot be extingTiishcd hy water. The 
experiment tried hy Alexander was horrible in 
it* etfcotA ; and with a verj* little addition made 
by a poetical fancy, might induce us lo believe 
that the celebrated com*imung garments which 
Medea bestoweil, were robes dipped in the naph- 
tha that tlowed mi ncjir hei native land. The 
Huming soil or everliisting Hre, as it is called, 
of Hakn, is not less famous than its naphtha 
springs. It is now part of the eastern territory 
of Kussia. The bitumen no famoas in the Baby- 
lonian history, aiid so ollen described by tra- 
vellers, is, wlien taken from the pit, a thick 
dark liquid resembling pitch, similar, although 
of a Hner quahty. to tlie pitch from the lake 
in the island of Trinidad. It is undoubttwl- 
ly a most exc^lent substitJite for pitch. 
The bottoms of moat of the vessels which 
navigate the Euphrates and Tigris are cOT'ered 
wit}i it ; and it is also used in the lamps, in- 
stead of oil* by the natives. There are several 
fountains o( this bitumen in Irak Arabi, and 
the lower Kurdistan. The most productive are 
those in the vicinity of Kerkook Mendali and 
Hit on the banks of tlie Euphrates. The white 
naphtha is, of a much thicker consiBtency, and 
more like tallow. It has no resemblance to pitch, 
affords a better light, and, at the same time, 
emits a less disagreeable smell than the otlier. 
It Hoats like a crust on the surface of the water, 
wlulst the black, on the contrary, is procured 
by digging a small pit, about three feet in 
diameter and ten or twelve in depth. The pit 
fills of itself after a certain period, and is then 
em])Lied with a leathern bucket, and lit for use 
immediately aflerwards. The only foinitain of 
white naphtha which Major Porter had seen, is si- 
tuated al the foot of the mountains of Bucktiari, 
half-way between the city of Shuster and the 
valley of Kam llormuz. Naphtha P|)ring8 occur 
atAyer-i-Nosh. The flaming soil or everlasting 
fire of Baku is the attraction to pilgrims and 
is not less famous than ito naphtiia springs. 
Naptha holding in solution a bituminous 
matter waa obtained by Vigne near Deraband 
in the SiUiman mountains. 

AlTung-shao, nejir Tam-sui in the island of 
Formosa ure wells yielding paraffin, orthick bi- 
tumen differing from the Burraah or American 
rock oils. A naphtha is said to be obtained in 
Corea. During die war between the Chinese 
and the British in 1842, much naphtha waa 
brought from Sech-nen, stored at Ningpo for 
the purpose of destroying tlie British Fleet. 
Naphtha, of a reddish colour^ by the Ja- 
panese called Taautsona Abra, which signi- 
fies red earth, is found in a river of the pro- 
vince Jetflingo. It y taken up in such pkcetH 



ere me W3l^^r liMli litUo i:ir no run, an^ the 
uativeji burn it in latnpA iiisteaJ of oil. 

aphtha is UMcd for cheap vamiahva. It dis- 
•olves Uie renins more rcAdily tlian ordinftry 
spirit ot' wine, but the varaish isnots^ brilliant. 
— Tomlinson ; Oana^ Manual of Miiieralof/t/ : 
Orfgortf, Uand-lHjok of Or/jauic Ofttmistry ; 
Eng., Cyc, : Faulkner ; RifKs Jtfsi'Unce in 
KoonHstaitj Vol. i. pp.27 — -t': Porter g l^ntvtU^ 
Vol. ii, p. 440 to 443. ; Smith Mat. Med., p. 
155 ; Histort/ of Japan^ Vol. \, p. HI. 8ce 
Kirlcook, Kifri, Jpgi, Asphaltc, Bitumen, 
Earth oU, Petroleum, Rock oil. 

NAPIEK, «ir Charles, k. c. n., a Britij^h 
Infantry ofljcer whn commnnded an anny in 
Sindh, an<l i^iught and won the battles t>f Dub- 
bee and ){eanee. He wan afterwards Com- 
nuuidcr-in-Chief off adia. Ue died on the 29Lh 
AnguM 1r^o3. 

NAPlEIi, Rol>ert, L.rd N'apier of Magtlala. 
an officor of the IJen;^al Engine<?ra, who ro!*e to 
the raoW of Genend officer. wa» engaged in the 
wars o^piinst l^bore and was styled the Bayard 
of the Punjab. Subsequently he was en,&:a|?ed in 
^b« wan of the rt^beliion in I'^T-^l*, in the tte- 
d China war, was n member of the Viceroy's 
aci], then Commander-iD-Chief of Bombay, 
ftnd aomtnanded the expedition to Abyssinia. 
inio whicli he led succesetipully a mixed army of 
Natives of India and Europe^ms through the 
mouutuius of Abyssinia to the storm of Magdala, 
the capital of the emperor Theodore of Aby»- 
Btnia. Theodore dcstroyod himself at the gate- 
way. The march to and from Magdala faa« 
not been surpadsed »incu Iloniba] eroMKd the 

NAPIT, HixD. A barber, a sharer, who 
usually acts also as a surgeon, the viila^ bar- 
ber and barber-burgeon. Along with the ori- 
ginal term, the dialects hare vurioua modifioa- 
tionx of the word^ em Nai, Hind., Naida, 
Nainda, Napig, A'am, Nau, N&hir, Nbawi, 
Nahawi, Nahu, and Nhawi, Mar, 

NAPUTA. Hran. Didynamiagvmno^pcrma. 

NAQOOS. Att. A b./ii or cunch-shcll. 

NAQSHA, Hwo. Chart, map. plan. 

NAR. I{i:tu. Arundodonax, Amphidonax 
karka, also lUiamnus virgatufi. 

NAR, HiXD. of Kaghan, Hazara, &c^ nwd 
for nalab. and meaning mountain stream. 

NAK, Trac. Pom^rranatc. 

NAR or Nul, Bncd. Amphidonax karka. 
employed for makini; the mata known by tlto 
wuxie a( Dunna. which ar« ibrroed of the stalka 
g|»la of9n. In Siodb the graas called Sur, 
wKioh |i«rhapi i» Arnniio karka, has it« 
ctilxoa, aqr jo kMM»e, made into chairs, and 
iti flowtf-flfeilka llW^lfill lo form the lihrm ealli-d 
tx'. "" •'• »n tximltt :nXo itrmg or twino 

«,) and into ropes (mocmyah 


NAR, TtM. Fibre. 

NAK V, lliwi». The tape or band for 

NARA and Naraiyana in one hindoo legend, 
9ona of Dharma and Ahinfia : devoted th<>iu- 
Atilves to aaoetic exercises which alarmcvl 
the gods, and Indra aent Kama and 
Vaaanta, or love and spring, with th* 
nyniplis of licaren to infUute the fta^eA with 
patuiun and thua end Uteir penance. Nar»- 
yana observinj? the ganiboU of ilie party 
pected their purpose. He invited ihcm to aj** 
pnwich. nud treated them witli so much civility, 
that they tliouclit their object wa« altaiocd. 
The Bage, hnwever, taking up a t1'>w<*r-«taJk, 
plai?e<i it on bin thiirh, when n be i 'ph 

appeared, the sujivriorily of « Tinf 

covert?d the Jiymplis of heaven ^vith !ihame* 
Narayaua then told tJiem to rt-luni Ui ludra, 
and bear htui a prcK»r he ntvded not t lie cum- 
pauy of beauty, in thr prc^til he made him of 
the new-l*om nymph, who acootupajuied th* 
Apsaraaaa to Swer^^ and woa called Urvaai 
from uru, a thigh (Vamana I^lrana). A 
commentator on the drama says, Nara and 
Naray:ina were Avataraa, dcs»'enti» or incarna- 
tioni of Arjuna and Krinhna. — WiUoft's llindtt 
Theatre, Vol. p. 201 ; The Hero and the A%/m/»A» 
flee Yonl. 

NARA or Kinara, see Zingarri. 

NARABALl. ijcc Hind.w. 

NARA llOTUKU, Tel. Eriochlwna hooke- 
riaiia, W. and A* 259. The term nara implica 
a flbrout texture. 

NARA CHErril, Tel, Tetranthera mon©- 
petala, R, iii, 821 ; Cor. 14S, 

NAR.-VDA. in hindoo mythology, a fancKia 
riiihi anil tlic prince of muiuuiaas, freqaently 
going t>n erninds, usually regarded aa one of tho 
teu Kishi or Prajapati, fif»t created by Brahma 
adA called his sons. He is dcscriltcfl as 
a iriend of the god Krishna, as a cclebrat' 
cd lawgiver, and as the inventor of tba 
vina or lute. Narada is mentioned) io 
Manu 1. 34, 35, as one of the * ton lords of 
created being's, eminent in holiness.' In the 
hindoo plays Narada tisually actJi at a kind of 
meanngvr of the* gods. See Vikr4imor\'aaii end 
of Act Y; ami 8iikiintnh, end of Act vi. Ho 
is constantly ■ m giviiiL' >n»>l counsel. 

Ho is by soni-. ■ \ lo beloni? Ut iltp or- 

der of the Uenaslti, and by other? to the Krah- 
mar»hi. It was Narada who declares to king 
liariscfaandra the benefit of liaving 
William' $ Sior if of liaht, p. 167. 

NARA DABBA or Uabba, Tw« 
mt-diL"!, L, 


NARA EPE or Epr , Tn. Hardvickia bituta, 
JS. ii. 423 ; Cor. 209— H*. und A. 87». Tha 





blance uf tlie Yoni. to which numcrotw pilp*itns 
and persons rta*irt for the purf»c«!M* ot* rcgeaera- 
tion hy the eHioic^ ol' » jtasAjigc through this 
sacred lv\»e. Thia Yuni, or ajw^rturc, is of con- 
nderable elevution, situaivd amotig rock« of no 
eoAv access. and» in the sronny sc;wtin, incc*- 
siuilty buiruitetl by the aurfof iLe ocean. The 
hindotw arc [irono to fancying a iyj>e of some- 
thing myiicrioujs in nlmost every subject t)iat 
am come under their conteinplation : any 
thing hollnwed out, convoying an idea of 
rnpaoily» tliuy dt-ein tyi>ica] of die Yoni, or 
Ar^dm, itself a type of female nature, or the 
Siu-.ti, or [jower. of Siva, The (*ea, a j»ond. ii 
well, a cave, the palm of the liand, or any thiii^r 
jtinulurly hullowed. innvey to their enthusiastic 
MiincU ail idea of the Arjflia ; and their peri- 
phery, rwil or imaj<inftry, an idea of tJie Yoni. 
In like manner, a niouniiiin, a liill, a tree, de- 
prived of il« boughs, a mast, a jwle, an obelisk, 
a pyramid, or anything coniiMl or erect, ex- 
cites an idea of the Unga ; and such objects 
•m i\\cy ran fancy ita synibt^l : a conical stouc 
~ particularly so esteemed, or fire or flame 
'Whnne natural and necessary form Is conical. 
Hent-c a triangle, with iu apex upwards, is 
the inunediale type of Maliadeva, who in 
some rcliiiioa'i, is fire personified. Vishnu 
is, in like manner, a porsonifioation of the 
principle of humidity ; and water is sym- 
iK_»li/o«t by a cone, or triangle, witli its 
ape 1 downwards: lJic«e tyfKW correctly denote 
iiig the ascending anJ descending properties of 
their respective pn>lotypei, elemental tire and 
water. The two conjoined, express the junction 
or union of the two elements, or deities : tliis 
mark or character, is said to represent aUo 
Vtfthnu and l*nt'hivi,of whom an eqniJateral 
lrtaii^;Ie U severally tlie type. The larger the 
sihjwt, the more venerable- The As. Kes., Vol. 
ii, p. 478. mtintion a cone, in Benjjal.of 3B3 
feet diameter. The sea itself, or rather its 
conuiining concave, is regarded as the Argha 
of the world. lu hindoo mytholojry, the 
bevtrii^c of immurulily drank by the gotbi, 
NaravanV gem and otiier gifts to man are 
fahled Id have been pn winced by rhurnin^ llie 
iM*e.ui. niong with «»[her preiioiis gifts toman. 
Chr.ra-rnha rL'^.T'dH--, in aon^' how 



Tl)- ' 

- ■ ™tff; 

Tb. ,M 

■ in ; 




■ <-.kJUk, AiiU HiiMj ; 

n,, ■ 

■i>' : 


• 4 rmder languish; 


■Vf thri fttmnd. 

A T»» nl l-'Cli; 


Ta«c4tiiu Uiiiii 

TlM MMlhlOIW > 

1. .) U1-. ^^.*ra nwk J 


■^' .. ■ 

IftfU ftwwxm f- 

iv 11 hUrinft r*nk 

/>. 7t> i '&Ji* ; M, Ret., Vol. vii. Arts 

viiimif/ix, hij Mr, VoUhroohf, Sor Arfrhft, 
lihaktamala, Bralima or Hiranyagharblta, 
Hindoo, Linga, Narayan Dag, Sotl, Vishnu^ 
Yavana, Yoni, 

NAItAYANI, B name usually apptietl to 
I^kshmi^ as the Sacti of Vishnu ; but may 
also be applied to Parvati and Saraswali. Seo 
Lakshmi, Narayann, Sacti, Salograma. 

NAUBADA, a river of Central India, which 
rises on the plateau of Amarkantak and disem- 
bogues in the Onlf of Canibny. It is written 
Nerbatiah, Nerbuddah. Fr>3m Ilaran 1^1 or Oie 
Deer's Leap to the temple of Sulpani Mahodeva, 
a distance of some seventy milc^, there occurs 
the main barrier of tlic Narbada. Here 
the Niirbathi displays all her terrors. Tli^re- 
after the Nurbada enters on the rich plaint 
oi' Broach which border on the sea. In llitv 
particular section it is securely navigable, and 
is actually navigated by country craft. The 
N'arhatla, then rising in the liighest land of 
Central India, 5,000 feet above the sea, and 
pursuing a serpentine westerly course for 7S0 
miles through a hiUy tract, which runs pandlel 
to, and borders closely Iwth its banks, may be 
said 1o flow through a longitudinal cleft rather 
than a distinct valley, and to present the gene- 
ral characters of a mountain stream more than 
anything else. No groat depth of water can 
ever be expected in it, from the naturevsf its 
tributai'ieji, except in the moawwn ; neither, 
were tliev to promise better, could it Vw retain- 
ed, owing to the great declivity of the bed of 
the river, which from *Tlin>isi Ghat, near JabnJ- 
pur, to tlie sea falU 1.200 feet in 500 
miles. The falls are thonc of Kupiladhara 
and Dudhdlmnt near its source, the fonner 
of 78 feet. The next in at Umaria in th^ 
Narsinghpur district of almut ten feci. At 
.Maudhar, ninety miles below Horihungnbtu), 
and alwmt twenty -five below Handia, there 
is a fall of forty feet; at I>:ulri, near Ptma^a^ 
twenty-five miles below Mandhar, there is 
another fall of forty feci. l*lic rl.a&ses which 
prevail most among the agricidturnl [^lopulatioit 
of the Xarbada valley, are the (injur, the Jat, 
the Kaonra, and the Kirar; t hew are hardly 
represented in Oamoh. The Kurmi are the 
most numerous cante. Tiien follow the I^hi. 
Chamar, Gond, Bridiman, Aliir, &o. In num- 
ber 262,<)41, they may be roughly clanifled 
thus : — 


Bani*, — JI,78J. 

lUjrut WW 

OthiRrcMtes „ 8S»T1S 

Kurmi ai,«W 

IxHlbi ai.»80 

CJwmAT 2iJ,401 

(•owl 29,721 

lirftfaiuan l!3,rj<ia 

Scr V . Sngor and Nerbuddah. 

N . a gcnusof Fiflhc:f inhabiting ihe 

In<li:in Otu-an. 

NARCISSUS. From the habit of planung 
t>ie Narcivus upon tombs and ahrinetf ii hM 

N 40 

valerbn ofllio Enj.»lln>) PUrinuanipcpia : it iaiucJ 
loacentani] cloaii tholiuii, nl*«;<"m tiK'tlioine os a 
stimnlrtnl jiml nntlnpnamoJio. Thn apci'irrt of 
valerian smells sironply of j>ai<-Uouli» and w a 
rery fuvmirite |>0-rlunic. It b un^d in «rcnts 
for iu strong odour ; it is oho u«e<l qa refrige- 
ranl. Otjso, gr. v. to 3 j. in iiiftision. Pri'^e fi 
anna.'^ per 11>., cniploycd cliicfly as an expecto- 
rant in couglisanJ cnKU. fn^o, prs. xlv.ofthe 
powder, price 9''. [*er lb. In Clmmba, iU roctt 
uaaid tithcaildpdto tht< hcor nf that iraot, and it 
is ex|xirird to the plains to bo iisod iti nu«licinc, 
beiriK con.tiderod cordial. The Indur lalib. of 
w>iirh IlavitV Tnidc Koport Rtates that five 
muundrt ilre iin|»<.>rttKi from Persia via Ksbiil 
and Peshawar annually, has been dubiously 
identified with this drug. — Simutrirurtt Comml. 
Phxiud, 572 ; O'Shaxufhww, pof^f^ 403. 404; 
I^meU Hawl-hool., Vol, i, p. {\54 ; Hookt!t's 
Him. Jour,, Vol. i. p. 217 ; J. L, Steivart, M,D. 

NARDCM, Lit. Spikenard. 

NARK, TvM. Fox. 

NAREDA, in hindoo myiholopy, ib a son of 
Brahma and Saraswati. He ia the messenger 
of the goda, and the inventor of the vina, or 
hindoo lute. He was not only a wise le^alator, 
an aatronomer, and a musician, but a distin- 
gnished warrior. The mythological offspring of 
Saraawati, patroncsa of music, waa famed for 
his talents in that science — so great were Uiey, 
that he became prpwimptuous, and rniulatinj? 
the divine straina of Krishna, he was punished 
by having hw vina plncwl in the paws of a 
bear, whence it emitted sound* far sweeter 
than tl»e minsirclgy of tJie mnrtififl musician. 
In a picture of thi.-* jctke, KrUhnu i?i f 
reluctant friend to attend to hw roii_: 
rival, who U ridiculously touchin;; the iKoiJi 
of i>oor Nnrcdas vina, accompaniL-d by a 
brolncr bruin on tlic syiuboU. To tlu!* day 
Nareda ia rvpreivntwl in ihr hit»d<»o.Tatra un- 
der along pri^zled beard.— Co^a^V*/'/'. //in//., 
p. 7 ; Tr. of Wfui^ Vol I ;». 2(ii». See Hnih- 
madiea. Krishna, KiiradA, ^Uraswail, Veda. 

NAUEDE CilETTOO, Twu Eugenia caryo- 

V - r- t:\rra, Tml. Wood of Eu- 


'' ' tin, 

r(itt»-n4r<««iua« MAi.tAi- | Tumra aJAta, Wiijkt. 
A !'!ant of the Travaucore 

Uh>w nncifera, Ij, Naieli 
rr^ San (or tnd'ly) '>r tlif* otw^^r^- 

nut krw. Narei ka jnnr, H' 
or coooaoat palm tr****. '^ 
QtoooODUt palm oil. 


NAROAMOM^E. Tw.. Uhinacantlius com- 

NARGEF*:U IVr». Cwonnut palm. 
NARGIL. Pkks. A tobacm pjpo. 
NARGILLI. Arah. Cix-onnut [talni. 
NARGIS, Hi!fn. Narclwus tn^ctu. Ho- 
nijfWffcr stales that thn mot^ of this are ulOH- 
nal, hfing brou;rhl from Kaslimir. — Or. J, L. 
St^u'firt, Pftnjnh J'hntx, p. i*3o. 

NAHGUS. al.'^j Gool-Nur^nw, Hnm., Pim. 
HemtTocallis fulvu, N'nrciiwnis. 

NARI, also Nali-kfra~? Cocoanut palra. 
\ARI, Nari-khor«um, Gnari or Mnah-riA, 
the Tibetan name fr.r the north-western j>art 
of Tibet, a TibeUin Chincsn province coniieci- 
cd with Hritl-^h India, by the five Bhot prnwct 
in Garhwal and Kum.ion. The CMnece vice- 
roys are Tibetans with 200 Mongol or Turk 
troops or perhaps Manuhu Tartars, aa they 
are said to use hnrseflesh, whiih no Tibetan 
and no Chinese would do. It is enoinmously 
lofty, utterly barren, and alinwt uninhabited, 
except on the ]owt5«t part of the ravine o^' th<^ 
Indus. It is whnlly under Chinew uitluence. 
It was enteretl by Mourcroft.— //. /, et T., 225. 
Sec Koliistan, Irjdia. 

NARI. Cav. Cunis aurnw, Linn,^ the jackal. 
NARI. HtXD. Efjuii^etimi drliile. also lpi>- 
mopa ropt:»n:». 

NARIA. Hi^n. Amndo d(tn.T\. 
NAKI4.:OOMAKI. T\M. SaMa nudiilom. 
NARIJI CHETTU, Tel. Ciiru* aurwitiurn. 
L, »»«/■. 

NARIKEL, Biwo. Cocoanut |ialn». 
NARIKKIA, also Narikaylum, Sa!*». (V- 
roanur palm, 
N A!U K EKEF-KOOU BKifo. Zizyphusjujuhft, 
NARHi, AK.\n.. Drx., Gm. Copm, nlMthe 
coc'wmtit palm. V<Kr» nm-ifpra, L, \nnl ka 
Goiir, \)v%. Sujrur from ci->coanui palm. Naril- 
ka Krwlc, J>oic. the grf»en^ ; \:inlli, Dt/K, 
Sap of the cooounut palm, Vulm-winr. Naril 
ka lei. l»nx. Oil (if C'^x-oh uucifrni, A. 

NARINGHI, I>rK.» Mrxn. Citrujaurnntium. 


Andmptm'on nardtif^. 

NAIUIU Atuf.. I'riw. C<K-fl8 nttcifom, L, 

NAIt-KACHUK, Hinp. Zinitiber ^lormnbet. 

NAK LKl, HixD. Tam»rix <'ric«ntali<i. 

N.-IRM.X. HisD. Trianihema |v!nutndra, 

NARMADA, .Saxs, A name of the NVrbudda 
rh'cr. See VikramiulityH. 

NARNA, ace Kutrli. 

NARODA, in Guzorat a tribo of haIf-<nMtai 

NAR-PUTTE. Tam. A Ci?ylon \rc^ wliirh 
ia tt«<?«l (i\t canoe.-*, planks of teasels, Ac. It 
irruws to ulwut thirty feet in height, anti 
twenty inrh«w in diameter ; in not durikbte. aiul 
is of lilllf ii>r. — AJ/i/i', Vrtfityn. 



average population r.ilL- y about 1 76 tt) uip 
square mile. Tlie nioliauiine>laiirt number little 
more ihan ihroe |k:r com. of ihe wliole. Moat of 
theOond race ivho dwell in Oie valloy conform 
to hiudoo rites and observances. Ttiero are a 
few Jaiti tiicrchanls and mounuiin Gonds. The 
tiio4t irtflueritial laiid)ioldiiig classes arc die 
Rrahnmn, IJajput, Raj-Gtmd, Lodhi, Kurnii, 
and Kiumra. Tlie Brahnian and Uajput za- 
mlndar! art scattered all over the district. ITie 
Raj-tiond and K.ionra are to be found princi- 
paUy in the western 8ub-diviMon — Gadarwara ; 
die lA^diii in the esAtcrn and central aub-divi- 
aiond and tlie Kurmi in Narsinghpur. Besides 
genuirK" Kajputd and the Kuonra there are 
tl" -iwitw, well repre^ent^ among tlic 

la ■.: bvly, iv)tn ciaiiu Kajput deacent, 

vix : tiundela, K . and Kirar. The 

total number of i . ; ng classea 'n tlilrtj- 

two. and tliu t:>tal number of castea represented 
in the district is nut le:fi$ than twice that 
nuiubor. 7*he people of the valley are gene- 
flJly well-grown. Among men of the pea- 
l clasii tlie favourite colour of die angarkha, 
^r long coat, \a yellow, widi a green sluule 
from the mhowu dye. The sleeves are turncil 
back on the wristj^, and the waist -elotU is 
worn on or below die hips, with a white 
turbuti. 'Hie chiefs aflect the Maratha 
turb:iij tied so much on one side aa almost to 
cover one eye, or wlial apitears to be a Gond 
fasliioQ — a turban comjKjsed of inntuucniblc 
fohLi uf cloth twisted hke a rope. Their dni^ 
seldum corresponds with ilieir pretension*, nnd 
oouiK of the oldest rajas and thakurs miglit be 
taken for poor peaaauLs. Tides of bonor nro 80 
oomiuun as to have lost much of their Kignific/- 
uice. Raja, l^iakur. Ra4>. Diwan and Chau- 
dhari abound in every part of die district, and it 
is BO much the custom to adopt any iivailable 
dutiucUun, that such designations us Januular 
and Mukhlar are preasc-d inl*^ the ser\'ice as 
herciliUnry honors. Tiicre is certainly neither 
the clnsoncA* of r)tii:d obstn*ance, nor the rigi- 
dity uf social usage, which prevail in Hindu- 
stan. Among brahrnaiis. the Kimojia still keep 
up their intcrcoun>e willi their [^nrent country, 
and adhere to their tni'' riclits and 
habitji ; but tlie Saimria w!i'..' t:U:r a bijL^ii rank 
ill Upper India, are ht-re vury lax, forming con- 
nrctions with w*)meu of irdier cIu.xh«, and neg- 
lecting thr nicrticft of hind(»o worship. , 

Tb<' f"'"^ 1 '" '^v 'I [«'ri«j«Unrihe history offllis part 
of dii the (kind nilo, the dominion 

o^ *^ ■ ' ' ^ of Snjar, the rule of the 

h I'tir. and British admini»- 

imrn :i. I 111 ■ t ;. ;t i.i (In (iond rHjas of Grtrha 
Mivdl.i In b>4i in iiitliiiiiil V. but ihn (ruid TL-ij- 
!"■ * ■ : ■■ 

ij'^i;, wjji' 

ill^ fjthlrl-ill- 

I law, the Gond raja Nagdeo, in a.i.. 3r»^. Forty- 
eight in descent from htm was rajn SAngnun 
Sa, wlio is stated to hare extended hia domi- 
nioM over fti'ty-two districts, only iKree or four 
of which he received from his fadier. The 
Narninghpur district came under die Mandla 
rule in his reign, aud he is said to have built 
the tort of Chaurngarh. The principal im^ilo- 
menis of husbandry now employed are the 
'* bakliar" and die ordinary plough. The 
former is a kind of scarifier, having, instead of 
a fihare, a broad iron blade set horizontally and 
at right-angles to its body. It is u^ed in pr<^- 
paring the land fur the rain crops, twice if 
possible before the setting iu of the raius, and 
twice at^erwardj*. Iron pits lie north of the 
Narbadu, near the Vindhyan hilts; and lh« 
excavations for coal have been made at Moh- 
jMini, in the Satpura hilU at the debouchure of 
the Cliito-Kcwa river. — Qasdteer of Ctntml 

NAIiTMEX ASSAF^^riDA, Syu. of F«k 
rtila axAafretifla. 

NAliUL KA-TET^ llixn., of Dera Gbaxi 
Khan, a comfHjund oil used as a drug in somt 
eye complnintJ*. 

N.UiUM^ANEL, »Lu.tAX. Cvaria narum, 

1 NARUNGEE, Pkrs., also Naninght, al« 
I Kounia, Gue., Hitid. Citrus aiu-antium; 
orange, sweet nn*nge. 

NARU MNDl, MiLR.iL. Hemidesmui 
; indioiis, Ji, Brown. 

NA.ULWALU, Tam. Cordia angustifolia, R. 
NATJU VALLUM. Malkal. Croton tiglium. 
NARVALI FIBRE, ^Vsqlo-Tam. See Nar- 
j wnU. 

I NAUVALU ALUiAM, Tam. Specia of 
I Ojfdiii. • 

I NARVELL, a Ceylon tree, sometimes called 
{ Janibu, in Tamil and Vortugiieae. It grows 
! i4i abnut eighteen inches in diamctc'r, and from 
I ten to fourteen fcot in height. It in used for 
I the frames of native vessels and bniitjt, but li 
not cHinaidorcd a very duniblc w<j«>d. AAcr il 
' haa attained its full growth it produces a berry 
I which the natives use as fiiod. This seemn 
I a speoio.<^ t>f Eugenia, or the UiUenia s^wocm 
of Tliunborg. — Ktiyf^ CfijUm. 

NARWALI or Narvali, tibre of Cordia angti»- 
tifoIiJt, ropen arc made of die libres. — M. &. 

NARWULI, Taji. Cordia anguatifolia awl 
Cordia obliipu. 

NARYANA, see Inscriptions 
NARYEUlii5D. A cocoa nut shell, a bad 
I of hiikka. 

I NAS, Hwn. ^o^U•um ca^lcstc, ThibetMi 

"* \ llrsn. Snuff. 

V-HIIAGA, 15wo. Pcristiophe bicAly- 



KASxAImAa, Kamily. NaaaJ-Namah, llisfD,^ 


^•(?i I BangLalon u( LMbiiiin. 

?^ monicey, xveil known in Labuan 
. \xs gloBsy coat is richly coloured. 

-? rhyllantlua, species. 
VK, Rrs. Eoiery. 
-TI, HiXD. PyruB conimunia. 
iR, Herd., Pbrs., Fshtu. Cedriis 
. niar or Himalayan cedar. Naahtar or 
nBi(.iiuii. i'tiBTU, is the Pitius lonpitbiia, Jong- 
lavcfl pine, any pine, gnl oa^htar Hind., in die 
KfTtbrina axboresoena. 
NASHTA&, Pbss. Lancet. 
'" ^IRI, a nomadc race of Affgbans, who 
the Tcliki and Hutuki countries in 
■ \ the Daman, or skirU o!' the Suli- 
in winter. In their migrations. 
v;wiii or Ciiptaia of Forty, 
r fjeiieral. 
.SA-SIH-L I>-UIN ABDALLAH bin Uraral, 
Bairi , :- BuLxavi was ihc hlcnirj- takhallua of 
k* 1-diii Abdallah binOinar, Alhei^aW, 

■t " v-iu- 11^99, Hijf. «yy. HLs lKK>k 
■ led, N'izHm-ut-Tuarikh, wliich 
Kiji.iin'^ wiit- V'l »cr of Chronological Hj«ti>rie«. 
He was a kazi or jndge. He has treated of 
OMt of the Asinn tnonarchs, and particularly of 
thcaacicDt Mciculs. — Hittor^ of Geiufhizcan^ p. 

.VA-<(EKRA RATJUA. Malril. Hoya 


N ASXIJANGI. DcK. TriaiUhcmaobcordata, 

-•I'AL, rind of the pomegranate, Punica 

! m. Besides xta asthngency thia is 

• >) ;tlone oa a dye, giving a somefwhat 

jW. — Powells Hand-iool-^ Vol, \. 

^?*AT!,Hisn.Pynu! comraanis, pear tree 
■'" " ff.^, sp. 

'tie, a term UHcd by 
:i: in-iiu, when intending to 
■ W of Christiana. 

iments^rsoldiers raised at the 
OHvid Ouchterlony from the 
loe witl) tlie UriUflh, atler 

I tlio Bombay Dokhan. 
' ' 'M), taken in tlu» Dekhan 

onginaily raiue<i at .C30,i.KJO, was sold to 
J,in.r.r tor ;£7,0O0. 

I i, jtecond ison of Nizam-ul- 
-.. T. M ^^- .Jyath, in I74S, he awumed the 
mbabahtp of tii« Drkban. He took partwitli 
ii*boa>fld AJi and fhc Britvib a^7i.^t Chandah 
i^luh ind thf Frcneh. After varied ibrtunes 

43 ] 

he dwelt at Arcot in an indolent and vohiplu- 
oua manner, in 1750, however, he again io<ik tlie 
field against the French but was kilJt'd by tlie 
Patlian nabob of Cuddupah. pnd three of the 
conspirators to his death fell in one day. His 
death gave great joy to Dnpleix, Chandah 
Saliib and Pondicherry. — Onne^ 

NASTI, Sax*. Non-existence; aunihilation, 

NASTI1C\, S. An atheisr, also one who 
denies the authority of the Vod;ia. 

NASTRO Dl SETA, It. Ribbon. 

NASTURTIUM, a geniw of planla of the 
order Braasicaces. The water-creaa. N. oftici- 
nale, R. Br., the Sisymbrium nasturtium, 
ZAttii., the Lutputiah of India, ia cultivated in 
gardens. i 

busa arundinacea. 

NASTUS STRICTUS, Sm. Syn. of Dendro- 
calamus strictus, AW. 

NASUA, see Viverridn?. 

NASITK, see Nazuk, Vishnu, Viiwakanna. 

NASL'KANGI, Dvk. Trianlhema obcorda- 
tum, Jtojth., also Trianthema nionogynia. 

NASUT, Hum. Ijwmopa turjjetlium. 

NAT, BuiiM. Spirit. The Nataresupi«f*cd 

to bave been objects of Burmese worship, in pre- 

buddliistic times. They curre3]>ond lo tlie Deo 

of the himlixia, whose piflcc they take in the 

i Burmati buddhist system. — Vule, p. 17. 

NAT, or Nut, in Bengal, a wandering tribe, 
who are dancers, ac1^>rs, athletic. They resemble 
the gyjisies in habit**. The Nut are called aiao 
NutSirki bash (dwellers undt-r mats) ; those in 
the Dekhan are not distinguishable from Dher. 

NATA, Br5g., also Nala Kauja, Hixn. 
Guilnndina bonduc, Linu. 

NATA, Mal., Tam., Tel. A country, relating 
to the country, used to form many compound 
words. — WiU. 

NATA KAR^VNJA, Bexo. Cuilandina bon- 
duc, Linn.^ fV. an/l A. 

NATA-KOTIilAR, a race in thcsoutli of the 
peninsula ; all speak Tamil and follow hrah- 
minijsm, they are large merchants, and all of 
tliem have the marked African protruding 
HpR and nose, sharply cut at the forehead, 

NATAL, a district in Africa ; also one in 

NAT AM, or Nattam, an extensive tract of 
mountainous country beginning about 10 miles 
N. of Madura, through which a pni« leads. 

NATARU, Gtrz. Second marriage. 

NAT ATORES. an order of awinuuing birds, 

OnDBB VIII.— NfttatorsB. 

A. Tribe, Longipennes. 

Fan* Lariflse. 

Stth-fam, Urin.-». 2 gen., 5 sp., vii., 1 Catarracta 
4 T>anis. 

l^uh-fain. fitirninne. I>i\\ I Skitnmn-s, 1 gen.. I 
F.p., viz: 1 Rhvnchojta alMcoUis. Div. 2 Marsh 


r#fM, '** U^-, to ap., I Sylochclidon ; I Gelocheli- 
rt'.n. '2 Hydr-K-beliiloD ; 1 Th»l«»eui ; 1 S««iia; 3 
SUrriA ; \ StiTuuIIa. Dif. 4 OcwiniV Tenii, '2 gien., 

1 sn., *Jt>Tivcho|>ri<>n ; '2 Anous. 

>rtm. PrucellftriMa' ; « yeo., 1 2 «!>., m. 4 Diom*- 
do* ; 4 Procellurm : I Prion, I Peliouioides ; 1 
PufRnua, I ThalAssi 'Iruiua. 

B. Tribe, Toti^KiIniftli. 

Fatn. P(«Ucftni'IiB, h gen. 12 up. rix. 2 PluDton, 

2 8u1ii, a PckM-ftniw, 4 Gractilun, 1 Plottu, 
C Tribo I.MUt?lliro«treii. 

/V»rt, Aiitttulic: Goo(*e«. 

Stih-fam. IMuuaicoptefliiiB, 1 gen., 1 np., via. I 
rm«uicoi)l^ru» rusouii. 

•Sjth-fam. AiLHerinit. Die. I ^wvmrf, 1 g^n., 2 sp., 2 
Cyt^tw, olor, atniUi. />n*. 2 ^/wwif, 2 jjud., 4 m>., 3 
Aoser, 1 Brrniclii. i>ii». 3, IWchmtf O^tsge, 3 I>«n- 
drocygnu ; 2 Siuvi Jiornw ; 1 XetUipuB. X>h'. 4, £DUF- 
fi^nkifi, 1 CoMirca rutiU, 1 Tiid'>mii vul|)iuii*er. 

fhh-fttm. Anatiiue, I ^jpd., sulvt^cu., lOajx, rit., 
1 Sp&iula. n Auos ; I OoHU ; 1 (liuilolaamuA ; 1 
Mureca . 3 QuiTtpionhitA. 

&iA-/(nn. Fuligulin», I geQ.» I sut>-gei^. ftsp.. 
viz., 4'Kiiligul», 1 BnuiU. 

Suh-fttm. Mergins, 1 gen., 1 sp., viz., I Mpt^^ub 

Fam. Pi>licipiilrc. 1 gen., 2 tp^ viE^ 3 Padicep« 
cri^tntuei. 11iJlipp<?n0i8. 

Tlio Gnlhitnrial und Natatorial birds begin 
to arrive in Nopanl, from ihf north, towariL^ 
the close of Aiigtwt, and continue arriving till 
l}ic> mifldle of September. The firnt to appear 
nrc the common snipe, and jnck snipe, and 
rMmchoea; next, thedcolopaceoua waders (except 
the wood-rock ;) next, the great birds of the 
hemn and stork, and omoe families ; tlien, the 
Natntnrp^ : and Itwtly. tlie wood-<*uck3, which do 
not reach Nepaul till November. The time of the 
re-appenrance of these birds, irom the south is 
iho iteginning of Mnnh ; and they go on arriv- 
ing till tlie middle of May. The Hnst whidi thus 
r«tnm to Ncpatd are the smp(» ; then come 
tbe teal and ducks ; then the large Nutatores ; 
and lasOy, the great cranes and storks. The 
Gmllatores which visit Nepaal or pass over it, 
arc mncli more numerous clian the KuC&tores ; 
and Mr. Htxlgson was of opinion that ob- 
servation in the plains of India would satis- 
&otorily jiTQve liiat tliis in a just and de- 
cisive indication of the superior prevalence of 
wading over swimming birds in that extensive 
region. India, aA he suppcsc&f is too hot 
for the NBtatore* — a great majority of 
which seem to atfcct arrlic regicow, or, at least, 
hi^ latitudes. The wild swan was never .«t^cn 
• tMn but once, in the mid winter of \h2S^ 
when th«* apparition suggested a new version of 
the well known hexameter, — 

* Bala avis in t«rrU, albo^M Btmlllima eyrpo.* 
Such a bird vt never stH^n, hesuppoaea, in the plains 
of India ? None of the Natatorea stay in NepnnI 
beyond autumn (when the ricr 
tteid* tpmpt themi or heynnd a few dar^. in 

few tauV* iiho*c iikhcUiy ptciludui aU | 

♦6 N 

molcstA^nn ^HkMk There are cormni 
throughout thNlBt U{K>n th« Urgvr n\ 
within the nuiuntnins ; but none ever 
tlie valley, beyond a ilay or two : for so 
however, both they and pelicans luay \>e 
occasionally* on the banks jib»t inentjt 
The htiniA and Sterna »re birds which 
affect the high seaa. — but Mr. H ■' ■ 
killed both t}iu red-legged gulL 
j>e!Rgio teni, in the V;illey of Ae^';iii', iMjt 
itad he fishing c:tglai ; and in tmi}) wh^ shal 
limit the wanderings of these long-wmg«d 
of tlic etheriul expanse ? 

Miitamv. Msfjui 

KrfwanM^Ut T4 

Ponas4, Tamidalu, 

Miiruo, BRNa. 

Kogi, l>tK 

Kleiiftine comoiuiti, Gt»rf., 
S9^., Lat. 

Eleusine coracnna, a useful grain, ia 
throughout British India and is ralen 
the labouring classes. It is about the 
of mustard seed, and darkish coburetl. Il 
is made chiefly into cakefl, hut xa also pre 
in several other ways ; it has a sweetish taste. 

corac^na. 8ee Graminaceis. 

NATAiYEE, HuKM. A tree of Mouhnei 
wood used for posta and knife handles. — C«/. 
CtU. Kr, 1862. 

NATH, Sins. Lord : hence Jaganatha, 
cubirly Jagannath or Jtiggornath, I^ordoflhel 
world, a name e8}»eci»lly applietl U) Krishna in] 
the form in which he is wifrei)iipf>ed at the 
temple of Jaganath at Puri in OrLimi. AU 
land within 2() miles round this pagoda is con* 
sidcred holy, but the most sacred spot is an 
of about aix hundred and fil>y feet sqi 
which contains fifty temples. Tlie most 
spicuous of tliese is a lofty tower about 
hundred and eighty-four feet in hei^U 
about twenty-eight feet sqitarc inside, 
tho Bur Dcwali. in wliicli the idol and 
liroiher and sUter, Suhhndm. are liMlged. A< 
joining arc two pyramidical buildings. In one»| 
alMmt forty feet square, tlic iilol Li worHhipfiedfj 
and in the other, the ft»od prepjtrr<l for 
pilgruiis is distributed. T^lu^e buildings wi 
erected in s. d. 1 108. The walls are oovei 
with atatucs, many of which are in highlj 
indecent puntures. llie grand en(nuu-e is oi 
the eastern side, and chue in thr outer 
stands an elegant Ktone column, iliirty-fivc 
in height, the shaft of which is formed of i 
single block of basalt, presenting sixteen sidee^j 
The pedeittid ts richly oniamentod. The coliinil 
is surrnitidcd hy a finely sculpturrd statno 
llanuman. ibo monkey chief of the Rnmavnna.] 
Thei-stablishmeniof prioitU and others belong- 
he temple has btrn stated to consiat 
•ousand nine hundred familie:c, for whf 
the diuly provision is mormous. The holj 



^aoA a pivsentcd lo the idol tliree times a day. 
Ilia m^iia taats about uii hour, duriDi<; whioh 
tim^ Ow dsnrttt* girls, the Deva-dasi, belong- 
■'■\e exhibit their profei^sional 
Mi^ buildm^f. Twclvy festivals 
are erie>>rateii during the year, the principle 
of which, 14 the nat*h Jattra. Jaganath's 
temples ar? n\ao niunemus in lieiigal, and are, 
iawiahtj, of a prramidical form, nurlng f-he 
mtomLU cif worship they are «hut up. The 
imagr of this g<)d in Orl'va, is a rude block 
of wood^ and haa a friphtful vintage with a dis- 
tcndnl mmith. His arms, whicli, as he was 
tanaed wiihotit any, have been given to him hy 
t^ priests, arc ofgoUI. He is Korgeoiialy dres»- 
ei» M tkv^ also the ntlicr two idols which accotn^ 
puxy hxm. In a compartment in the temple 
ef Rama, he is represented in company with 
Bila Rftma and Subhadra witliout arms or legs. 
TWk idols are doubtless handed down fn>m 
pfM»ra>tinazuc times. — Col^a Myth. Hind.y 

Sa3t^., or Nath, comiptly Nauth, 
m, andNatan, Tah. A lord, a mas- 
k! bnme by some claases of religious 

B- See Kala Priyanath. 

' T, BmtM. h\ Pegu, a forest term 
for -^ It have died from natural causes. 

Th ■ '-rr.: -'^ms to be applied also t*:! ^eavined 
tiin' -. r to trees that have been girdled. 
Nail '• V ik trefts ouffht to be removed, hut 
|tt; 1 - ','-"-. Ti.' f-ik tree below six toot in 
jrr '.- I' !- Im- i;:,. A.— McflUlhind't Report, \ 
S .-. 2 ; Dr. BrnH.dv*, l^eUrtian from ' 

lA. of Oovt. of [i¥iux Foreign^ Dept.,\ 

A ■>. 

A'ARA. This is the most celobrat- 
t^of tUchindoo Apollo. lt# etymo- 
fvtrtftl (dwara) of the god' (Nat'h). 
'.mport n« his more ancient shrine 
* ♦ 'f ' worltracnd.' Nnt*hdwara is 
\. N. E. of Ortdipoor* on the 
n-.MK -a linf Bima<«. Although the prin- 
rotort of the followers of Vishnu, it has 
T«*y rcmorkable in its utnintnro or 
u It owes its rclehrity entirely to the 
1 , «ud tj» he the Rftnie that ha« 
i at Mnt'hura ever since his 
n eleven and twelve hunl^red 
;. A^ confaining the represcn- 
* the gfv^fl of the hindoos, 
!ie most frequented plaooa 
\t must want that attrac- 

lindoo which the caves of 

iliores of the distant Dwarica, or the 

rjj, the place of the nativity of Krishna, 

f to his imagination ; for though the 

ra, in which Kaniya disported 

no longer resound to the echoes 

n;7h the waters of the Yamuna 

. witli the blood of the sacred 


kine. still it w the holy land of the pilgrim. 
It was ill the reign of Aurungspb, that the 
pastoral divinity wtw exiled Irom Vrij, that 
classical soil, which, during n |>eriod of two 
thoiwand one hundred years had been the 
sanctuary of his worshipper*, lie had been 
compelle«l to occasional llighU during tlie visi- 
Utionn of Mahmood and the first dynasties of 
Affghan invaders ; though the more tolerMnt of 
the Mogul king» not only reinstated him but 
were suspected of dividing their faith be- 
tween Kaniya and Mahomed. Akbar waa an 
entbusinfit in the mystic poetry ol Jydeva, 
which painte in glowing colours the loves of 
Kaniya and Radha, in which lovely personifica- 
tion the refined hindoo abjures all sensual m- 
terprctations asserting its character of pure 
spiritual love. Jehnngir, by birth hidi a Rnj- 
imot, was equally indulgent to the worship of 
Kaniya : but Shah Jehan, also the son of a 
Kajpoot princess, inclined to the doctrines of 
Siva, in which ho was initiated by Sid-rup the 
Sanyasi, Sectarian animmity Ls more virulent 
than faiths totally dissimilar. Here we see 
hiudoo depressing hindoo : the followers of 
Siva oppressing those of Kaniya ; the priests of 
Jupiter driving the pastoral Apollo from the 
Parnassus of Vrij. At the intercession, how- 
ever, of a princess ofOodiptx)r, he was replaced 
on his altar, where he remained till Aiu-ungxeb 
became emfK?ror of the Moguls. In such de- 
testation did the hindooa hold thi? intolerant 
king, that in like manner as they supposed tlic 
beneficent Akbar to be the devout Mokund in 
a former birth, so they make the tyrant's body 
enclose the .<wul nf KnI-yamnn. the foe of 
Krishna, ere his aj>otlioorti»», from whom he fled 
to Dwarica, and thenoe acq\ured the nam*? of 
Rinchor. — TotVs Bajiuithan, Vol, i, pp. 621- 

NATH'H — ? Timber, a log of wood, u beam. 

NATH'H BAWA, see Jogi. 

NATmiR, Gcz. Canes. 


NATIKI— ? Tetranthera, sp, 

NATI-SCHAMBU— ? Eugenia malahariea. 

NATIVE, the tenns Hiudoo, and Native of 
India, are the ordinary names hy which the idol- 
worshipping people and mahomcdans of British 
India are at preseat known, but tlie terms are 
al! of very recent use. The hindcto pet^ples to 
whom they are applied are only now rtiaing, 
under the firm sway of the British rule, and 
never before had, nor couJd have had, one com- 
mon designation. Natives of India first sat on 
tbe petty jury on the 25th July 1828. 

NATIVE BLISTER-FLY. Meloc telini. 

NATIVE CINNABAR, see Cinnabar. 


NATRALOO, Himd. Sweet Potato, is the 






n>ol of BatatAi* edulH. Cfutiittf, which is MM, ' non^ tMong or Qiioin Hill, in lat. 4* 3' N., 
roa«tcd| and eaten. It \s of two kimh nr | (i(«iinni? Kan»y in lat. 4^ N. 
coloura, white nt\t\ red. The white i.^ 8iip|»ns- : NATl'UAL HISTORY, :»ee Ajaih ul M 
ci\ t*i have heen broiipht from some forciizn hijul, | Itikat, nnu-h of wliich is fabuloufi. N 
nnd itndcr tlit.9 suppoiiiion it h called Walait4>c i and its \aried ^cQtwry aiid objects, itx bt 
itatnUivt, European or Foreign natraloo, and | or trcen or bea*tii or »ea», form nf> snhj 
the other Nat ka Natmloo or country Natra- i of wonder to either the Indian muhomediin 


loo. The white is the better, the oorreet 
Hpeltiog for the Batatas edulis or sweet potato 
is Nntr-alu. 

NATRON, Fr., Grb. Sod® seaquicarbonas. 
iSodiB bibora«. Carb«jnate of soda. Natron i» 
abundant in the ricinity of Ava, where it is 
iwed by tlie Burnie**^ instead of soap, aud they 
cull it •' canh soap.'* — J/ojwii. 

NATRON LAKE of Lunar, sec Lunar Dyee, 
Alkaline ininoraU. 

NATS-fATAM-CIVA, Cocculus cordifolius. 

NAT80-KARAM, Tax. Soap. 

NATSU-PIA, Bhot. Galtus ferrugineos. 

N ATTALA (?) The name of a claw of $!avc» 
in Karnata. 

NATTAMAKAN, also Nattamakkal and 
Nattamar. T*sr. A sub-division of the Valala 
tribe, hiL'diiinflmen, farmcw. 

NAT-TA-MIN, Bttrm. A reddish pey wuod 
of British Burmah, U»»o jyniinod, and recom- 
menced for cijjar boXf«. Breaking weight 129 
lh«. ; n cubif fitoi weigh.s Xi Iba. In a I'ull- 
prown tree on fiond m\\ the avo-ra^e length of 
the tniuk to the first branch Is 60 feet, and 
average jprili me.osurcd at 6 feet from the 
gToand ifl feet. It «eIU at 4 annajs per cubic 
fix)t.— />r. Braml'vi, Cal, Vai. Kv. im^, 

fmjt of Ttrminalia c^tappa. — Linn^ 7Jox6., 
jr. 4- A., Wifr*U. 

NATTKS. Fb. MrttJ*. 


NATTU, Tkl. Iftcha^nnm piloaum, R. H', 
Mnti, Jour, Lit. atvi Sc., ii, 139, cura. /c, p. 
144, Br. 475. ThiA \n the gram that iufcnu 
the regada or bla«.'k cotton-^i^il to the great 
detriment Af cultivation. It i» called kunduru 
nattu or '*gric%'ou.*-weecl." Br. 237, to diatin- 
F^iah it from jaraka uatlu, or "grans-weed" 
whidj \a Cynoilnn daciylon. 

nalia catappa, Linn., Ht>rh.^ W, ^ A^ RHeedt, 


NATUNAfi ISLANDS, in the CMna 8ca«, 
extend from the coast of Borneo a ifrcat way 
to ihff north-west and are ;uTan(;ed into ihc 
north, great or grand, and e;outh Natunax. 
The north Notunns compnxe i'ulo I^ut. Pulo 
Stokoncr. Ilie frrf^&t or grand Natuno, iH 
' l^ulo Boong Onran, and 
. 39' to 4** i*V N. The 


NATURIv-WORSniP. or Tot€mi»iu, ii a 
in wlueh natural objects, trees, lakc5, st 
mail, Ac., are worshipped. Ar,cx)rding ! 
the earliest Bactrian ftiith was a purr u:\i\xx 
worship na recorded in the V'edad. That 
superseded by an ethical faith, when light 
flarknesK, auntdiine and atorm, bccaiao re 
flonted by good and e%'il, but in the chan, 
Xoroa*tfr denotes the ispihtA of evil by 
t4?rni Dcva, common to the old Aryan diT 
uities. The Bactrian religion continued 
changed aniongKt the Aryan cmigrantii uui 
liicy reflchcii tlie Punjab. In the wcat, 
thu^ttra Sjpihimu, the Z<>rna«ter of Kuro 
of tite mightiest int«llcctH and greatest 
of all time, appeared in the reign of \ 
t;i8pa. a I^rtrian king, towardd the yi 
•VKJO b. c, Hia conteiM[N>raries accounted hi 
as u bla«i})hemer, atheist, firebrand, worthy <il 
death, and he watt regarded, even by hi.<i o 
adherents, and aiW .(tome centurie&, as ih 
founder of magic, a dorci'.rer and deceiver ; 
HipjMKTates, KudnxiL=i, Plato and A 
l(>ukt!t] un him as a great spiritual hero am 
earliest sage of a primeval epoch. Zoroaiit«r*i 
views arc exprcased in a hynui, or Gatha, 
ijwting of eleven Il-line strophes. It 
to have been conipofied on some great publis 
occasion, and offers tlie choice of following a 
true patli or of continuing in the existing su 
stition, and in the 3rd strophe, amiouiice« ih 
prcflence of two twin spirits, the Good aud th 
Banc, and commands them to choo«ic betwe«tL 
them. In the fifth strophe, ho names Ahur» 
Mazda, the All Holy and All Tnu- ; Uierd i$ 
no mention of the n.*ime df Ahriman, later 
regarded as that oj' the evil prinoiple, but 
in the seventh strophe Armaiti is namod M 
the mother of the cori>orcal world who cnniM 
with Power, and with Truth and with Pielj to 
succour this life. Lat«r, this religion degen^ 
rated into magiaui : ironi this. Persians h%v« 
derivcfl their Shnh-River : Ashta, or Truth it 
the second, which has become the Ardi Beheshi 
of the Parfti : ami tlic third is Vuhu Mano, 
signifying the guod pious mind or piety, out o 
which haa grown tlie later term Bahutau 
Zoroaittcrs doctrine s]>rcn<l trom Bactria iu(o 
Modia. But in the year h. a. 2ii:i4, '/ajtosaUit^ 
a king of Mcdia^ conquered Babylon wltcro llw 
true magwm as taught by the diwiples of ^jtv- 
ast«:r, sMXJti mingled with Chaldean }ihiIosopby 

iBWfior u high «ith two high Rionntxinr, Goo- , and under the deipotumx of Xfrxc« aud otlicr 
4H N 48 


kaoolea caoamiia. 

90 early aa Ihe liniGs nf Artaxi?rie5, 

irere introduoetl into Pewia, glaringly 

ry of the etljico-apiriiual nature ol' 

'» religion, which ha* now-a-day:? 

Jl| ^i!l i Cfm ted into a firo-wowhip and magical 

ibnyiila. Zoroai^trians used the Zend lun^age 

vhich is newer than the lantmage of the Veda«, 

bat Met than Sanncrit. 'Jlie Bactrian lan- 

nage m commonly called Zend : the Vedic 

fcu^inagre ts stereotyped Bactrian. the Zend is 

|tiM eoDUAuaUuu of Uiis old Ba^*trian tongue, 

1 vtib twt> pha.s«s of whicli we arc acquainted. 

'Ose of litem, tlie language oi the Zend books, 

that of the cunoilr.irm inscriptions 

. -la and Darius down to Artaxerxos 11. 

TUe Saiiscnt U the weakeocd proae (onn of the 

ciVi Ha«Mriiitt, tlie tK>eticAl form ot' which exists 

io the hymns of tJie Kig Veda. These h^-mns 

transmitted, orally. Literature proper only 

lenoes with Sanscrit after it became a 

'Iramal language, and it became the sacred 

lui^Cita^ about tbe year 1000 n. c. at the 

ka^nuiiig of the fourth age. lioth Vedic and 

ifianjicrit were at fir^t living languages, spoken 

by the people. Spirit-worship, amongst the 

Aiy&o hindoos, the non-Aryans and the Parsees 

rians, has alinnst displaced the Nature 

ipaf Utc Vedas. — LtiJjfjock^ Orujin of Civil. 

9 ; Bw^scn^ Ood in ffitit., VoL i, pp. 270 

iUli; T,Mrs Rajajtthan, Vol. ii, p. 217; 

B^U' ',% F6U, iiiaW iv. See AtTghanis- 

tia. .. -reeks of Asia, Iran, Koh, Kabul, 

Iqacnpuotts, idemiramis, IJmdoo, Kattywar, Zo- 

■iaalia catAp|ia, 
NAD, IliTcn, A boat, a ship. Nau-Khodali, 
master, corrupted int^i the Anglo-liindi 

AV, HixD. Soccbanim, sp. 
NAU, ili50., Saxs. Nine ; nau-naga, nine- 
also Nau, RixD. New, 
in llie wuth of India, a class of 
_ed in civil lite, who came 
fioM rut. They are fair men. 

^ '-nuft nf plants of the natural 

crdt . . LinfiL The following i'[>e- 

Qoi MMv iK.uuwu iL> occur in the Eartt Indies* vii*; 

acUa, Iluv/. PvnAng, Java, 
cadamba, Harb. ruuinsula, Beiigah 

raiittolaU, \V,jtt. ? 

ctrrbitSoni, Malayann. 

ftOAitoatJi, Rarh. Ceyl(>n. 
cx>ntifotia, fitxrb. Brilii*li India. 
eUipticu Pen/iUiJ. 

KUfara, y 
Una<u. .' 



1J„,.I \f.! 



. AmlKj^^Tia. 
.'Ih«>t, Peuang. 
"X> British India. 
— Moluccas, 
th. Coromandel. 
TOtiiadifoUa^ Hoxb. Chittogong. 


scandeus, iSm. N. K. India. 

.vleruphyllft, Hnnt, ^euaIl^;. 

RewiUora, Hiixh. As^auu 

Btasifructua, lUixh. >'. K. India. 

uudulata, lioxh. Moluccas. 
Babdat, Hiin). I Behm. Hind. 

Bliudu, ,. I Hiridu. Mabs. 

L'nder these namcfl, Captain Sankey notices 
a nice, clean working, NaL^wre wooti, of a yel- 
low colour and straight grain, which has ajipa- 
rcntly but little essential oil. It is very scarce 
but, wlien obtainable, is used by the natives 
for all purposes ; in strength it ranks next to 
"eyne," and, therefore, if procurable in large 
quantities and of a proper eize, would be a 
moat viUuable wood. The tin»ber procurable 
ranges from 15 to 17 feet in length and ia 
about 3 feet in girth. Major Pearson considers 
that this is the Temiinnlia bollerica; the timber 
in colour is similar to the Hurdo.— Copf. 

NAUCLEA, species. 
Hagin-kao, Can. | Uarin mom, CAi«, 

A tree of Canam and Sunrla, frequent in 
the upper third of the ghats to the south. 
Wood described as being strong and serviceable 
for houses and implements. — Dr, Gibson. 

NAUCLEA, Species. Htein*g3r-lah, Bdru. A 
woiid of British Bumiah of a light chesnut 
colour, recommended for furniture. Breaking 
weight 208 Iba. A cubic foot weighs lb?. 43 
to 56. In a full-grown tree on good soil the 
average length of the trunk to the flrat branch 
is 40 feet, and average girth measured at tJ 
feet from the ground is 6 feet. It sells at 8 
annas per cubic foot. — Dr, Bra/uliSf Cal. Cat. 
Ex. 1862. 

NAUCLEA, species. Hteinthay, Boem. A 
wood of British Buminh. Breaking weight 
170 lbs. A cubic foot weighs 35 lbs. In a full- 
grown tree on good soil, the average IcngtFi 
of the trunk to the first branch is 30 feet, and 
average girth measured at 6 feet from Uio 
ground is fl feet. It sells at 8 annas per cubic 
foot.— /)r. /Jmm/w. Cat. Cat. Rt. 1802. 


Kitdapa cUottu, Tut 

K:i<l<J:im, Bkxo., Hintj. 
Maoo-ka-doon. Buuu. 

Miu>i tiio, „ 

Kutldik-vaiino, C'a..n. 

H.-tliimbn.^>t8, SixuH 

Volln iibTliUubi, Tax 


Kadi in t manu, 

Prc'iikaniiiiu clicltii, 


Uud nkftha lc.i mba , 

'TW\% 13 a noble omamenial tree of all Britisii 
India and British Burniah, it lias orange-co- 
loured (lowers, collected into hejid.i tlie 8i;Ee of a 
.small apple, it ia common in Ceylon, up to an 
ele^'atioii of 2,0o0 feel ; it is found in Travancore 
and in the Dekhan. It attains a height of 70 
to 80 feet with a girth of from 6 lo 15 feet and 
a stem of 32 feet to the nearest branch. It is 
made into boats, its flowers arc offered to tlic 
hindoo deities, it is used for vojious kinds of 
furniture. The wood is of a deep yellow colour 


















»ut Itx)»c grained. A cubic foot wciglia Iba. 37. 
It selU, in Bumiah, at 8 annas p«r cubic foot, 
is suitable for furniture, anfl 19 uaetl fur building 
purposes. Acconllng to Hindoo mythology, thus 
u one of the four altady trees tliat grow on 
mount Mcro, the others bcinf^ the Eu^rnia, the 
Ficus indicH and Ficiis religioen. — TViw. En, 
PL Zeyt.^ Captain MaedonaUi^ Dr. Cl<^hom, 
Col. Cat, Ex. 0/1862, CapUiin PuelUinMad. 
Cat, fit. 1862. /rviWV Mad, Top. 

Bakmet^i^uM^ .Sinrh. 

Common in Uie warmer f>art8 of Ceylon. — 
Thw. En. PI. Ztyl, ii, p. 1.37- 


Adumbay, Txn. 

MuDM cagambfl, Tam. 
Bonoaru: Daduga, Tkl- 
Bettaaapapa : Poavupu- 
kadjmi „ 

Paspoo kaimmi, Tir. 

Holondho, Ubia. 

This large tree prows in the hot drier part* 
of Ceylon, and abundantly in the mountainous 
diatricta of the peninsula of India ; it is a com- 
mon tree in the coast forests of the Bombay 
Presidency, but ne%'er found inland, — it is get^ 
ting scarce in Ganjam and Gumsiu*, it is com- 
mon in the N. W. Provinces. It is said to be 
a trcse of Juhbulfiore, ,i'*nndant, and its wood 
much in request, being ligiit and easily worked. 
In Behar it is common and resembles a young 
sycamore. Its strength U not great, but it is 
lasting if not exposed to tlie weather. In the 
Siwalik bills it yields a poor wood used for 
planks, but which quickly decay. In British 
Burmah it appears as a large tree of regular 
growth, hut not very common. Wood yellow, 
rather close-grained : used to make combs, may 
be expected to prove valuable for iumiture ; it 
decays when exposed to wet. In Ganjam and 
Gumsur, it attains an extreme height of 76 feet 
with a circumference of 7 feet, the height from 
the ground to the first branch being 30 feet : 
but, in British Burmah, in a full-grown tree, on 
good soil, the average lengtli of tlie trunk to the 
first branch is 80 feet, and average girth mea- 
sured at 6 feet frum the ground is 10 feet, and, 
there, a cubic foot weighs 42 lbs. and sells at 12 
annas. The wood is pretty, yellow, rather close- 
grained, soft, and easily worked. In Coim- 
liatore, it is much used for common purposes 
and sufltaios a weight of 320 lbs. In the Bom- 
bay Presidency, it is roort extexisivdty used for 
•11 purposes of planking in in-door work. Tlie 
timber deteriorat4» from steeping, and therefore 
shoold not be floated to its destination. In 
Gtunsur and Ganjam, on account of its size and 
iUmttAj it is ufled fur boats, which are made 
a nngle log by simply scooping out the 
and affccrwards shapening in a rough 
la&aiifir. It is also used for the masts of native 
tocMtira, and is cut into 

50 N 

planks and made into dour^, boxes, &c. It ia 
beat suiu^d for work which is :^heltered, beds' 
house carpentry fiuiiiture, said to be a 

wood for model work, it polishes well, 

sembles box-wood, and is good for turning; 
but it cracks and warps. It is used for 
making slates for scholars in native schools. 
h, close-grained, very durable, much employed 
in building and joiner work, and when var- 
nished looks very pretty being much atfected b/ 
aJtemationa of dry aad wet weather, coula 
probably be crcosoted with ndvontage. At ooe 
time there were great forests of this tree in 
Kamaou, btit these have been thinned. The 
tree rises with a clear stem of 30 to 40 feet, 
and has a girth of to 12 feet. When grow- 
ing .singly it throws out branches close to tbc 
groiuid, and gives support to itself by pro- 
jecting large buttresses, from tlie bole. Timber 
when freshly cut is of a light yellow, turning 
to a nut-browu ou seasoning. — Dr, J. L. St^wart^ 
p.Ud; Cat. Cat, Ex\ 1862; CUffKom^ Punjab 
Report, KuUu and Kangra, jk 82 ; Thw. ; 
Drt, Wight, Gihmm^ Brandts^ Hoxb,^ Hookir^ 
Him. Jonmal, Vol. i, ^». 26; Cijiiain Ma^ 
donakl. Col, Cat, Ex, 1»02 ; Mndnu ExhAiUi 
Mr. Rohdfy MS. ; Mr. Thompstm. 

llingab ? Bingah ? BtmM. | Pungah ? BiraK. 

A wood of British Burmali, of a light yellow 
colour, not much used but may be recommended 
for furniture. A cubic foot weighs lbs. 45. 
In a ftdl-grown tree on good soil, the average 
length of the trunk to the first branch ia 60 
feet, and average girth measured at 6 feet ftom 
the ground is 7^ feet. It sells at 8 annas per 
cubic foot.— I>r. Bmrulis' Cat, Cat, £r. 1862. 

NAUCLEA GAMBIR, Syn. of Uncaria 
gumbir, Ro^b. 

CcphalanthuB piluUfcr, 

N. parvifiorm. Pert. 
N. orien talis, Ottrtn, 
KiUham, Beas, Havi. 

Htein, Bvok 

lledoo mara. Can. 

Nser oodumlMy, ,. 

Yctega, „ 

Ytttegal, „ 

Kyon. HixD. 

Pbakloo. KAXAn.*f. 

Kuddum, Mahb. 

Kalozn ; Kanun, 
Kaim ; Keim, 


llelciabo, Suftia. 

>ir kuddembay, Tam. 

BotA Kadimi, „ 
Bottta IcAdapa chettu, » 

BuLa kadambe, ^ 

Buta Kanmee, Tkl. 

Moondo-mondc, Ukxa f 

This large tree is found in the western and 
northern provinces of Ceylon, in the hot, drier 
partfl of the Ulaud, whore its cloac-grained hard 
timber is used for common house-building pur- 
poses. It weighs lbs. 42 to the cubic foot and 
is calculated to last 40 year*. Dr. Wight, 
writing in Coirobatore, says, it lias a strong 
fine grained timber, sustaining 400 lbs., and 
yielding considerable beams, dark-cokmred, bul 
aoon rots if exposed to wet. From the fine- 
ness of its grain it seems well fitted for cabiatt 
purpoeesy and has the advantage of being 
easily worked. On the western coast it is 




le piirposcs required in the hilis, and 
ie Ci^»nvc^anc<; ol* limber, &c. This seems 
the Nanrali or Narvali tree, Ordia 
angiifltifoLJa ; roped are made of the fibres. — 

NAUSHADAH,Ili2«D. Sal-ammoniAc ; cblo- 
rido of ariunoniuin. 

NAUSHADAR-KANl, Hwd. An artificial 
bi-smlphurct of arsenic. 

NAUTCII, HiXD. A dance, a Hindustani 
nautch-girl does not dance like Taglioni and 
Cento, but by a movcrncDt of women's feet to 
niuttic. The dancing of nautch-girls on public 
l^occoiuons is always decorous. They are to 
fJ^ Etiro|>ean dreary, not only not graceful but 
'■ nionotonona, wearisome. — Kaifc^s Ckristianiltf 

NAUTILID-E, a &mily of coj)halopod- 
oufl molhiscs ; according to I^nmrck, they 
constitute the sixth family of his Polythulamotu 
'ccphalnjHvIa, onsiating of the genera. Dis- 
■corbites, Sidcrolites, Polys toinolla, Vorticialia, 
fmumulitcs, and Nautilus. Tu tiiesc, Mr. (i. B. 
'Sowcrby, jtm., adds SimpIegaA and Endo«j- 
ihonites. In the system of M. DeBIainville it 
the tifth family of his PoIythaJamacco, and 
fcomjirisca the genera Orbulitcs, Nautilus, Poly- 
[slomclla, and Lontieuiitm. Tlie genus Nautilus 
la the type of this family. The species inhabit 
^thc seas of warm climates, especially those of 
rAsia and Africa, and their ifttand^, Amboyno, 
[Zanzibar, and New Guinea ; and the Pacific and 
,ustntlian Oceans. The pottition of Nautili 
[»raon;^t the Cephalopod may be thus shown : 

Clau 1. — Cephalopoda CephoJopods. 

OnnKU L— uilinuichiato. 

Section A. — Octopoda. 

Family I. — Argonautida, 

fBtWfl. Arf^onautA, Argonaut or paper sailor ; 

recent, 4 K\y^ foMU 1 ap., Syn. octhoe, nautilus. 

Family II. OctopodidK. 
tionuu. Octoi'iw, Km:. 4^J sp. Syn. cUtoptis. 
Suh-mmu. Tnimortopu*, roc. 2 sp. 

rinnoctopus, Finned octopua, rec. I sp. P. 

Elctlono, rec. 2 sipcciea. 
Cirrolouthie, K'c. I specie* C. Mullen, 
riiilonexis, roc. H speeles. 

8£CTioN D.— Decapoda. 
pAini.Y in.— Teuthid». Calaipwrfwi, or Squids. 
&uB-rAMii.Y A.— Ilyopsidffi. Eyes covefed by the 
Qehxiia. Lolif^, Cnlamary, rec. 21 sp. 8jm. 

Teadopts, fossil, 5 sp. 
G<niatui, nc 1 vpccies ; G. amisna. 
8ei4ot«uthu, roc 13 sp. 
BeKjteuthia, fottil, 6 sp. 
0©<tt*i»t>i^. ft^Mil, 9 9\u Syn. bclcmnueepia. 

\jt\i\ -All. 

Eyoa naked. 





Onychoieuthis. UDciiiated calamaiy. 

sp. Syn. ancisixoteuthia, onychia. 
Enoploteuthis. Armed ciilaman% r«c. 10 
Syn. aacistrochiruB and abralia, octopod 
Ommostrephes. Sagittated cnlamary, 

Family FV.— Belenmitidic. 
Ok-NRIIa, B«?lemnite8, fossil, HHJ 5p. 

The Itvlenimtea tiHve l>ccn divided into [^nnl 
by the pn^ence and position of fuirui 
in the aorfacu of the f^uard. 
8KCT10.V L— Acoili. 
Sui^tctian 1. Acuarii, 20 sp. 
2. Clavati, 3 ap. 
Sfction fr,— Oastrootcli. 
SiUfiifctwn 1 . Canaliculati, 5 sp. 
2. Hastuti. lU ep. 
Skction hi.— Notocoali, 9ap. 
Rtrlemniti?llft, fi>feil, 5 .«p. 
AcanthoteuthiB, foeeil. Syn. kelxao. 
Bolemnoteuthis, recent, also fusalL 
Conoteutliis, foAful. 

Family V. — St^piadie. 
Oenkra. Sepia, rec. 30 sp., fossil, b sp. Syn. 
Spiruilrostra, foBdl. 
BeloptenL fossil, *1 sp. 
BelemnoBta, foasU. 

Family VI.— SirinUidtt. 
Oencs. Spirula, rec. 3 sp. 

ORDKa II.— I^tnibnuiehiata. 
Family I.— Nautilidds. 
Oknkra. Nautilui^. rec 2 or 4 sp. fossil, 100 «|k 
^ib~genera, Aturia, fossil, 4 sp. 
P Disci tes, fooail. 
Temmxhoitus. fossil. 
Cr3n>t<>ceraj», fiwril. 
Utuitoa, fofisil, 16 sp. Syn. hortol 

TrochooeniB, fossil, 16 sp. 
Clymenia, fossil. 43 sp. 
Family IT.— Orthocemtida!. 
GENF.RA. Orthoceras, fossil, lt2& sp. Syn. goal 
cenu, cyclocerae. 
Sub-ffffiera. Camerooenui, foeaU. 27 sp. 
Actinooeraa, fossil. 6 stk 
OrmoMras, fossil, 3 sp. 
Huronia, fossil, 3 sp. 
Endoceras, io^iU 12 sp. 
Oomphoceras. fossil, 10 sp. 8yn. apioeeti 

Oncoceras, fossil, 3 sp. 
Phragmoceras. fossil, S sp. 
CrjtocerAs, fosbil, ^ sp. Syn. campalita 

Oyrooeraa. fossil, 17 sp. Syn. nautilocerati 
Aacoceras, fossil, 7 sp. 

Family III.— AmmonitidK. 
OKnmu. Ooniatitea, fossil, ISOsp. 
Bactriics, fossil, 2 ap. 
CeratJtes, foasil, S5 an. 
Ammonites, fossil, 530 sp. 
Crioceras. fossil, 9 sp. Syn. trupffui 
Toxocsras, fossil. Hup. 
Ancyloct^ras. fossil, 3d sp. 
Scaphites, fixail, 17 s]>. 
Helicooeras, fosdl, 11 sp. 
Torrililes, fossil. 37 sp. 
Hamiles, foasil, 58 sp. 
Ptychocenw, fossil, 7 sp. 
BaculitCA. fossil, 1 1 sp. 
The Pftper uautilud is one of the Argottatil 


Ugkt «» a tl&ktf of futkxu upun the wiad. 
Keel tipwttxxl, from the deep emerKeU a shelly 
Tbe OAtiTe pilot of tliie tittle barque, 
nils oat A tier of o&tb on either side ; 
Hpwrlii to the wtifting breeie a two-fold nail, 
Aftd ■tounted up and glid«d down the billuw. 

XAVACHARUM, Tax. Sal ammoDiae, 
Muriate of ammonia. 

NAVA-KHAXDA, or Nine-divwioTii», is tlie 
title vf an account of India, which wa» first dw- 
cnbed by the utronomers Parasara and Varalia- 
llihin, «itbough it wa« probably older than tlieir 
line, aad wsa afterwards adopted by ibe 
aoAon of several of the Puranaa. According 
kt thb lirnuigemcQt, Paochata was the uhiet 
dknici of tiie ceotraJ division, Magudha of the 
eaaC. K^linga of the south-«a«t, Avanta of the 
aoatlk, Aniirta of the south-west, Siudhu-Sau- 
rint of the west, Harohaura of (lie north-west, 
Mawixaof the north, and Kauuinda of the north- 
The division of India into five great pro- 
wouM appear to have been the most 
one during the early centuries oi tlic 
r^riatian era, as it was adopted by the Chinese 
pUgrtms. and IVom them by all Chinese writens. 
AceofdiAg to the Vishnu Purana, th(> centre 
vraa ooedpoed by the Kuru and Panchala, in 
the east vras Kamarupa, orAstuim ; in the south 
vera tlie Pundua, Ralinga and Magadha, in 
the west were the Surushtra, 8ura, Abhira, 
Arfauda, Karosha, Makva, Sauvira and Saind- 
kava, and in i)k« north tiie Huna, Salwu, Sa- 
Lala, Rama, Anibaahta and Parasika. — Cun- 
mngKamj AndetU Oeoff. of India, -pp, 5, 7. 

NAVAKIRE, near Pootoor, 21 niilea from 
iiffna, in Ceylon, is a remarkable well which 
tmok and fiUls once every twelve hourd and 
ftEtasm the same quantity of water howuvcr 
drawn. It U aliuded to in Sinhad's travels. 
NAVA NLVLIKA, Tbl. Jo-sminum sambac, 

AGGAR, ICG Kattyawar. 

NAVA-NAY, Ca5. 8etaria italica, Italian 
siilet; it in grown in very few places in Mysore, 
and serres as fix>d (or poor people. — AT. E* 

KA VANDGARH, or Naondgarh, is a ruined 
f.r -7 L'^o to 300 feet square at top and 80 
iV it. It is situated close to the large 

vUiage oi Uiuriya, 15 miles to the N. N. W. of 
Bettuh, and 10 miles trom the nearest point of 
th« GandaJc t\\^x. The ancient remains con- 
isst of a haxidaoine atone-pillar, surmounted by 
» Boo and inscribed with Asoka*s edicts, and 
of three lowa of earthen barrows or conical 
Dwunds of earthy of wluch two rows lie from 

. 53 

north to south, and tlie third from east to 
Tlie stupus usually met with arc built eil 
of stone or of brick ; but the earliest 
stupos were mere mounds of earth, of which 
the5p are the most remarkable 8j>ecimen8 tliat 
General Cunninglum had seen. He believes 
that tiiey are the sepulchrdl monuments of tlie 
onrly kingfi of the country prior to the rise of 
buddliism, and that their d:itc may be assumed 
as ranging from 600 to 1500 u.c. Every one 
of these barrows is called simply bhisa, or 
** mound," but the whole are said to have been 
tlie kots or fortified dwellings of the ministers 
and nobles of raja Uttanjuit, while tlie fort of 
Nuvandgarh was the king's own residence. The 
word stupa meant originally only a "* mound of 
earth,'' and this is the meaning ^vcn to it by 
Colcbnwke, in hia translation of the * Amara 
K«aha/ The author of the Ceyloneae * Atlha- 
katlia' exjjlaiiw that they arc yakhatlhanani, 
or edifices belonging to Yaklia, or demon-wor- 
sliip. The Yakha in Sanskrit, Yakslia and 
Jaksha were the attendants of Kuvera, the 
G<k! of Riches, and the guardians of hit} trea- 
sures, and their chief residence was called 
Alakapura. Somewhere in the neighbourhood 
of the Gandak there was a city named Ala- 
kapjK), inhabitwl by a people named Balaya or 
Buluka who obtained a share of Buddlia's 
relics. — Cunniny/wm, Ande^ Qtog. of htdia^ 
pji. 448, 4.50. 

NAVARA CHETTU, also Navili chettu, 
Tkl. Ulmus iniegrifolia, R. ii, 68 ; Cor. 78. 
Holopctahi integiifoUa, PhtJichon, H\ Ic, 19G8. 
Roxb. calls it >i'uli, it is also pronounced Ncmoli 
or Nnmali by the mountaineers. 

NAVARATRICAM, Tam. See Kali, Nava- 
ratri, Nau-ratri. 

NAVARIA, Mal. Selaria iudica, Italian 

NAVA S ARAM. Tkl. HydrochJoraie of 

NAVELLUMARAM,Tam. a Malabar tree 
which signifies " tongue-wood," It grows to 
abrmt fiiieen inches in diameter, and twenty 
feet high : it is considered a strong and durable 
wood, and more particularly so under water. 
Tl»e native carjienters prefer it for the fnimes 
of small vessels in consequence of its (>trength 
and durabiUty. — Edye^ FoTfJsU of Malabar and 

NAVICELLA, a genus of Molluscs; see 
MoIIusca, Neritida?. 

NAVTLE— ? Oil seeds of Bassia latifolia, 

NAVILI. Tbl. Ulmus integritblia. Boxh. 

NAVIM JIITTU. or Mayura sikhi, Tkl. 
Actinopteris radiata, lit. " Peacock's crest,** 

NAVIS, Pbbs. Writing, Khuah-navis, a good 
penman, IV, 

NAVURU, or Nagaru, Til. Premna toraeu- 
to3a, WiUH., n, ui, 76. JV, Ic. 1468. 



NAVY, during the rule of the English 
East India Company, the first application 
of ihipa in wvr was to auppreas piracy along 
the coast of Malabar. The fleet was named 
the Bombay marine, but about 1833 was 
Ranged to ilie Indian Na\7. In 1350, the 

!t vaa aa under : — 

Moozuffer (Steam Frigate.) ... 
S^tnirikmiSf (Sieam Frigate,] ... 
Z«nobia, (Stonm Friij.itf,) 
Auckl&nO, ^Su?*aj hngate,) ... 
SesMtm, <Steam Frignts,) ... 

Quaen, (Stum Frigate,) 

AjdjUu, (Sta&m Psclut,) 
Psrooxe, (Sceam Frigrat«,) ... 

Acbar, tUMtD Pocket,) 

Victgrui, <St«ani Packot,) ... 

B«renic©, (Troop Ship,) 


W ttocr i^ 

Aaoyria* m. .•. 


Conuttr „ ... 

Meteor, ... 

Pliwel, „ .^ ... 




Hoaaee, „ 

Indus, ... ... ... 



Mootnee. Flat, 

Bunhr»t«a, Iron Flftt, 

SuUedge, Aonmmodation Boat, 


BavM, ;. ... 

Snake, , 




































Sailiiig TmmU. 






Haiitin«», (Receiving Ship) 










Euphx«t«fly .„ 










Mahi, „ 



Sbecmab, PatS«ta«r,) 



Pownah, ( 'att&mar,) 



Uargwt. Yacht, 







Cardira, (Survfl/ing Tender,) 





12 ... 




NAWA, Amb. Arenga saccharifera, LahilL 
The Gomali palm tree. 

KAWAB, A\< ■ ■■ naib. a aovereign, 

A vteeroy, cvrr. -b, al«o the high«t 

It* :iMgn in India. 

M^Dfi (LTQ Baha- 
w, Dnwla, UmriL, Jah, Nuwub. 

NAWAB GANJ. the battle of Nawabgaiij, 
in Oudh, occurred on the 14th June 1868. 

NAWAB NADDI. a amall rirer in the 
Bareilly district. 

N AWAIT, HiXD., lit. new comera, a body of 
moharoedans of a fair xanthous colour 
aeem to be Persians, but the roohami 
eouihern IndiadeKribe them aa descendants 
some citizens of Medina who attempted to carry 
otf the corpse of Mohammed, and were therefore 
exiled and driven from city to city. — Qantxm-^-' 
Islam, 8ee Nau-ait, Mahomedon. 

NAWAR, Hdtd., of Spiti, mustard seed. 

KAWEL, Hind., Syzy^um jambolonum. 

NA^VEL BUSI EKAGU, Tkl. Vitex arbo- 
rea, Rnxb.^ IVufde, 

phyttifulia, Eugenia caryophyllifolia, the Syxy- 
gium janiboianum, WiUd^ SwartZy Raxb,^ 9V.ff* 
Nawel Pullum, Tax. Fruit of Calyptranthea 
caryophyllifolia. Nawd Wood, Axolo-Tax. 
Wood of Eugenia caryophyllifolia, Calyptran- 
thea caryaphyllifoUa, 

NAWLEE ERAGU, Tat. Vitex arborea, 
Roxb., Rheede. 

N AWLEE, TsL. Ulmua integrifolia R(s^» 

NAW-MARAM, or Nagoo maram. 
carpus, species, a very strong and durable 
common on the lower elevations of the Nei 
ries : an ordinary aiied tree. — Melvor, M. 

NAWUOZ.Pbrs. New year's day. Je 
institution of that festival is placed by Sir Wil- 
Liara Jones at eight hundred, and by Baiilyaod 
D'Hancanrille at three thousand two h 
yeara before the christian era. If one ' 
sparing of centuries in his calculation, 
others appear extravagantly profuse in theira. 
— Jontit iShcrt But, vf J'Ifnia ; Ou$t^'$ 
Tra^U^ Vol. i, p, 226. See Nau-riz. 

NAXOS EMERY, is regarded as granular or 
amorphous corundum coloured witli iron, and 
is not known to occur in India, where corun- 
dum is used by the people in its place. It ia 
principally imported into Britain from the 
island of Naxos in the (rrectan Archipelago, 
and was found by Mr. Smithson Tennant to 
consist of Alumina 86, Silica 3, Oxide of Iron 4, 
total 93. 

NAYADI, corruptly Nuade, BIal. An out- 
caste tribe, found only in the northern parts of 
Cochin. They are the most dcigraded of all the 
low tribes. 

NAVAKA, this is an honoriftc appeUation» 
used amongst most of tho races in the annlh 
of India, under the pronunciations Naik, Nai- 
kan, and in the plunU Noidu. It is olx) in 
nse in Oie native army of British India aa the 
designation of a non-<x>mniisioned officer eqtu- 
valent to a corporal. 

NAYAKAII, see Polyandry. 

NAYAKU PONNA, or Muyyaku ponna. 



pBcudarthria viacida, W. ajtd A»f pro- 
bably an fiironeous lorra of Muyyaku, q. v. 

NaYA KUU0U>'DU, «i-\eH. Cirmainon. 

NAVALU. Hivn. In Sptd, an astriagent 
wucai or tirigs used iii dyeing. 

NAYANA PALA, see Inscriptions. 

NaYAVAYUE— ? Pokniaia icosandra. 

NAV-KYAT-HGYING, Bubj*. EcUpae of 

KAY ^AMPA^ alao Pyoaru, C^. Mesua 

NAYLA-TUNGADU, alao Nik Ponna, Tel. 

NA-Y'0(M3A, Bfrm. A Tenaaserim wood, 
of maximum girth 3 cubits, and maximum 
length 22 ieet. Scarce, but found all over the 
ToBMMmD provinces. When seaMned it floats 
in VBter* It is a durable, tolerably good wood 
with S' carled grain ; uaed by Burmese for oar.^, 
mitdi like English oak in appearance, but 
ieflcienK ID tenacity. It is scarce, and equally 
^aod woods ar« abundant. — Captain Dance. 

NATOOTA, or Munja, i. «., preaenta car- 
cried in state, a mahomcdan ceremony. 

NAYOB, B»50. Cicca indico, IV. and A. 

tan oil. 

NAYPALUM VITTILU, Tzu Croton seed. 

MAZAfi, Ab., Hinti., Pkbs. A present, a 
Sne or fee paid to the state. 

NAZARETH, or Naanra, ad it is now 
called, a small town six miles west from Moimt 
Tabor. It is siuuit«d at the western slope of a 
dfl^^t^ ralley, encompassed by rtxky moun- 
fiUM of no great height, but meeting together, 
at H were, to guard it frum intru»ion. Within 
dui aediided enclosure, all smiling aud verdant, 
Chnat WM conceived. Here he returned at an 
early age* *&d passed the days of his youth. 
Sootftain are these facts in a historical point 
of TWW, that to this day throughout the east, 
tfioas vfao believe in the divinity of his mission 
aic caOed by way of derijiion Nazej^ni, or 
MawBTB* meaning followers of the man of 
Kasatdh, — Hobiyiion'B Travels in iWestineoitd 
Byim^ yd. i, p, 209 ; De Syri(^ ; Morier^t Se- 
wi^ Jmtmdtf^ p, 109. 

NAZARITE, Numbers, vi. 18, 'the Na^a- 
Rte xbaU abave the bead.' The hindoos af^er 
% low, cease to cut their hair during the term 
rf the row ; at thcexpiration nf which time they 
ifaave it off, at the place where the vow was 
It ia a veTy ancient form of votive 
Acts, xviii, 18. Ceuchrea was a 
oo the east side of the Isthmus of Corinth, 
oppoBfie to the Lecheum, another port on the 
waet- Here a christian church was planted 
bv I%al ; tot wc find him commending Phsbe 
ti the regards of the Roman believers, as a 
■otvat of the church which is at Ccnchrea. 
(BoB^ ^«^, 1.) By this pioua ieuxale he aent 

from Corinth his epistle to the Romana. 
has been a subject of much dispute, whether 
it was Paul who shaved his head, or Aquila. 
Chrysostom, Isidore of Seville, Grotius, Ham- 
mond, Zcgeriia, Kruemus, Baronius, Pearce, 
and Wesley, refer the vow to Aquila ; while 
Jerome, Augtiatine, Bede, Calmet, Dodd and 
Rciscnmuilcr, attribute it to Paul. The latter 
opinion is the more probable. The iEtliiopic 
and the Latin versions refer the vow to both, 
reading they shaved, instead of having shaved, 
perhaps on account of the difficulty of deciding. 
It \a probable that Paul had become a 
Nazaraeus votivus, and, consequently, bad 
bound himself to obser^'e the law of the Naza- 
rites for a certain time. The Nazarsci votivi 
(Num., vi,) were reiiuiredlo abstain from wine, 
grapes, and all inebriating liquors, during the 
rime of their separation. They were also to 
let their hair grow without cutting, till the 
days of their vow were fulfilled ; then it was 
to be shaved off, and the appointed sacrifice to 
be offered in the temple. From this practice of 
the Jewish Nazarites, the heathens probably 
derived their custom of consecrating their 
hair, in times of daiiger, &c., to their divi- 
nities, which Lucian represents as of frequent 
occurrence, and with which he himself had 
complied. The emperor Nero is said, by 
Suetonius, to have cut off his first beard, and 
to have devoted it to Jnpiter Capitolinus, 
placing it in a golden box, set with jewels. 
Nazaritism was j>artly a religious institution, 
anil partly civiL and prudential. Its laws 
wcix* promotive of tliu strictest sanctity, and 
calculated to preserve the health, sobriety, and 
temperance of the community. Hence, we 
read, '* her Nazaritea were purer than snow, 
they were whiter than milk." (Lam. iv, 7.) 
Sami^on, Samuel, John the Baptist, and, ac- 
cording to the rabbins, Absolora were Na- 
zarites, and Joseph is said to have been nazir 
echaiv, which wc translate, '* separated iirom 
his brethren." but which the Vulgate renders 
** Nazaraei inter i'ratres soos." Persons recover- 
ing from sickness, or preserved from danger, 
frequently took upon thera the vow ; and it is 
probable, that Paul had experienced some 
deliverance on this occasion, which the histo- 
rian has not narrated. At the present time in 
Persia, if a child be sick, the mother frequent- 
ly makes a vow, that the razor shall not come 
upon his head for a cert^n time, and some- 
times for life, as in Sam, i, 11. When the 
time tliat is limited expires, the child's head ia 
shaved, money is collected from the relatives, 
and sent as nazr or offerings to the mosque, 
and consecrated. Homer speaks of parents 
dedicating to some deity, the hair of their child-- 
ran which was cut off when they came te 
manhood, and consecrated to the gods. Achilles 




cnt off hi'^ K>5Uen locks a 
trooliw, iinti threw them into tlie river, h» 
fnther hrtvuijf deilicaied them to tlie river-god 
Spcrchiiis. In the South of India, at the saercfl 
hill ol'TriiMity. thoiwandsof both sexes nnnnally 
cut off their hair, and leave it us a votive 
offerini^. — Milnerit Srtftii VhurtJifK o/ A*ia^ 
pp. lUl-lll: Jliad. IV. xxiii. i». U9. ^c; 
^iinofid. Vol. i,;».e98. 

NAZIM, Ar., Hixn. A superviaing servant, 
a nrnhomedan official name for a eunuch. 
Jcijioor and BooriHi are the only two of the Raj- 
|M»r_»t principiilit-ici wlio, adopting the mahonie- 
dan custom, have contaminated the palaces of 
their queetw with tlie presence of tlu-se crea- 
lurefl.— W': TVkTji flryrMf/wn. Vol. ii,;>. 3.S2. 

NAZIR JUNG succeeded NiRam-uI-mulk in 
the Dekhan and gave to Mahomed Ali the 
title of Nahoh of the Camutic. 

NAZM, Ak., Hixd., Pbrs. Order, amn^e- 
ment : j^oetry, aa diatinguiahed from Nasr, 
jjjtise. — WiU. 

NAZIC, an offering from an inferior to a 
auperior, a present, a sight, a look : it is the 
present sent before aa in the time of (Oen., 
xxxii, 18) Jaciib and Edau, when the servants 
«iid it is a present sent tmio my I^rd Eaau. 
1. Samuel, ix, 7. Then said Saul to hin servant, 
" Uut hehohl, if we go, what shall we bring the 
man ? for the bread is spent in our vessels, and 
tluTc is not a present to bring to the man of 
Clod : what have we ?" It is very common in 
liritiali India fnr a fH^reon, who is dcsiMus of 
asking a favour ftwm a superior, to take a 
jfreient of fruits, or sweetmeats in his hand. 
If not accepted, the feelings of the offerer 
ore greatly wounded. The making of presents 
to appcaiw a (rai>erior is also very common. 
Tltcre ivrc periodical nccaiuons in Persia, 
at which all who are admitted to stand in 
the presence of its monarch are expected 
tn ap(»ear before him with a present. Of 
tJu^so, the chief is tlie No-Roi, or new year, 
which occtirs about the end of March or bo- 
ginning of April. Plural Naxrana, taxes or 
prc<u<nts. — Fraaer*t Jovtmey into Khoranan, j*. 

NAZUC, Hi5D. Zizj'phua jujuba. 

NAZUL. Hittd. Property belonging to Gov- 
ernment usually in charge of District Local 
Fund Committee*, the projjerty is chiefly 
hoiBCK, gardens, nr plota of land in cities. In 
ibc Pnnjab the variowt mizul gardens, (i. e.. 
(3oTornment property) are generally planted 
with mangoes, as well as other trees ; and the 
right to sell the fruit is sold on contract by 
iiurtioQ at the beginning of the season ; the pro- 
jHTTiy of a large garden like tlml of Sbali- 
nuir, at Lahore, is something very coaiidcrable. 
— ittwfU, p. 27». 
NBUBAY, Bum. A Burmese wood, od« of 


the AnacardiaceiD, hu 
— Major Beit$on, 

NDALO — ? Colocasia nmcrorrhiM, 

NE, Uixn. Hordeum hexastiohum. 

NEAGAM^EcTPT-Achynrntht-saspera. Linn, 

NEAMAH. also Tir-ud-jamaicl, Arab. Tlw 
ortirich. See Stmthionida?. 

NEAUA— ? Ct»coa-nut palm, 

NEAUCHUS, the general whom AlexandlT 
the Great commissioned to anrvey the Southfrt 
Asiatic coast from the mouth of the Indttt 10 
that of the Tigris. He sailed akmg the ooast. — 
Jtnl. in \5tJt CeiU, See Iiiscriptio>as, KUlua 

NEATS FOOT OIL, used as a softener uf 
leather, Ate., &c. See Oil. 

NKHBE, Ar. A prophet. 

NEBEDE. Sison. A Ceylon wood. uwmI 
ibr common house-building purpoaes. The tree 
grows ifi the 8«iutliern and western jjarts of 
the island. A cubic foot weighs 51 lbs,, and it 
is esteem<Hl Ut last 20 ycom, — Mr. Mtndi*, 

NEBKK, Ab. Khamniw nabeca. 

NEBONG, a Pcnang wood of a dark colour. 
It is from a tall and thin, but straight trw : 
used for rulings, i^ Nibong. 

NEBOO, Bkxo. Citrus acida, acid hme. 

NEBUC1L\DXEZZAR. kingof Babyluu. de- 
feated Nechao 11, near Kar-chemij*h n. c. 605 
while crown prince : he burned and pillaged the 
palnccand temple of Jcnwalein. B. c. r>80, Jeru- 
salem raxed, Zedekiuirs children slaiu and his 
eves then put out. He died b. c. 568. The 
name ctf Nehuchaiinczxnr is written in manj 
wa^'s in the Bisutun inscription, we have Na- 
bokhodroiwor, Nabukhadrachar, and Nahukhu- 
drachar. In piure Babylonian insrriptions it 
undergoes even more numerous changes. In 
Daniel he is called Nebuchadnezzar or Nabn- 
chodonoflor, in Ezekiel (ch. xxvi, v. 7) lh« 
name is written NebuchadreJizar. The fiwt 
comiwnenl of the word, Nelx?. was the luunti 
of a Babylonian divinity, (Isaiah, ch. xlti. r 
1.) The intercluinges which tnJce fJace in 
consonants is slutwii by the names of several 
Babylonian kiiti:^, as given by the Greeks; 
thus, the Labunitus of Herodotus is called 
Xabunidus by Berosos. — LayanCf Nin€nrh, 
Vol. ii. p. 177; Bnn$en. See Kranganore, 

NECHA, Hctd. a pipe of a hooka or of a 
still. NiH^ha-Clianghani is a kind of hooka. 


NECHO, a king of Elgypt who reigned abfmt 
600 years a. c. He was desirous of joining t}i« 
Rod Sea with the Mediterranean. He is 
said to luive commanded some Phceniciaiu 
sail from the Red Sea to the Medi 
round ttie C-ape of Good Hope — a voyage 
they occumplished in two yezra. If the 

N 56 

niduis really did complote the voyage, which 
is by no means improbablef they anticipated 
die oaooTcry nuulo by the Portugiicsc about 
SS^OOO years afterwards I In any case, it is 
•p|areat tliat the king waa in those days Ailly 
tfiVe to the advuntagea of the trade from the 
iMi. About UM) years later, Kgypt fell nnder 
di6 kin^ of Persia, and Darius determined 
imaii completing the projoots ot* Soostria and 
hfecho by digging a t:ana] between the Red 
Scft and the Nile ; but betn^ a<»urdd by the 
flOgEDieers of the period that the Red Sea wiia 
bigbcir than the Nile, and that itd aalt water 
voold crerllnw and ruin tlic whole land of 
^irpt^ he nhandoned Ilia purpose. 

vCE. Necklaces of the precious me- 

ttU -. .'. see»U» Ac,, are worn by all rwxs 

of British India, by men and women amongst 
taadivM, bv wumen amongst mahomedans, but 
00 nahamedan man wear? »uch. 

vfCcvlon. See Birds. 

NTECTOPODA, see Carinaria, Molluscs. 
NEDKL AAIPEL, Tam.. Mal. Villarsia in- 
dica, I'mi. 

VFrxTD. A district of Arobio. See Nejed. 
M. DaJbergialanceolaria,A.fll. 
.K. Vemonia cincrea. Less. 
N'EDUM tiCUETTI. Malsu.. Memecylon 

"NCi, see Kunawar. 
; _-L.S. 

ju^&m. Max, I Sudulu, 

lies are made from the best steel, re- 
uuuri by a wire-drawing machine to a suitable 
dictmeter. The constmccion of a needle requires 
about 1 - " *!<iua ; but they are rapidly, and 

anintrr: uccessive. — Fttulkner, 

pqgnn acicuktu<^. 

NfvGJA, a bnce carried about at the Mo- 
lrarn:r« . 

'(i!n>. The solemnization 
c- lit ka seegah, the maho- 

; ' i ; ctmtract ; properly Nickah. 

ShL.- The Gudurca, also written 

GailaHiM i»n&bepherd race of which there are 

MTCtal aub-<lirisions in tlindustan, Neek*hur; 

T— Ihi or Puchhade,Chuck,Dhangur,Bureyea, 

Pyhvar and Bhyealur. Of each of these there 

ue aku many suh-divisiond. — Ell. Supp, Gloss. 

KEK' " - , Neelum, Tak. Indigofera 

the Indi^o-plaiit. 

' ' '■lae. 

, from neola, dark- 

[y lUc Uiroat ; a name of Siva. 

r I.LAU, T\K.? A Travancore 

kcd crt a i • ri colnur, used for houae- 

UJdinf. c' .\c., also written Neeluxn 


NEELA-PAUVATA, Sans., from neela, 

blue, and parvata, a mountain. 

hinia purpurea. 

tedena vaginalis. 

the aouthern parts of the Peninsula of India. 
See Neilghcrrica. 

NEEL-JUANJEE. Bexo. Dtrlcularia reti- 

NEEI^KALMKE, Bkno. PharbitU nil. 

NEEL-MALL, Hixn. Stryclmos potatorum. 

NKELUM, Tam. Indigofura Linctoria. 

NEELUm^VLLAH, Taw. ? A Travancore 
wood of a light browu colour, used for light 
work. — Col» Frith. 

NEEIv-LUTA, Brtto. Thunbergiagrandiflora. 

NEEUPUDMO. Brno. Nymphopa cyanea. 


NEEM, IIiNit. The Margi-»sa tree, or Vepa 
marnm, Tau. Azadirachta indica, and all the 
species of Azadirachta and Melia. 

NEEM, Pkrs. Half. Necmcha, a mixed race. 

NEEMvV — ? dress. 


NEEMI CHA31BEU. IIi3n>. Bignonia su- 
bcrosa, Ri>xh. 

NEEM NODDY, a ri^-ulet near Abrowlie in 
Allygurh, runs near KhaAganj in Budaon. 

NEEMOOKA, Hutd. Root of several species 
of Cissampelos. — Bax, Phar, 

NEEN-THA, BuBii. A very abundant tree 
along the sea coast near Tavoy and Mergui. 
Its wood when soaaoncd rtinks in water. It 
is used for ratters of houses, is a very heavy 
wood, but liable to split, tlicrefore not recom* 
mended for ordnance purposes. — Captain Danu, 

NEERADI MOOTOO, Tbl. Species of Ja- 


Juogli Badam ka t«l, I Nuerada Hootoo Yennivtt 

Hind. | Tam, 

Thia valuable oil was sent to the Madras Ex- 
hibition under the various nanica of Neeradee- 
mootoo, jungle Almond, Maroty, Tamana, 
Maravetti, Neervetti and Soorty. It is in great 
repute, as a medicine amongst native practi- 
tioners, and the kernel euteiij largely into their 
prescriptions. It might probably be found of 
use in the arts, it much resembles almond oil 
but is rather thicker. The seeds cost in Mad- 
ras As. 2-6 per seer — -excellent specimens were 
contributed by the Madras TarifT, Travancore 
and Cochin Local Committees and Lieut. Hawkes. 

NEERADI-MUTOO. Tk.? Jlydrocarpus 

NEER-CUDDEMBAY, Tbl. Nauclea par- 

NEEEGOBBI VAYROO, Tat. The root of 
Barleria longifoUa, Linn. 



NEERGOONOABY— ? Vitcx hicolor, W, 
NEKRIJA BARK, A^cLo-Hrxp. Bark of 
ElaMHlrmlron mxburghii. — Ben, Fh. 

NEICU-MOOLLTE, Tam. Asterocanthu lon- 
gifolia or Rirleria loiij^foUa, Linn, 

NEERMOOLIE VAYR, Tam. The root. 
Nwrowlee, Hnro. | Chmua ne«roo<l««, Tei^ 

NEER-PIUIMI. Tam. Ili-rpcstis mouniera. 
NKETHE I'ASS, a pass in Kunawer. See 
MounLiiiw, Fas^'>3. 

NEETI, Sahb., from noC| lo obtain. 
NEEUT, Ar.. Hrai). A vow. 

NEHCUAIU. SCO liimln. 
NEn\ jVkab., I'lEiw. la a good avenue tree, 

NECALYA-POKYA. NKP.'Ailarufl cicgans, 
K C'iv,, /?/./., liar,/. 

NEGAPATAM, on the Coromanrlcl Coast, 
is in lai. 10° 45i' N^ long. 79° 55' E,, in the 
TnTijoro Jiatrict. The town has a coiiaidcrablc 
C't.'i^iini* tnvle, L^ near one of the mouths oi' the 
Uanvery, h was taken from the Portuguese 
by Oin Dutch in 1060, and henceforwuni 
' • head-quarter* of the Dutch trade on 

itidel Cix\AU — CaL Rev., Jan. 1871. 
NKGUKA, Mm.p.vl. Fruit of Tamarindus 
indioa, ii»»., Ho.vh. Tamarind. 

NEGUMB.\_ on the west coast of Ceylon, in 
lat. 7° 12' N., is a pliure of ^ome trade. 

NEGKAIS, an island, a river, and a cane of 
thia name. Tlic cape is in lat, 16° 2^ N,, 
long. 04° 13' E., \a the south-west hind of the 
eoast of Ava. A river of the same name is 
avigablc a great way inland, by a channel ou 
each side of the island. 
NEGRETTI. see Red Sea. 
NEGUO R.\CES. Etlinolo^lttsare of opinion 
that Afri'^a has had an im[)ortant influence in 
the cfilonixation tjf Southern Asia, of India and 
of tlie Ka«tcrn ialatidd, in iwuKA prior to uu- 
jlbentiu history or traditions, and numerous 
Tar^< t-*^ an Africo-Tiiranian t)-pe are found 
i Iridiu. The marked African features 

I" 1 the jxHiple in the extreme .*outh of 

ibf Pernusula of lndi.%, tJie .Negro and Ne^ito 
raoui of the Audamans and Great Nicobar, the 
akun of the ^talay Peninsula and the Negrito 
^To, Papium and Malagaai races of the 
uf tltc Indian Archipelago, Australia 
' ^ ' ' " '^e extent which cba- 
'ion. Much of thiii 
lurtris r : it is a subject which 

11 wvll runi; iron. Hintorical ro- 

(•'■ -i:» Uie 

n and 

in tfac l>aa(iiii] distnot of N. Uuiara. 


origin haa not been tniccd, but aifi bo- 

mcdans uf .Arab origin have bot in 

India for dominion almost all tJie ruiun* have 
retained largo bodit-i of Africans, either of 
tl»e largc-lippcd, curly-haired, negro type, of 
of ilio sofier-fealure*! Abj-ssinian, and one 
family of these Abyssinian races, the Habflhi 
or Sidi of Janjirali near Bombay, is still ruling. 
The Adnl-^bahi and NizatnH«hafa Bhairi dy- 
nasties, who ruled in Bejapore and Aliuied- 
nug^:ur in the I6th and I6th centuries had 
considerable bodice of negro ftoldiens oa tbcdr 
household troojis ; the negro ^.lilors of the Sidi 
of Janjira continued up to the 1 8th century, 
the most ruthlc.'<4 pirate.i on the pirate codjt 
of India : the Amirs of Sind had, till the 
hour of tlieir nde, b(vlie« of African n 
around them, tlie nabob? of the C'arn.-itio had % 
small body of llie ne^o race as their hotue- 
hold alaves, the race are utill numerous in Lti* 
and Mekrau. and at Ilyderabiul in tlic Dekkan 
they utill form part both of the regular and 
irre;rular troops of the nixam of the Dekhan, 

According lo Mr. Logan, the oldest racca of 
India, Ultra^India and Asianesia, were of a 
variable African type, the two principal forms 
being Aujitralo-Turaulian or quasi Semitic and 
Negrito, fiillowcd in Asianesia by the MalagMi. 
He is, UkewJHc^ of opinion, that the present 
valcntUltra-Indian races entered the region 
the north-east and at a ver)* remote |»eriod « 
on tlie one aide over Ultra-India and the bi _ 
«>f the Brahmaputra and Ganges, and parti 
into S'jutberu India ; and, on the other, were 
ditfiwed by a long succe«ion of movements aU 
over Aslunc8'ui. Thoughout tliese regions, 
they uune in contict with more ancient races, 
and have in $omc places variously blended 
with them and in some dislodged or extermi- 
nated thcin, while in others, the old tribc« 
liavc been able to maintain a certain degree 
of independence and purity. In Aouthem India, 
the ancient clement was preserved in snm* 
degree, owing apparently to a civilisatioa early 
received from partially allied Semitico-A&icaQ 
and ScmJLio nations. In the Andamans, th9 
interior of the great Nicobar, the jungl 
the Malay PcniiL*ula, in Australia and in tb« 
various l^tpuan and purtially Papuan Ial*n*^ 
the African - h been maintained from 

tlio comparati nof the tribes- In the 

Gangetjc jirovmcc, as in the ^rreatcr portion of 
Ultra-Indin, including the Malay Pcninffula, th^ 
intrusive race appenra to have been recruited 
by the entrance of new tribe.* from the north* 
cut and to have ulbmatclyassimilated the native 
race, although the inHuAUce of the latter is itilL' 
sliijhtly f«crccptihlc. Ho remarks that wEo^ 
wo consider the position of India, betwi 
two great negro pr^ivinccn, lliat on the 
being Hlill mainly ut^ro, even in most 

N :»8 



aiid tliai on the cq&i pnwirvmg 
Bocm InisU ia (Kj'mts i*u titiur Imliu 
»• '' "^ ' and Kidiih. it liccomca highly 

^t . African element in iLc po- 

poitUiuu «jii die pcnituulu liu^ L>eui] tratisiaitted 
frum ail arcliAit! perioil hofore the Semitic, 
Tuxmniiia asid Iranian ra<e8 enttred India, 
42»1 vliita the Induin Ocean liud negro trilics 
aloci^ it« nnrthrm ns urell em it^) eaatern and 
vcauni shores. The baj5i« oi' the preiwat popu- 
lahon oi' tiir IVkluin, hf^ &ayH,na8 of an African 
chanhCLer wlucb was partially improveii by Tura- 
maiu or Iraoo-TiiraaianH and Hemitico-Tura- 
0102:3 from the N. W. and afterwards by more 
advanced ancieul N. E. African and Seinilic 
Acolen. Pcrha(» all the original population 
oi MMtliem Arabia and even of tJie SeniiUc 
land« genpr once African; and the 

Stfiaitic race )ded on them from a tribe 

loaUmi in Uie lU'iuaUiin? at the head of tho 
tuiphntr*. From the time when the adjacent 
i^MV^ ■ in iKoan l»egan to be theseata 

of ft'iii itrcial and maritime natioua, 

tt. la must have l<cen exposed to the 

rqi — .;.::ux of forci^ tradons and adventur- 
cn. Fr^>fD tlie autiijnity of the Egyptian civi* 
lilitioo, it U probable t}iat tlic earlicat com- 
norenU vuitors were Africuiu fn^m eaatern 
A^hcfl or •oiitliom Arabia, h is certain that 
th«>ab«oqQ«nt Seiuicic nurigatoiv of Anibia at 
rl. ' ■ " " " 


•ent (U>. The 

•r«t, «pp«ir» (r» 



dilinhed that int/'reour^e witli 
liave uutintaincd t»> the prc- 
Uruile between India and the 
hflve boon entirely in their 
") year*. Ihiring tliw 
ttcrs uot only romainod 
' 1 p«jrU, between the 
*"j ' ■-^, but many settled 

is ihem OA merchatitFi, Mr. I»gan tliinks Uiat 
the inlluiUK'e of African and Arabic blood 
mut have preceded that of the ^Vrian in the \}c- 
ulr.-..!- I.. .f''..r...,..-.^^ lIieArian ingredient in 
til became cunsidcniblc, 

|iu^ II ii:u-. iiMt iiii^iuir-il thp native r:\cvA in the 
Itme degree as it \\w done tlie Ueng;ili. 'Die 
bagioigvi are ^till CA*ontially distinct and tbe 
feuft-Afian phyificjd ek-mout remaiai !ttri>ng. 
I^ Ml India, art lan^nianrcd of one 

frr lich 19 broadly dii^tinj^niished Irom 

li>' "r San.*oril on the one «de, and 

fr i and Ultra-Indian on the other. 

Pii the poptUation of Soutljern lu- 

du. of the mn«t variable and mixed 

»iiich any ancient archaic province displays, 
riw nuDiber of varieties amongst the ])Oople 
beci^ too great to allow of thcJr being referred 
lo» aUD^le race nf pure blood. Some arc ex- 
Cttdiqgly Iremiiin. uiore arc Seiiiitico-Iraniaii, 
ttme are •^' thent AtulraUan ; some 

omiad tui >■, while others o^in 

Maiay^rot^ u«±9iau and even Simang and 


apuSn feAdireit. Yet wheji t]ic eye takcA io 

tiie whole ^»roup at once, Uicy are seen to have 
all somctliin;^ in common. Tliey are not Ira- 
nians, rolyiiesians, Papuana, (kc, but South 
Indiaiw, The strong of some of 
the lower south Indian castes, is belies od 
to be the remnant of an arcliaic forma- 
tion of a more decided African charactoi'. 
In certain of the claases of Soutliern India, 
in wliich the complexion is fairer, an Egyptian 
style of features is not iinfre^uently obserx-ahle. 
In this, tlie nose is not indented at the root. 
It is long and sHghtly cur>-ed ; the eyes almond- 
shaped and slightly oblique and the chin is sliort. 
In general, tlie physio^omy is more the Ira- 
nian than the East African and Egj-ptian. 
VVIiere tlie Arian or Semitic crossing is not 
striking, the person is generally rather small 
and slender, the legs in particular being very 
tliin, compared with tliose of the Gangetic race. 
The colour varies from black to diilcrpnt de- 
grees of brown and yellowish brown, in general 
contrasting strongly with the Ultra-Indian and 
Indonesian, races. There is a tendency to cer- 
tain peculiar physical traits, neither Ultra-In- 
dian, Tibetan nor Arian, but seem to be East 
African. The typical East AJncan head is 
removed botii fronj the exaggerated prognath- 
ous form, prevalent amongst the Guinea negroea 
and tile highly Semitic form characteristic of 
tribes that have been deeply crossed by Arab 
blood, and is in some respects intermediate 
between the Iranian and Turanian, while it 
has specialties of its own. The cheek bonea 
are often much more prouiineut than in the 
Iranian, and less so than in the ty])ical Tnra^ 
num, the projection being frequently anterior 
more than lateral. The lips are full or turgid 
and turned out, frequently with shaq* edgca. 
Slightly prognathous heatls are nut iuircqiienl. 
In the soutlt Indian population us a whole, 
the bridge of tlie nose is generally less promi- 
nent than in the Iranian, and much more so 
than in the Turanian. Even where the root of 
tho nose, bet«'ecn the eyes, sinks in, the upper 
line na a whole is much more thrown out from 
the face than in the Turanian head, so as to 
render tlie jK>int comjtaratively sharp and prf>- 
mincnt. The ala: have an upward expansion, 
leaving the upper fiart of the septum exposed 
and the elongated nares open and conspicuous. 
This is a Semiiico- African trait. In the Tura- 
nian the septum is contracted and thickened 
at (he ha"w^, pulling do^vn the point of the 
nose or rendering it low and obtuse, forcing 
the nares to spread out lati^rally and making 
tlio nares rounded. T\}q eyes in tlic Dravidian 
are large, are of full size, horizontal and well- 
separated and the beard is generally sufficiently 
strong. The Africo-Papuan pyramitial nose, 
with a deep and 8liar[t sinking in at the root, is 

N 59 



pftTticularly in aome of the lower 
in whicli tlie colour U nearly blacU. 
Mr. Ix»gan tbinka it probftble tliat this lower 
and apparently the more normal 9<»mliGrn type 
characterised the whole population of India at 
one period. Amongst the Vindhyans, some 
tribes are found who seem to approximnte to it 
such as the little iU-fuvored Tamariah, the 
neighboure of the Ho and the short and jet- 
black Sur&h who are spread for 200 miles 

tribes are very short and slender, small-eyod, 
flit-faced, and bcardlce, while otherR ato 
middle sized and own toll and robust, with tb« 
Senutico African beards, aquiline or pyra- 
midal noAes, raised nares and Urf;e eyes, 
of the other archaic types of Southtn'u India. 
Both typci preflen'c a black complexion, alike 
in Africa, India, the Andamann, the Malay 
Penin.<ula, the Molayo-Volyncflian Islands, and 
Aui»tralia, alUiou;'h inoditlcaUoikS of colour alio 

from the hilly southent side of the ba5in of the , occur thr«ii]L'hout this area. He tliinks that 


GanfTos along the ea«!em face of the ghauts to 
the Godavery who are much in pcnson, in 
civilization, akin to the Gangetic population, 
'i'hc Chonsuar, (Suar-Surali ?) who occupy 
the weatern p<»rtinna of the continu.ition of the 
ghauts between the Pennar and the Kistiia, and 
ho are probably a continuation of Uie .Surah, 
described by Captain Newbohl m having 
■mail and animated Icaturea, the cheek bonea 
higher and more pn)niinent than those of the 
generality of bindooa: the nose flatter and the 
nostrils more ex[>.*inded, the eye black and 
piercing, the stature lower tlmn that of their 
TelujCTi neighbours, and the persou light but 
well-formed. He characterizes them as being 
between a Telujru and Jakun of the Malay 
Peninsula, TbeOhensuiir live in beehive-shaped 
huts like the African, Nicobarian and many 
of iJio ruder Asiaucsian tribes. 

The Jakun of tltc Malay Peninsida, is the 
moat AiVican and prognatlious of the lank- 
haired Indiancsian tribes. 

In the Neilgherry hills, the Kurambar and 
Erular belong to the same low tyf>e- In the 
ghauts of the nortlkcm [uirt of the [>enin8ula, 
the Koli, Ramtisi, Beder, Warali, Kaladi or 
Kaikor tribes appear to be allied to the lower 
lyi>e, but in general the African clement has 
been eliminated. One of the mwit Africau 
of the»tc petty northern tribes is the Kat.-vli. 
They arc* of a deep black colour, aud Mr. Vau- 
pell describes them as being more like mon- 
keys than any race of men he ever aaw. 
The Warali are more slender and soniewhal 
darker than the common Marathi. 

The soqno«t«red tribes of Southern India 
appear to belong chiefly to the lower form. 
In some cases they approximate to the more 
Turanian African type, in which the noeo is 
flatter, the beard scanty, and the per^n shorter. 
There is so considerable a difference between 
thia type and the more Semitic, that, whatever 
may be the original relationship of the two it 
is necuwary to recognize bcjtli as existing in 
India at thr* rjirlif^t cm which cthnL»lopy can 
descry. A 'luuomenon prcscnis iL«»iIf 

on the vrc' of the Indian ocean and, 

what is ^till more important with reference to 
India, it is fimnd olio in the negro popuiatlom 
cf Uic MttCiQ vde. liany of the East- African 

little weight is to be attacheil to ihv presml 
absence of gpiroi hair in S. India, fi^r soms of 
the spinil-haired Papuan trilxa at' New Guinea 
and Ton'es straits are uJlen more Africo-S*mw 
tic and 8. Indian, in their physiognomy, than 
the Anslralinns, wliilc; the latter luive the &n9 
Imir of S. Indians anil &onie Mid-African na- 
ttonfi and n linf/uijitic furmntiou wliich resemblttf 
the S. Indian more tlian any in the world. 

In further India, in the extreme Suath 
East of Asia, are two marked typtai of ths 
hun»an family. These arc the lank-hair«d 
Malay and brown races, and the curly-halr^l 
races", to whom tlie terms Negro, Negrito, 
Papuan, Alfura, &c., have been applied. The 
Ultra-Indian races in their fundament;d cha- 
racters, physical and mental, and in all their 
social and nat iona! developments, frum the 
lowest or most barbarous stage in which any of 
their tribes now erist to the highest civilization 
which they have attained in Burmah, Pegu, 
Siam and Kaml)ojia, are intimately connected 
with the predominant Oceanic races. The 
tribes of ll\e Niha Polynesian family who appear 
to have proceeded those of the Malayan, re- 
semble the 6ncr type of the Mon, Hurman and 
the nllicd Indian and Himalayan tribes. 

Thfi MaUitfftn family approximates closely lo 
the ruder or more purely Mongolian type of 
Ultra-India, and the identity in person aad 
cluiracter ts accompanied by a close agree 
in habits, customs, institutions and arts, \ 
to ])lace beyond doubt that the lank-h 
pi:»pulations of tlie islands have bevn received 
from the Gangetic and Ultra-Indian races. The 
influx of this population closed the long era of 
Papuan predominance and gave rise X^ tlie new 
or modiiicil forms of language which now 
prevail. It is generally supposed that when 
they entered on their career of conquest, the 
Malays sjircad from the Menangkabau distriet 
in Sumatra. Tlie language of the rude mari- 
time tribes who frequent the coasts and islands 
of the Malaynn peninsula, and amon)rat whom 
several distinct tribes are distinguishable by 
their physical characters, is one mainly 
Malay but with differences in pronuncia* 
tion. In all the seaports and courts of Uie 
Archipelago, the Malays are a tall handsome 
class, whv9u fiuc oycs and wcU-ehapcd featiirei 



Bouiidinga. The Philippine Ixlunda 
some respect witli Ashx and thr otlicr i«li 
but prcsout some anumahtst which neciu 
dicutu tJiat iJioy wfic .separated at aii 
iwriod and liave since been subject to 
re%'oIutiuii« in ihcir physical geography. 
l^^lt id) thn LtlaMd.<( Irom Colebed aii<! ! 
eastward, exhibit ahiuMt an close a ref^i 
to AiisLnilta aud New Guinea as the Mi-Aipm 
islandi do to Asia. Australia in xU tiatuni 
productioiw ditfcrM fmai A»ia more than any 
tlic tour ancient quartors of the worM 
from each otlier, and all itj striking |iec 
tiea arc fouml al»o in tlitMc iHljinds which 
the Auatri>-Malayau division of t)»c Archi 
aud the contrast Iwtween tlic Asiatic or I 
Malayan fonn-i and those of the Austro-Malayai 
are abruptly exhibited in parting fn^m tli 
ifllaiid of liola to that of I^ndK)k« though 
strait \A only 15 niilw wide, and in trav 
from Java or B«irneo to Celebes or the M 
cas the ditTcreucc is still more striking, 1 
tJie only inference that Uie whole of the t 
eastward.*) beyond Java and Borntti do 
tially fonn a fjiirt of a fimncr Aiistraliain 
Pacific continent although it niay never 
actually been joined to it^ and it may )ui 
been broken nji before the wwttem iidandA Wfe 
scparuted from Asia, and jtrolMiMy before 
extreme soutli-caaiern part of Asia was 
above the waters of the ocean. 

The Am. Myaol, Wai^ioii and Jobt i»U: 
are called Mo-tfuine, aL«o Moo-Ion^. 'IMieir 
giioge is A,'iid to be iliiitinct. Ul' iha two 
racea of Malaya and Nef^rocs, most of 
former have embraced uiahomed^iiiisint. 
Mnlayit apply to the jieoplc of New Guim 
the epithet of Puwa-puwa, or Papiiwa. wYiick' 
is the adjective *' frizzly," or ** crivipini?,** and 
cipially applied by them to any object ^Kirtaiun 
of tliia quality. The term Nej^ro, from tU 
I^itin niger, w tJiat iwunJIy employed lodcsi 
the races of whom mention xa ni»w mode, 
numbers in Africa aro vaguely oiitima 
twenty millions, including (he Hottentot anil 
Kafir oU'-thonb* from the great family, 
race on the American continent number a 
five millions, 'rhcir nmnhcrs on tho Asiatie 
continent, on tlie shores of thi* l{cd Sea and 
Persian jnilf, aud on the Malay Peninsula, uiM 
not exceed half a milUon, but from tho Audaioaa 
i^landj* eadlwanhi to tlie races in the Pacific, (A 
the people generally claaaed iw NcgrocA, tlicfe 
arc at least twelve varieties ditfcring from oacb 
other in physical appearance, lumie boin^ pttf^ 
mics under five feet and nthcrs lar^'c aud 
powerful men of near six feet, Kxceplii^ in 
the Andanians, in all ifao Kcgm hinguagoa of 
which Mr. Cntwfurd bad «ecn specinieiu, M*« 
layan wordA are to bo found. N<^to 
Ur Ai tHe (iTBCUl 100 fktbum line of I occupy the Andaman and (Jreat N'ipnimr ■•lyT'.li^ 

C2 N 62 

lang ore a muuII Negro race. 

The Jakuii i»f Jahoie. are .<mperior lo others 
in tminy re^pecty, are the best dressed, having 
ai«o a great number tif rings on their tin^'-ers. 

The Negrito aro !<hurt, but wdl-iuiidc, active, 
soft Irixzled hair, nojic slightly fiattened, fea- 
tures more re^tdur arid skiu4eM dark tlum tlie 
African N^ro. 

The Papua of Now Guinea are true Ni-gnw 
and have made vune atlvance^ in jcivilizution. 

The XegnKMuIay are fairer than the Negn?, 
darker than t}ie Malay, intermediate l>etwccn 
the Moby and Papua. 

Mr. Wiillnre, however, believes tliat the 

Arehipt'lii^t L< divisible into an Asiatic and an 

iwtrulian jwrtioii, that the fioni and fauna 

fii-r, and that all the pei^plesi oi' the vuritma 
i^landnt can be gnrnped either with the Mutuy 
or tlio Papuan, twu nidiciilly ill^tinci racc« who 
ditt'or in every phyflioal, mrntal and moral 
ehamcter, and he states his belief that under 
thc*e two foriYis. a;t types, the whole of the 
pe«»pkM of the Malay Arehipelagri and Poly- 
ncAia can be cla^ofl. He oonHiders that a line 
can bo dmwn which shall tio divide the inlands 
as lo indicate the one-half which tndy belong 
U) Aista, while the other no lew certainly is 
allied to AiAStralia, and he desigiinta't these 
respectively the In<lo-Malaynn and the Aiwtro- 
M.dayan <livi*ionfl. He gives to Mr. Karl (/>/). 
12, 13 and IMl) the credit of having been tlie 
Hr-t tii imlic.'ite tho divinion of the Archipelago 
into an Aui*trjilian and Asiatic region. All 
the wide expanse of sea which divides Ju\'u, 
SumatrA and l5«trneo from each other, and 
from MaliKfii ond Siam, rarely exceetU fijrty 
fathoms in depth, and the «yw north m the 
Philippine inlands and Bali, cast o( Ja>ii, are 
not a hundred fiithoms deep ; and hu is of 
opinion tliat these isbmds have been M*parated 
fmm the continent and i'rum each other by 
jtulwidcnce of iJie intervening tract* of land. 
In the iidands of Sumatra and Borneo are tlie 
elephant and tapir, and tlie rhinooerca of 
Sumatra and tlie alJic<l species of Java, the 
wdd e^Utlc of Ikirnoo and tlie species long sup- 
pcMcd to he peculiar to Java all inhabit some 
part or other of southern A*iu. Of the birds 
and insects, every tjunily, and almost every 
genus of the groups found in any of the 
islands, occur also on tlic A.-«iaUc continent aud 
in a great number of ca.scs tlie ^pi.*cies are 
cuicdy idcntic_aJ. The resemblance in the 
natural pruductiuux of Java, humalra and Bor- 
neo with lIumc of tliti adjoci^nt partd of the con- 
tinent, lead to the conclusion that at a very 

-' ''■ 'Mntinent of Asia 

' nt limits in a 
[.--TK.ii lit' ciu'ri;^' the isUiids of 
td Bomfo, aiifl probably roach- 



r portiona of Asianesia, anme of the 
black tribes poMoss all tlie traita of the Guinea 
Ncgn>. but the Siiuang and Andaman appear, 
like the greater number of Asianeaian Nppro 
tribes, to have been partially moditied by mix- 
ture with other races, 'i'his \a certainly tlie 
kj wiih the Simanjj, some of whom arc Aiis- 
o-Tamulian in appearance, while others 
differ little save in their frizzled or spiral hair 
and dark complexion, from some of the adju- 
ceal Binua. The average height of the adultu 
of a ptirty of Simang Bukit on the Ijan, a 
feeder of tlie Krian was fuur feet eight 
inches, the highest fonr feet ten inches. 
Head small, ridged, that is, rising above the 
forehead in an obtuse wedge-shape, the back 
rounded and markedly narrower than the zygo- 
matic or middh^ zone; the face generally nar- 
rower and suiallcr than the Malay : eye-brows 
very prominent, atanding out from the fore- 
head and projecting over tlie occular furrow 
which extends across the face, the root of the 
nose sinking into it and forming a deep angle 
with tlie base of the flujtercllliary ridge. The 
ncse short and somewhat sharp at tlie point, 
and often turned up, but the aUe sprcmling ; 
eyes fine, middle-eized and straight : iris large, 
piercing, conjunctive membrane yellow, the 
upper eye-UiAbes, owing to tlie deep ocidar 
depreMion or prominent ridges are compressed 
ar folded, tlie roots of the hair being hidden. 
The cheek bones generally broad, hut in some 
cases not remarkably prominent, save with 
reference to the narrow tbrehe^d. Mouth 
large or wide but li|» not thick or projecting, 
Jie lower part of the face oval or round but a«t 
iquare. 'IIjc deep depression at the eyes and 
dnking in at the root of the nose gives a \eTy 
remarkable character to the head compared 
ftith the Malay. The projecting brow is in a 
vertical line with the now;, mouth and chin, 
ind the upper jaw is not pmjccting or progna- 
Jioiu. The pOJTson is slendor, the belly protu- 
)erant owing to their animHl life in the jungle 
Lnd precarious fotid. Thia induces them to cram 
hemsclves whenever they can, and the skin of 
be abdomen tlius becomes flaccid and ex- 
fflnsihtc like that of an ape. Tl\e skin ge- 
kcmlly is fine and sofl, although oflcn illi- 
Igured by scurf, and the colour is a dark 

rowu,^but in some ca>»«» lighter and ap- rack, and purchase from the BiJigis Uie Pa 

stupid. The voice is soR, low, nasal and holl 
or cerebral ; a line of tattooing oxteuds from 
forehead to tlie cheekbones. The right 
pierced, the orifice being large. The hair] 
cro[>ped save a ring or fringe round tlie 
head. Simungs arc found in all tlte rivers 
Pera and are cliissed as the Simang paya 
fre(|Uont thQ low and marshy alluviuai be 
the sea and the hill ; the Simang bukit 
wander in the forests of the hills, and the 
wlio are confined to the mountains of 
interior. There are said to be thousands 
Simangs in the interior of Patuiii, Trin 
Kiduh and Pera, wherevw the country 
covered with forest and there are few or 
Malays. Simang tribes of Kidah and Pi 
liave a language mainly dusyllabic like o 
Asianesian ones. TIic people of Kidah 
often approximate to the eastern Negro 
than in southern ^(aIaya, and Mr. I 
particularly struck with the repeatetl 
rence of the deep nasal depression of th« 
mangs, the Australians and Papuans, 
hca^ls, witli all the features as it were oani 
ed or compressed, were common. 

The ruder Binua dialects of the pen: 
are rapidly disappearing. I'hc Binua or 
of Pera appears to resemble in its 
character, the ruder dialects of the Ba 
group. This character is interniwliatc bet 
that of the Simang on the one side and tliat 
the ruder Sumatnin, Javan and Bornwra 
the other. The Johor Binua, is more )j^utt 
aspirate and harsh, remarkably broad and si 
In the Binna, the chcekbontM are broad 
ail directions and prominent, giving tu 
face below the base of the forehead a marici 
lateral dereJopment, beyond it or to tXw. 
head an appearance of being rciiipriiiwd- 
lower jaw is maasive, spreads out aud do« 
rise rapidly, tlius producing an obtuse ohin 
the anterior maxillary prvycctlon consid 

The Arm hUtntU extend luO miles 
north to suuth. Inland are manv frmh 
swamps with tl\ick impenetrable j 
olJicr places. Their prcxluoe is pearls, 
of pearl, tortoisejihell, birds of paradise 
trepaiig. The timber of the Islands ia ra' 
praisetl. Arru Islanders Imvc much in 
course with ^trangeiiL They are fond of 

'niArhing to the 3{alay. Tlie more exposed 

ordw ft« black. TIio Simang of Tringnnu 

f such a jet-black glowy colour as 

ii tribe. The hair is spiral not 

•ooUy. and gmwn thickly on the he^ in 

ift*. Ttirv \\\\\- iliii'k moiwtachcs, thegrowth 

t than in the Malay race. 

— . .^ iniuit-r Mongolian, nor Negro 

Guinea type. It is Papua-Tamulian ; 

iprcMioD of the face U mild, simple and 

64 N 

an slaves brought from New Guinea, who 
then employed in diving for pearls and in 
bechc dc mer finherv. The Arru Islanders 
impoverished by their cxcessaive use of 
toxicating liquorn, imported from Java 
Macassar. In persona] appearance the 
are between the Malayan and Poll 
Negro. They are not many degrees furtlM 
advanced in civilization than tlie natives 
the north coast of Australia to whom 



«f tiififD hcAT conudmMc pcnhinal rcsem- 
bbnoe. Some of tlic Arru men profess chris- 
tttjoity and nme arc mahoinodans. In stature 
^yty rarpQM Uie civtlufxl natives of Celebes. 
TW drott ()f tlie men is u piece uf matting 
«r doth gii\3«Kl round the Imn^) and drawn 
ti^t betireen tlic tluglis, and a salendan or 
tittv], Xo fillet ia wnrn round ihc head. 

cnx<(t. Mr. Earl describes the featurd 
New Gxiiuea Papuans aa of a decidedly 
character :■ — broad flat noses, thick li|»a| 
ing forehead:} and cluaSf and that tiirbi< 
of what should be tlie white of the ey 
gives a peculiarly sinister expression, 
complexion is usually a deep chocolate 
sometimes closely approaching to bloc 
Tbe hair U w-'^illy and frizzlwl out like that of certainly a few shades lipjhter than tb 
tbt I^4KUu The men are of a jealous dispo^i- \ black, that is oAeu mot with among th( 
iHfi ftnd oftsUy rou^ to anger by ahaso of j tribes of Africa. In Now Guinea, thQ 
ibctr vomeo or ancestors, otherwise tliey arc Papuan tribes arc generally in a state 
nild of dispoaitioD. The women wear a mat fare with each other and return from thi 

an froat and one behind. When a person of 
OMMqaence dies, these arc stripi>ed off and 
dicy rush into the sea where they disport for 
•ODW time. In the Arm Islands^ Christianity 
W muoduced many yeaj^ ago by the Dutch 
•C Amboyna and nearly all the principal people 
p tofe a i tbis creed. The Arru Paupan ornament 
tkar Hoasea with bnuen trays, dulam or talnm, 
vkI def^iant's teeth, which are broken up when 
the crvoer died. 

In Dori, the Papuans are called Myfi>re. 
Thty are abont 5 feet 3 inches high, few attain 
S.feei 6 inohes. They wear their crisped hair 
iti fun length, aud generally uncarod for, 
vtueh gives tiiem a wild scared ap]>carance. 
7W ni«n, not the women, wear a comb. The 
b«ud la crup. The fnrehcad is high and nar- 
tnm ; eyes Ui]^ dark-brown, or black : nose 
6u ana broad : mouih largf;, lipa thick and 
ictth good : few have regular features, and 
am are apathetic. The ordinary men wear 
> vaiat clocli made of the bark of a tree, called 
" Bisr,* vhicli lA wnpiied round the waiat 
aad paased between the legs. Women wear 
a 4iirt sarong to tbe knee, generally of blue 
gMi. Mefl and women tattoo their bodies 
OB necaainTia* by pricking the skin with a fish- 
boaa awl rubbing in lamp black. The Dori 
pD^a are a aea-liiring people and arc expert 
tmamtn and divers. Their Prabu have out- 
titfgen and are excaiated from the trunk of a 
•tagie tree- Tlioir food conai-^ta of millet, obi, 
naixe, a UtUe rice, fish and hog's flc.-^l) nnd 
frvita, aago is imported in small quantities. 
TKcft it conaidered a grave offence : they are 
ckatfG and marry one wife. 

Flortff -AVw GuinM, — It is not known Uiat the 
fTMt talanila of Sumatra, Java, Borneo and 
CriabWi errrcontmnodany Negro race. Bat a 
N^n> race occurs in tlic Island of Flores, and, in 
tfc» great Island of New Guinea, they form the 
vfiole native or aboriginal population, as they 
abo iSoof tbe islets near its coaats. Kven wiUiin 
New Gainea itself, there would seem to be 
OMra tfaao cue race. M. Madera, of tlie 
Oatcfa Navy, quoted by Mr. Earl in the 
ionmal of the Indian Archipelago, describes 
two of them whom be aaw on tbe south-west 

03 N 

like expeditions witii heads. The New 
people worship a wwsden deity calle< 
war, 18 inches hi»h, whom they consul 
occasions. A widow remains in the fi 
her deceased husband. The Negroes 
Guinea are in various stiles of civil 
Some of the rudest dwell in miserable h 
seek a bare subsistence by the chase 
spontaneous productions of the forest. 
are, however, other Negro tribes living 
coast who have made some advance in < 
tion. These dwell by whole tribes in hu^ 
like houses raised on posts, like those 
wild inhabitants of Borneo, but ruder. 

Philippin&s. — Negroes are found ia 
islands of the Philippine Archipelago, 
of the princi[)al island, Lucon, and in 
which ia said Co take its tSpanish 

WalfjijH. — The inhabitants of llic I 
Waigyu, lying between New Guinea an 
one of the Moluccas, are Negroes. M. ^ 
represents tbem as having more regular t 

Qfhhe, — M. Freycinct described 
groes of Gobbe, an island also betwe« 
Guinea and Gilolo, and not far from tK 
The noriB is llat, the li[»3 thick and project 
complexion a dark-olive, the eyes deep 
and on average the facial angle 77*^, 
high as 81°. In Gebbe, Waigyu am 
parts also of the coast of New GaiQ 
Malayan race may have become inU 
witli tlie Negro, as Uie complexion is 
and peculiar texture of the Negro hair a| 
obliterated. i 

All the islands extending from New 
up to the Fiji group appear to be inha] 
Negroes. But they differ greatly in 
appearance in New Ireland, Malicolla( 
the great Cyclades. Tauna and New 
in the Now Hebrides. 

The Alfuro seena. to have afRnitiea 1 
Tagala race of the Philippines tiircw 
Sanguir islands. A Papuan or Tir-* 
darker, and witli more frizzly hair 
Polynesian, Now Zealander or Otah 
their features are almost identical. 

Mr. Wallace (U, 280) beUeves th 

meroiis intermediate forms wUich cx^cur among 
the couutloe isLantU of tlic i'ocific are not mere- 
ly the result of an intennixture of thetic races 
bat are to aome extent truly intermediate or 
tranaitional, and tliat tlic brown and the black, 
the Piipuan, the natives of Giloloand Ceram, the 
Fijian, the native inhabitants of the Sand- 
wich Islands and those t>f New Zealand are all 
\-aryin[; forma of one great Oceanic or Polyne- 
aian race. Professor Huxley, however, ia o( 
opinion that the Papimna are more nearly 
ftUied to the Negroes uf Africa tluin to any 
[other raeo. The whole of tlie great ialand of 
Kcw Guinea, the Ke and Am islandii, with 
Myaol, Salwatty, and Wuigiou are iuliabited 
almost exclusively by tlie typical Papuan, and 
the same Papuan race extends over the islaiuU 
east of Now Guinea as far as the blji islands. 
The peiipic on the ooart of New Guinea are in 
^me places mixed witli the bmwner races of 
the Moluccas. In the typical Papuan, the 
colour of the hculy somewhat viiries : general- 
ly it id a deep 3orily-l>ruwn or bUick, somewhat 
approaching but never quite c<|iialling the jet- 
blAck of some Negro rac^, but it is occasion- 
ally a dusky brown. Tbc hair is harsh, diy 
and frizzly, growing in little tufts or curia, 
which in youth are very sliort and compact, 
but afterwards grow out to a considerable 
length forming the compact frizzled mop, which 
is the Papuan's pride and glory. The face has 
a beard of the same frizzly hair, and the arms, 
legs and breast are also more or leu clothed 
with hair of a similar kind. In stature the 
Papuan is superior to the Malay, and the 
equal or su|)ehor of the average Eurojiean. 
Tiie lo.^ arc long and thin, and the lumds and 
feet larger tlion those of the MaJay. The face 
is somcwhow clongate<l, the furehciKl tiattish, 
the brows very prominent, the nose is large, 
rather arched and high, the face thick, the 
no^triU broad and the ajierturc hidden, owing 
to tlie tip of the nose being elongated. The 
mouth is large, the lips tliick and protuber- 
ant. He is impulsive and demonstrative in 
speech and action, his emotions and passions 
exptnosH thi^maclves in shouts and laught(«r in 
yelU and frantic Icapings, women and childien 
take tlunr share in every discussion. The 
Papuan has much vital cner;:y. In the Mo- 
Itiocos, Papunn slaves are ofl«n promoted to 
places (tf coiLsideniblti trust. He decorates his 
c4noc, hii hnnsc, hli doiuntic utetuils wiih 
idaboru« cnrviu;.;. Tltcy are often violent and 
cruol towards their children. Tlie Papuan is 
Lall^rr, bbick-nkiutied, frizzly-haired, bearded 
and li.iii-i'-l»odied, iong-faced, baa a large and 
[ umc^ and pmjeoting eyebrows, bold 

iu; .. . -"•-''- --^-^ noisy, joyoM and 
..ij;l.ti f 1 s his emotions. If tlic 

J civiluauoD turn towards Nvw 

Guinea^ Uic Papuan like the true Polyneciatt 
of tlie farthest isles of the Pacific will no 
doubt become extinct. A warlike and ener- 
getic people who will not submit to natiuoii 
dependence or to domestic servitude must dis- 
appear before the white man. A race identi- 
cal in all its chief features with the Papuaii* i$ 
found in all the islands as far east as the FijL 

Mysol andWoigiou are Papuan, mixed, part* 
ly from Gilolo, partly from New Guinea. 

Alfiira, is written Alfora, Alafora, Aralai% 
Alfur, Arafura and Halafora. According to 
Mr. Crawfurd it is from the Arabic article 
Al. and fora, but another source is said to \m 
the Portuguese word Alforias and to mean free 
men, maniunitted slaves, aUo independent 
txibes of the interior. 

The Atheta or Negrito race, arc found In 
the Philippines, the second name, meamn^ 
little Negro, being given to them by the 
Spaniards ; but that of Ita or Alietaj, 
written Ajotas, is their usuaJ appcllatioa 
among the planters and villagers of the 
plains. The woolly-haired tribes are more 
numerous in the Philippines than in any ot}ier 
group of the Indian Archipelago, they were 
estimated by M. Malkt in 1842 to amount 
to 25,(XiO. Tlio islands Samar, Leyle and 
Zebu, have not any of them ; but they 
are foimd in Ncgros, Mindanao, Mindoro and 
Luzon. In the early accounts of them by 
Spaniards, they are described as beinf^ smaller, 
more slightly built and less dark in colour, 
than the Negroes of Africa, and as ha>ing fea- 
tures less marked by the Negro characteristics, 
but as having woolly instead of lank hair ; and 
their social condition could not then have been 
much letter than now, since they are describ- 
ed as living on roots and the produce of the 
chase ; and as sleeping in the branches of the 
trees, or among the ashes of the fires at which 
they had cooked their food. The name be- 
stowed on them by the Spaniards is ' Negritoi,* 
or little negros, but that of • Ita* or ' Athetas,* 
90 pronounced but written Ajetas, seems U* be 
their usual appellation among the planters an<l 
vilhigers of the plains. They arc all well- 
formed and sprightly, but very low in stature, 
OS they rarely exceed four feet and a half in 
height. The character of tlie Negrito is un- 
tameable, and it is imposHiblc to surmount thmr 
tendency to idleness. Prompted by an irresi^ 
tible instinct to return to the place of their 
birth, they prefer a sa^'agc life to all the 
cliarms of civilization. The Ajetas or NcgritoA 
are ebony-black Uke Negroes of Africa. Their 
utmost stature is four feet and a half; the hair 
is woolly, and ai they take no pains in clear- 
ing it, and do not know how to arrange it, it 
forms a sort of crown round tlie head, which^ 
gives thesn aa exceedingly faatostic aspect, and 

file head appear, wben seen from a dia- 

«, as if soiTounded with a sort of avireole. 

Nejfrito of tlie Pliilippinea, black and 

l!jp-}^iped, are of smvM dwarfed stature, 4 

fl Inches to 4 feet 8 inches high, which is 8 

.^ iem than the Malays. The hair agrees 

I that of the Pnpixon and many Negroeg of 

ca, but the P;ipuajis are taller than the 

ly*. The Ncfjritoa of the Philippinca are 

thcists, bat without temple or rittial. They 

tre m omens, invoke Cambunin (God), the 

'ind adore the rainbow after a 

ave also a worship of ancestors, 

toJ' uic han'cat, of the foherman and 
; and a remnant of fetichjHm in a gro- 
fUktiYe de\*iJ. Mindanao and Mindoro 
I scrrr&l tribes of Negritna, and they 
I Uic chaef population of tlie le!» accessible 
8 in the mountiun rangt-a of Lucon, the 
est £sbuxri of the Philippine group. The 
imts of the Negritos given by tlie early 
ifali narigatiDTS perfectly apply to their pre- 
oocuHtion. They are described as beinp[ 
ller, more ali^htJy built, and lesa dark 
ir than tlie Neiyroea of Africa, and as 
features lesa marked with the Negro 
bat as having woolly hair. 
of Dwry worship, or rather consult, an 
a fijrure rudely carved 
auti i shield, with which e\'ery 

h ptoviiieii. I'he idol, whicli is usually 
itogbleen inches high, is exceedingly dis- 
Httfened, the head being unusually large, 
long and sharp at the iwint, and the 
ide anil well provided with teeth, 
iva have abo a number of *' Fetishes,^ 
carved figures of rcjitilcs, which ore 
frnm the rooft of the houses, and the 
also ornaoiented with similar figures 
Within the geographical 
in Archipelago, the Papuans 
habitants of the sea coast in 
and the islands immerliatcly odja- 
parts of this region they are 
amon? the mormtain faatneasea, 
\rith the broivn 
.'led. In some 
nearest tn Now 
<ttcr of history," 
(History of the 
18.) In Oram 

by Mr. Cravrt'urd. 

Lrchipelftgo, Vol. i. p 

a few scattered remnanta of the race 

but they hold little or no intercourse 

miurc civiljxod neighbours, flj^ng 

tKickets which aflbrd tliem shelter 

i«Qt ot» the first appearance of a 

ricnce having ta\ight them that 

ti\-ity will be their lute if they fall 

i'qI' their natural enemies. The 

the motmiain Papuans must 

be «ot)gbt in those ifllands where their 

G7 N 

numerical strength penuita them to lead a lifo 
more fitted fur human beings than tliat of their 
hunted brethren. It is an error to 8up]x«e 
that these poor creatures disappear before 
civilization. Their chief destmyers are the 
wild and warlike hunting tribes of the brown 
race ; and, excepting the caac of the Moluccas, 
wherever European civilizntinn ha« been iniro- 
' duced, the Papuans are more numerous tlian 
elsewhere. In the Philippines, for example, 
according to an intelligOTit modem traveller, 
their number in the year 1842 amounted to 
25,000 souls. (M. Mallat, ** Les Philippines," 
&c., Vol. i, p. 97, Paris, 1846.) Tlie large 
island oi' Moysol or Mx'sual, wliich lies nearly 
midway between the north-western extreme of 
New Guinea and Ceram, is said to have been 
occupied exclusively by Papuans when this 
region W!W first visited by Eun>peans, and tliey 
still form the bulk of the inland population, 
but the villages of the coast are occupied by 
a mixed race, in which the Papuan element, 
however, prevails. The ishinds of Goram, 
Ceram-Iaut, Bo, Poppo, Gcby, Patani Hoek, 
and the south-eastern extremity of Gillolo, are 
also occupied by people of the mixed race, who 
arc remarkable for their maritime activity, and 
for their friendly disposition towards European 
atrangers. The woolly-haired tribes are more 
numerous in the Philippines than in any other 
group of the Indian Archipelago, with the ex- 
ception of New Guinea. M. Mallat, as already 
stated, gives the amount of the " Negrito** po- 
pulation in 1842 as 25,000. This can only be 
considered as approximative, still it is prohnbly 
not far from the true amount. The raco, 
therefore, can scarcely be leas numerous now 
than on the first arrival of the Spaniards more 
than three centuries ago. Indeed, their distribu- 
tion among the islands of tlie group seems to 
have been much tlie same then ns at the 
present day ; fur tJie island on which they were 
first seen waa named by Magellan " Isla doa 
Negros," to distinguish itfromtlieadjacentUland 
2^bu, where his ships remained for some 
months. Negros still contains a large popu- 
lation of Papuans, while Zebu is altogether 
free from them, and no record exists of 
their having ever been found tliero. Samar 
and Leyte are similarly situated with Zebu, 
From a number of inquiries among Papuans 
who were marked with the raised cicatrices, it 
appears that those on the arm and breast, which 
are the largest and most prominent, were made 
in order to quahly them for admiaaion to the 
privileges of manhood, by showing their cap^ 
bility of bearing pain. The Malayan term for 
crisped or woolly hair is " ramhut pua-pua." 
Hence the term " pua-pua," or " papua," 
(crisped), has come to be applied to the entire 
race ; and expresses Uiclr moal striking pccu- 





liarity. The fenlurea of tlie Papuans have a I 
decided negro cliaracter : broad noee, thick | 
and prominent lips, receding forehead and 
chin, and thnt turbid colour of wliai should be 
tlic white of the eye, which is apt to give the 
countenance a sinister expression. Their natu- 
ral complexion is almost universally a choco- 
late colour, sometimes closely approaching to 
black, but certainly »ome ahados lighter than 
the dcop-hlack which is often met vnUx among 
the negro tribes of Africa, The Papuans, 
vthen placed in circimistancca favourable for 
the development of their powers, are ph)raical- 
ly guperior to the races of bouth -eastern Aiia 
Some of the New Guinea tribes woidd bear a 
coni[)ari3ion, in p)int of stature and proportions, 
witli the races of Europe, were it not for a dvfi- 
ciency alw>ut the lower extremities. Even the 
more diminutive mountmn tribes are remark- 
able for energy and agihty — qualities which 
have led to tlieir being in great demand as 
staves among their more civilized neighbourj*. 
With regard to mental capacity, also, they arc 
certainly not inferior to the brown races ; but 
their impatitucc of control while in an inde- 
pendent state, utterly precludes that organiza- 
tion which would enable tltem to stand their 
ground a)^ain;»t encroachment ; and tlicy in- 
variably fidl imder the influence of the Mala- 
yans whenever tlic tn'o races arc brought int*) 
contact. The islands in wliich remnants of 
Fapuan tribes may yet bo found are Sumba or 
Sandalwood Island, Burn, the Xulla Islands, 
and the small eastern penmsula of Celebes, 
which t^nninates at Cape Taliabo. Sumba is 
a mountainous island, three hmidred miles in 
circumference, lying to tlie soutb of Flores, 
from the coast of wliich it is distinctly vi-iible 
in clear weather. T\\e inhabitants of Savu poe- 
scas a settlement near tlie eouth-wcst extreme 
of the island, and tlie Uugis traders of Endc 
have two or three small stations on the north 
ooast which arc occasionally visited by small 

!uropoan vesseLi for tlie purpose of obtaining 

lorsea ; but the natives of Sumba all dwell in 
the uplands, where tliey culii\'ate maize, yams 
and otlicr prodvico similar to that grown on 
Tiftmr, and are said to use the plou;^h, which is 
unknown in any other island to the eastward of 

The AVi group of ten islands adjoin the Arru 
ida. Ke, Kei, or Ki, is prefixed to the names 

"all T^ f • "t^cA. The great Kci is alK)Ut tlie 
luiei; .,an ishmd, ncarMacaa^ar. The 

cncn priiot'^ niuhouiedanism, but eat liog's tlcdh, 
mad Um i^ands produce Maratigo and Banyaro 
wcU aiJftpicd for masts* In Dori, the 

iiMttno ftr.t rnllo'l Myfore. They arc about 
"5 fof : '5 Icet 6 inches. 

Tbey . it» full length, 

gvbetaiiT uncaiol tv^r, wltich givea them a 

appeamncG. Tlie men, not 
women, wear a comb. The Papuan women 
of Ke are not secluded, the children are merry, 
noisy and have the nigger grin, and amongtt 
the men U a noisy rxmfusinn of tongues wad 
excitement on every occ4ision. The Ki group 
fonn the nortlieni of the south-easterly ialan^ g. 
The islands, are covered with luxuriant fiarMlL 
The islands arc occupied by two races, 
of thcin the Papuan who make oocoanat «i|, 
build boats and make wotiden Iwwls, tiMar 
boats arc fmm small ]iUnked canoes to pralii 
of 20 to 30 tons burden. They build th* 
skin first and fit on the knees and bends and 
ribs. Money is not used, but crcry trtJi^ 
action is in kind. The Papuan wears a « 
cloth of cotton or bark. The other race 
mahomcdnns who were driven out of Bandk 
They wear cotton dothiiig. They are probably 
a brown race, more allied to Malays, but iheir 
mixcil descendants have great varieties of hajTm 
colour and features, graduating between the 
Malay and Papuan tribes. 

Cent7n is the largest island of the IMnloocai 
and. next to Celebes, of all the ArchipeUgow 
It is 162 miles long, but its greatest breadth k 
only 42 miles. The Island is one long moun- 
tain chain that sets off transverse spun, 
some of the peaks are 6,000 or 6,000 
height. The peopleof Ceram approach n^ 
to the Papuan tyj>c than those of Gillolo. 
are darker in coloiir, and a number of 
have tlie frizzly Papuan hair ; llieir 
are harsh and prominent, and the women' 
far less engaging than those of the Malay raee,] 
Tlie Papua, or Alfuro man, of Cenun, gathc 
frizzly hair into a flat circular knot oreorV 
left temple, and place cylinders of wood,' 
thick as one's fingers and coloured red at llie] 
ends, in the lobes of the ears. They art 
nearly in a state of nature, and go «]i 
naked, but armlets and anklets of woTcn 
or of silver, with necklace* of beads oir 
fruits, complete their attire. The women 
similar ornaments, but wear their 
loose. All are tall, with a dark-brown tk!itti\ 
and well-marked Papuan phyaingnomy. 
Alfiiro or Papuan race are the 
nant type in the island of Cenun. Of twen^l 
eight words of the language of Coram, nt 
of the words are Malay, two Javanese, 
sevejitecn arc common to thej<c two h 

In CfUhfXy the TransrJavan or Timoriaal 
baud, and the Moluccas, is a large and im(iJ7t>| 
ant clan of Indonesians, who graduate between' 
the Anam type, the Hiirman and the Negrito* 
The most prevalent head or that of tlic prctSo-j 
miucnt is ovoid, but it is somewhat Burman or' 
Indo-Burman in no*e. eye and colour. Tb»| 
great island of Celebes may be considered ibii< 
centre of a group of langungc*, which, although. 




oiynesmn isianas ainnn, rcnl dialects 

of a common tnnj^iie do exist, but Uiere the 

m phonetic cHaracter, i number of words common to mn-h dialectn, and 

by the »anie race nfmon. ito the languagCB of the Archipelago, is »o tri- 

rting that it reftiies at once the notion of a 
coHuuon oriji:in. In Malay, the most familinr 
words for the head, the shniilrlpr, the face, a 
limb, a hair or pile, brotlier, house, elejihani, 
tlic 8UI1, the day, to s|>eakf and to talk, are all 
Sanskrit- In Javanese, Sanakrit furnialies 

leg willi those heretJiforc dcscri 
lidty o( gnunnia lical tftuctiu-e, ditfer 
^ frmn thtrm 
Ml^ spoken 

im b inicraecieJ by tlie etjnator, leaving 
taU portion of it in the northern and tlie 
in ihc anixihcrn hemisphere. It» greAteat 
tk m about 50U milea, but its ^'reatest 
dih «fto«i not exceed 100 ; and in some 
M It is hardly one-lUird of ihia width. 

b«t may Iw considered to be the focud of words for tlie head, the shoulders, tlic throat, 
■iginai and indepeudfut civilization which | the hand, tlicfucc, father, brother, son, daughter, 
obtv nruujz np uiuoii^'St the must udvnncetl woman, house, butlalo, elephant, with syno- 

he nstiond which occupy it, cidled hy 
DMslvtt Wupi, and by the Malay*, and 
r I)mid by Kunipcana, Buj^i. In material 
the liajri are equal Ui tlic Malaya. 
. — Mr. Crawfurd (Oictioaary of 

Malay language), considers that a certain 
aexkm of nitire or leas extent exists between 
I of tlie languages which prevail from 
JggTff— > to Kaater Island in the V.icific, 
ftom Formosa, on the coast of China 
K«w Zealand ; thus, over 2i)Q degrees of 
gUDdc and seventy of latitude, or over a 
t part of earth's surface. In this are the 
nntfable islands of the Indian Archipelago, 
A SuuMtm to New Guinea, the ^e:il group 
Um Philippines, the Islands of the North 
\ Smitfa Pacific, and Madagascar. It is iu- 
iMfted by tnany different and distinct races of 
n^ » 'the Malayan^ the bn>wn Polynesian, 
1 Inialar ne^ro of several varieties, and tiic 
[icaa of BCadagaicar. Of these, the state of 
BioUion is so various that some are abject 
il^ca» while others have made a respectable 
MKM in the useful arts, and even attained 
Da kDOwledge of letters. He is of opinion 
K the Itfkduig race in the Archipelago is one 
dihe fluoe, but the languages are many, 
Ih Bore or less intermixture of some princi- 
I OBMthnnighout. In Borneo there are at least 

hagvags ; in Celebes and its islands at 
ift 10 ; "I Flores 6 ; in Sumbawa 3 ; in 
aacra and its islands noi fewer than 10 ; 
d even in civilized Java with its islands, 3. 
tho a&nie in the Philippine islands, and in 
KMO, alone, there arc three. Tlie Indian Ar- 
bebgo oonsiflts of tlie islands extending 
n Somatra to the western shores of New 
doeft, and r^pecting which our information 

nio«t ooaipleie. He suya liiat no languages 

it esist derived from a common stock, or 
itMlifig to each other in the relation of sister- 
I^Las Italian, Sf»anifih and French, do to 
^Bthcr ; or aa Gaelic docs to Irish, or Ar- 
Han t« Welsh, or Scotch to English. The 
lect* tliat exist arc those of the Malay 
'lit they consist of little 
j>ronunciation, or the 
\tm freqtjcril iiso of a few words. In 
69 N 

nynies for the hop and dnjj, the sun, tne moon, 
the sea, and a mountain. In the language of 
Bali, the name for tlie sun in most familiar 
use is Sanskrit, ajid a word of the same lan- 
guage is the only one in use for the numeral 
ten. It is on the wune principle that Mr. 
Crawfurd accounts for the existence of a simi- 
lar clflM of Malayan words in the Togala of 
the Philippines although the whole number of 
Malayan words does not exceed one-fiftieth 
part of tlie language. Head, brain, hand, 
finger, elbow, hair, feather, child, aca, moon, 
rain, to speak, to die, to give, to love, are 

Some personal pronouns are found in the 
Polynesian dialect.*, where, in a vocabulary of 
five thousand words a hundred Malayan terms 
do not exist. A sentence of Malay can be con- 
structed without the assistance of Javanese 
wortls, or of Javanese witliout the help of 
Malay words, These two languages can be 
written or spoken, without the least difficulty, 
without a word of Sanskrit or Arabic, The 
Malay and Javanese, although a hirge propor- 
tion of their words be in common, are distinct 
languages, and their Sanskrit and Arabic 
elements are extrinsic and unessential. When 
Uiis test is applied to the Polynesian languages 
we find an opposite result. A sentence in the 
Maori and Tahitan caji be written in words 
conmion to both, and without the help of one 
word of the Mnlayan which they contain, just 

as a sentence of WoUli or Irish can be con- 
structed without the help of Lntin, although of 
this language they contain, at least, as large a 
proportion of words as the Maori or Taliitan 
do of Malayan, 

Mr. Crawfurd is of opinion that the Malay 
and Javanese languages furnish the slock of the 
wide-spread words which are common to so 
many tongues in the Archipelago and which 
have been chiefly derived from the languages 
of the two most civilized and adventurous 
nations of the Archifwlago — tlie Malays and 
Javanese ; and he uses the word Malayan for 
whatever is common to these two people. 

Of the languages of Celebes, the next in 
importance to the fiugis is the Macassar. The 







m I 

Me who speak this tongue inhabit the sarae 
ninsula. They call themselves and Uieir 
nguago Mankaaara, and hence the Makaaar or 
ngkaaar of the Mala}'a, whence the English 
a&me. Beaides Bogti and Macaasar, the two 
rincipal languages, there are tlireo otiier lan- 
guages of Cclcbca written in the same character, 
«r, at \&LiU occasionally written in it ; tlie Man- 
dar, the Miuiadn, and the Gorongtalu. The 
Idandar Ia spoken by a people on that aide of the 
uth-weatern ])enia?ula, which fronts Borneo. 

The iaknd of Sumhawa, tlie tliird in a direct 
line east of Java, abuut thrfo times tJie extent 
of Bali or Ixunbok, and divided by a denp bay 
into two peninsulas, has three lanj^ages, the 
SuDtbawOr ihe Bimo, and the Tamh^ra. The 
naiive* of Siinibawa are little inferior in cnlti- 
vation to the most improved nations of Celebes. 
The Sumbawn and Bima lanpmgea are written 
in the Bugis character, but there exists in this 
island a singular nud curious obsolete alphabet. 
t is Ascribed to the Bima narion, but the cha- 
ters do not generally correspond with the 
^mplc sounds of the Bima language as exhi- 
bited in the specimen given of it. 

The large island of Florcs, the fifth in a line 
east from Java, due south of Celebes, and of 
volcanic formation, aiTorda tlie first example of 
a race of men seemingly intermediate between 
llie Malay and Papuan, or Negro, but |iartak- 
ing fur mure of the physical form of the tbrmer 
tlion of the latter. The complexiou is a good 
deal darker than that of the Malay, ilie nfvc 
flatter, the mouth wider, and tlie li}8 thicker. 
The liair is not lank as in the Malay ; hut 
buckle**, without frizzling as in the Papuan. 
The stattire Is tlie liame att that of the Malay, 
that u, sliort and squab. According to the iiiate- 

enta made to Mr. Crawtijrd by Bugia traders, 
iibcmHolves scctlera in the islaml, FlorcA is inha- 
bited by six different nations, speaking as many 
different languages ; the Ende, the Mangarai, 
the Kio, the Roka, the Kimga, and the Gale- 
teu^s n;uij^ii dt^rived from the principal places 
uf tlteir residence. 

Tinmr h a wtird w/iich means the east, and 
was probably iuipuw'il on this island by tlie 
Malays, to who^ langAiage it belongi^ because 
thiH was the extreme linut of tlieir ordinary 
t .mum rcial voyages to the *outli-ea*t. Timur 
i.-i ;ilM>ut three times the extent of Jamaica. Its 
principaU inhabitants are of the Malayan race, 
f.nt W ..W.I »;t ., '• I io Papuans or Negms, and tribes 
' tc race. The two languagea of 

I ^' ■ Ttolo and the Timuri, the 

[ th-caifc end of the island, 
*' the tribes tui a 
No alphabet 
t.i' ■ ir; but judging i 

I . , the vowels are I 

uf Ui\i Alul;»y and Javaucee. I 

7» N 

From Tihiur to New Guinea, tliere 
long chain of islets, forming aa it were, a 
or barrier to the south-eastern portion of 
Archipelago. In these islets tlie inhabitant 
arts of the same race with the Malaya, 
speak many languages. By far the most 
and authentic account of tliem has 
given by Mr. Winsor Earl, who, after a It 
experience of the countries in which they 
spoken tlian any other European, nu&kes 
following obser\'ations. ** In the soul 
parts of the Indian Archipelago, where 
tunities of social intercourse between the 
[Kitty tribes are of rare occurrence, e%-ery 
every detached group of villages, has its 
peculiar dialect which is ofWn nniiH 
even to the tribea in its immediate n. 
IkxxI. In »omc of the larger islands, Tii 
for example, these tribes are so numeraaa^ 
the country occupied by many of them so 
t«nBi\'e, that it becomes impossible to form ei 
an approximate estimate of tlicir number.* 
Of one language-, the prevailing one, 
several languages of the island of Kisa, one 
tlie Sarawati group in the chain of ialeta 
ready mentioned, Mr. Karl furnished a aui 
and instructive vocabulary of 330 words. 
Kisa is an unwritten tongue, but its vowels 
the same as those of the Malay and Javaoi 

Spiee Jdandf. — Sir Stamford RaiRes 
nished specimens of three of the lai 
this furthest east portion, viz.; those of 
correctly Serang, of Temnte, correctly Ti 
and of Saparuwa, one of the Banda isles, 
the languages of Ceram, nine of the wtirds 
Malay, two Javanese, 17 are common to th« 
two language. C'Cram Laut is the great 
to which the Bugis carry the Paj)uan 
whom they steal from New Gtiinea. 

The great group of the Philippines, all 
oontiguoua to the proper Indian Archij 
differs materially in climate and the 
of its inhabitants. It extends m-cr ftfleea* 
greca from near latitude 5f* to 20° N., and 
sists of many islands of which only Luoon aai 
Mindanao are of great size. The bulk of th«' 
people are of the same tawny coraplexionodl,] 
iank-baired, short and squab race, as the priiv- 
cipal inhahitanW of the western portion of the' 
Indian Archipelago, The l<K:ua of the aborl-] 
ginal civihjtalion of the Philippines, as roightl 
be expected, lia* been tlie main island of th«' 
group. Lncon. The principal Iangua;7c« of Loeant* 
are the Tngala, the Pampanga, the PangasinaQ,^ 
and the IIoco, spoken at present by a popial»-1 
tion of 2J>r>0,000 : while the Uisaya has a wide] 
curruncy among the southern islands of tli«^ 
pTonp. Iveyte, Zebu. Negrrie and Pnnay, contain- 
in? 1,200,0<X) [teople. Mr. CrAwfu^l icIU la' 
iliat ii docs not appear, from a comi^arison o( 
the phonetic character and gramiiuttioal stroo-l 


•i Tagab, with those or Maby find 

that liiere is any ground for fancying 

' ooe and tUc same bing:uage, or lan- 

ung fruon a common parent, and uoiy 

by the effecta of lime and distance, 

n exauiinatiou of tlie Bisaya Diction- 

ixmiliiT retiul(8. The great islands of 

. Falawani;. and the Sulu group of 

ling the southern limits of the Philip- 

ipelago, contain many nation.^ and 

ikiikg many lancoagea of which little 

pnbliiheci. Mr. Cmwfurd, on tlic 

Q g^ven by Mr. E>alryiuple, informa 

rcA in the little group ol' the SuUi 

great many dilTerent languages are 

id he gives a short specimen of 88 

ana of those most current. Sulu has 

vetn been the market where the 

in other pirates dijip^joed of much of 

ider, and in former times itself vms 

piratical. Tlic mahomodan relifrion 

much progreaa in Mindanao and the 

idi. M nan the Malay lanj^age, tlic 

omel through which it has at all 

n propagated over the islands of tlic 

rcllip^a^. Mr. Crawfurd remarks 

ther tK« principal languages of the 

B* be separite and distinct tonics 

lliftl#0ti of a common Inii^rua^e, its a 

nk tmvf to determine. Certainly, tlte 

^tancter of the Tagala, the BLsaya, 

•Bgan and Iluoo are, sound for suund 

Rir letter, the same. Words of the 

laJiin4fl,:t*.^ are tii be fotind in tlie lan- 

) iiiliabiULnta tif FurnuMui, 

, ^As larj{t: island about liah' 

i, stretches as I'ar north as the 

'tiis is the extreme limit in u 

1 tn which they have reachetl. 

i%d Formosa are short in sUiture, 

ions and lank hair. Allhungh 

it and fertile inland, affording 

a fair opportunity of dcvelop- 

r mode any progress in civili- 

■^ent seem to live in a state of 

^Ti*ey are thought by Mr. Craw- 
ag to, or much to resemble, tlic 
!xioned race of the Archipelago 
Malays arc tlie type. 

lands of the Facitic extend from the 
tfew Guinea and die Philippines, to 
•o thousand fire hundred miles of the 
of America, and from about the 
Ic 47^ of south latitude. The 
over this vast area are, pn)- 
• nmneroua as the islands thcm- 
hngnage. with variations, is 
f the vme race of men from tlic Fiji 
in tQ £aiter island eastward, and from 
Ifich isljyjds Dortli to the New Zoa^ 
bdft sooih. It haa been called the 

rolynesian. The whole number of Malayan 
words in the Maori dialect of the Polynesian, 
as they are exhilulcd in the William's Dielinn- 
ary, only amount to 85. — John Crawfurri, 
ICftq.^ F. S. S., Afalfty Grammar and lMction~ 
an/, also, in Journal Indian Archipfta^o, 
Vol. i, p. i, to cxii. ; Sev. Dr. CnhiwelPs 
Coniparativf. Gmmvuir of the Tmnil lamjiuuje, 
ami also TinnevAhf Slutnam ; Cunnin/jh<nn% 
Bhilsa Topfs; Vtt-U's Emhanstj to Ava ; J". It. 
lAxjnn, Egtf.^ F. 0\ S.^ in Jitvmal Intiian 
A}rhipelago from 1848 tit I85i), pmrnm, 

774; />r. Lathnm'X ifewrijttiv^ EthHolo»j 

Dr$. Pritrhnrd, -Ufw? MulUr ; General lirit/tjs ; 
Messrs. Sciilagr.ntweit^ in Iteports British M- 
todation^ 1845 to 1858 ; Me$fr9. J/od*/fion, 
UobinMon^ Samviells^ in Jonrnal of Asi/Uio 
Hocieiy of Beuijal ; C'lfttain NewboUl in Jiot/(d 
Asuttir Soeiettf's Journal and Madra$ Literary 
!ioa*itjs Joui*nal : Calentta H^tnetv^ to 18(j<).' 
lieu. William Taylor^ A, M., in Journal 
Moflras Literary JSoeirty ; Dr. 77umtp9&n*9 
Traveltt in Western IHuialatfa : Dr. Moore^ 
M. D. ; Lost Tribes ami Sfucons in tfte JCast ; 
Captain Jf, O. Jiavtrty. Du^iionary of the 
Puk-hto^ Ptishto or Affyhnn Uiugvmje ; Mr. 
Piddingtoni Indf.x ; The Hiivioug ; Sir Ernhine 
Pfmjs Bird'it Kye Vino of India ; Clievalier 
Hansen^ Kiiypd place in Universal liigtonj : 
M. Sprenwnhery^ in Jour. hid. Arch.^ Dte-enifter 
1858. See At'rica, Aheta, Andamans, India, 
Mosaihna and El Aswud, Negi'os or Buglos 
islands, New Guinea, Papuans, Semitic races. 
NF.GR0-DE-11UM0, Sp. Lamp-black. 
NEGKO-l)K-ZAPAT()S, Si*. Blacking. 
NKGKO-FUMC), It. Ump-blaok. ^ 

NEGKO PRESBYTIA see Simiadfe. ■ 
NEGllOS, t>r Buglos i.-^hind, extends from la^^ 
9° 4' to lat. 9"^ 5i)', Of the centnil group of the 
Philippines, consisting of Panag, Ncgros, Sa- 
niar, Leyto, Masbaie, Bohol, and Zebu, tlie 
two former are the only iahinds in which 
Negrito tribes exist to Uie present day, and 
even as regards Panag, the fact must be con- 
sidered doubtful. Negros, however, contains 
a considerable Negrito jxipidation, the crest of I 
the mountain range, which extends throughouA < 
the length of the island, a distance of ono 
hundred and twenty miles, being almost ex- 
clusively occupied by scattered tribes. — Mr, 
Earl^ p. 141. Sec Aheta, Negrito, Negro. ^^ 
NEGUNDO. see Acer. fl 

NEIL\S, Abab. Copper. ^^ 

NEIIEMIAH, is believed to have been bom 
in Babylon. 

NEHESH, IIbb. Copper. 
NEIIOEMECA, or Nehocmaka, Mai 

Bryonia laciniosa. 

NEHOR NEHU, a large tdieep. or goat, or 
antelope, found in the very rugge^l mountjuna 
north of the Yaroo river, and in the neighbour< 







liood nf the sah mines or lakes. It \r four foct 
!iigh, ha8 very large horns, sloping back, and 
four foot long, has a tail 15 inches long, in 
«ha)t;rVi and of various coIouh, aomctinica 
black uitil Tnl. 

NKHKWALA, of D'Anville, is the rnpital 
of ihc Balhara ^ovcrcigntT of U»e Arabian tra- 
vpIIoh of the eighth and ninth centuries. — 
ToftM flujanthan. Vol. i, p. 41*7- 

NKIBlUn, M.Ciiraten. In a. p., 17«2, an 
cxi»edition w.ui arganixc*! by king Frederick V 
of Donmark, for the exploration of Arabia, but 
more p:irtit"utirly of tlic province of Yenieu. 
It VIM uiidor tlio charpc of the learned M. Curs- 
ten Ncibubr, wilb whom were associated I*n>- 
fesiior Von Ilanen as linguist ; Professor Tor- 
skal and Dr. Cramur as naturaRfts, and M. 
Haurcnffinil iw Jruugbtsnian. Thoy arrived in 
Ynmcn in the end of December 1702. Von 
I Linen diotl at Mokha on tbc 2oth May 17t>3, 
Forskal died at Yereem on the 17tU July fnl- ' 
lowing, M, Brturenfeind expircnl at sea, near 
the inland uf .SiKY>cni, on tlie 2Uih August, and 
Dr. Cniincr at Bc^mbay on the lltJi February 
1764.— /*/fli,r/Wir> Adetu 

NEIT-GHERUIKS, a magniflpcnt mass of 
Tuoimtains in th*^ peniiuuila of India nenr the 
fl(HitJ»nrn extremity of tlie Weaiern Ghauts, 
rising to an altitude of 8,500 l«et at Doda- 
Iji'ttA, where an observatory was eatabliabcd in 
I SI;*). Dr. Bir^h wrote a topo^rraphjiral rejiort 
of tlie hilU in Mad. Lit. Trans. 18:^, Vol. viii, 
8B. The Neilgherrie* are the highest hilU in 
the south of India, they lie to the west of 
CV>llcgal, The ^nirrounding rocka are of granite 
and gnei.'U, but the summits of the luountuins arc 
of greenstone. The Kimda range is extremely 
irregular in '\\a outline. It forma tlie seaward 
tUuk of the Neil^rherries with a very steep 
slope lowiinis the Malabar C-oast. It attains 
in its higher parts an elevation of 7,500 to 
8.200 feet above the sea. 'Hie Kunda or Sls|>ani 
ghaut or (nus which leads to Culicut is 0,742 
fct;t above the sea. Noilghcri. menns blue 
mountain. The Neilghcrrioa bad been travemed i 
by a party of Pioneer* under Captain Bevan and 
Dr. Fonl, in 1809, and were [mriiuJly surveyed 
uoder tlie direction of Colonel Morrison, so far 
baiik fts 1812. But they ap{>ear to have beeu 
altni-idt unknown to Kun)i>eans till about the 
1819, when they were tir^t ascended by 
in. Whish and Kinder»ley. in pnnuit of a 
id of smugglers. Their report led to Mr. 
Sullivan establishing himself there, and ulti- 
kt«}y to their being selected as a convalescent 
The remaina of two forts are still to be 

aenu (^i '' <^ u uiod as a state prison, 

ftnd was o a naaSi garrison in the 

thnr? of U, nd Tippoo Sultan, The 

i.ural inhabitants, have a 

W ibccr harii^ migrated thither 

fi»»m M}rsore t*>wariLi the middle of the 17 
century. Of the origin and bitrtory of tlic T 
nothing certain is known. The hilU are sit 
bet^veen L. 11° and 12° N., and L. 7*1^ and 7 
E., on the confines of the provinces of M 
Coimbatore, and Malabar. To Mysore, 
are joined by a narrow neck of land, of nii 
inferior height however. On all the other 
they are completely isolated. The aea is 
miles distant at Uie nearest point on the 
The summit o( the hills Ibmis an tmdulai 
table land of considerable extent in the 
an irre;;uhir pHnillelogruni, 40 miles lonf^ 
E. to W., and with u medium breadth of 
15 frorn N. to S. ITio surface may be 
c.'itimatod at 650 square uiil&i, an<l p 
sevrral distinct ranges of undulations 
peculiar features. Tluit to the west calli 
Koondalis, rises abruptly from tiie 
Iwrdered by several precipices of great heigh 
and accojMible unly at one or two pointa. 
upper surface is intersected by narrow 
valleys, tliickly dotted witli wood, and 
ing some moat picturc-iquo scenery. Sev 
oonsiderahio streams take their rise here a: 
imite to form the Bowany river, wich, dcsc 
ing by a succession of Ijcautiful falls into 
most romantic g«irge, forces its way throug: 
the soutiiern edge of the tableland, whew i 
makes an abni]>t turn to the east, and fUi 
along the whole southern iis{>ect of the liilU 
it meets the desMxniding in a si 
manner, and with similar accompanimen' 
scenery from tiie nortliem face. A pn> 
don of tlie Kiwndahs to the north is callivl 
Neddimulla range, and forms a narrow ridi 
sho(Jtiug u[i into lihaq) peak.<i, and l>orderod 
lolly precipices on the we^t. On the i 
side, the Koondahs sink into a lower ra: 
of tableland, formc^l by a succemion of 
rounded hills and valleys, less richly 
and bounded to the E. by the great rem 
range of Dodabct, running completely' 
from N. to 8. This is the highest point of 
bills, being S,730 feet al>ovc tlie sea. On 
west side ot the range, immediately below 
hi^cst summit, is Ootacamund, »ituute<l in 
basin surrounde<l by high hills on all sidoi. At 
the northern exlrcinity of the range iaCoociOQr« 
from w)\ich a magnificent gorge do^conda to the 
plain of C^imbatoor, giving a passag^^to the 
Coonoor ghaut, one of the principal nxids. A 
corresponding fissure on the N.. but mach Ion 
deep and not so picturesque, oontotns the Segoor 
ghaut which gives access to the hills from HyBora 
and the north. After crossing the Dodabetran^ 
the country sinks considerably and is covcrvd 
with Buddagah villages and cultivation for 
miles, when it again rises into long groasy rangn 
like the Koondahs, but without the lof^ peaks 
which distioguuh the latter. At the commence- 


-ituatiHl ICcttfti^licrry, and a 
,1 viiMcv rmiiiiiig E. and W. 
iu> the low couritxy, and u 
^r- vullcy, from conlainii^; n 
her of wiiii unnite trees. Itulao cooUlius a 
!S«jue wattrfaU of annie bisipht. THc 
t ixom the iaM«'lanJ of KotajjbtiTy, iiioii;.'h 
Itm abrupt than that of the Koondaha, is sutfi- 
ncdtly auUdcn to j»re*cnt a btild and inip<wiMg 
£«p«t tvhen viewed fitun below. About the 
i;;id.ile of the E. face, nearly opposite tlie 

(Jttiz, '= -t^a. which ascends into Myaorc, 

u di. inairy Pass wlilch for many year* 

I ms the <vTijj practicable aoccaa to any pari of 

dum. The views on the Kixjiuliihs are b-ild and 

nw^ificent. Those t*.»war«U and noar Ootaca- 

i MP jaadtBto fg pant<»nil: find in tlio vicinity of Koia- 

B|^^^Kl] Tiriilturnl. The want 

^^^^^^^ I presented by soQieof 

^^^^H^ ii'd in uon:4pii'Uon% and 

BHB^ '"'^^ planta and iKe cou- 

' Mfomt want oi ihc rich variety of aiiluranal 

tiate iNH-n in the forcsW of Eui*oi>c pivw an air 

of isonotnuy to the woo<U, which so richly 

y.^,h., .V,,. upper jjortion of the table-land. 

rol elfvation of the lahle-land iliffLTs 

theUirce priacipnl divisions. That 

■ Hjndab range may be estimated at 

i.iAMj i.Tt, The central portion at 7,100 or 

■^H). and t!»c Kotaghcrry division at 6,000. 

most important folnU of climate con 
witli similar phenomena in Cireat Britain 

K. . > L,it iLiid 

KudariJi*a LUl,.. Ft. 8.S02 

l:.-* ... 6,710 

\i.'. ... 7,7-W 

We«(d*i» ft '*:-y . 7,rt;w* 
MkkxinM [M^k ... ^,Mi2 

I Or- Baikie) Ft. 7,416 
Coonrxir buncralow, 5^011 

siic I'tKJuoori 6,571 

Kntatchcrry Kuige. 
Kotdght'tTj' (Or. 

EiJton'a hoiwe)... 
Dirahiitty bungft- 


Orange viUu J (cen- 




Bonlnil IlotU f ftbnro 

Uc.) 7^7 

I^w Coiiniry adjoining. 
Mut^ipoliium bun^- 

low 943 

Coimbatoro paliu-M. 1^463 
Segoor village (fool 

uf Sfg'ior Foss)... 4,001 









O 3 



*a)(uvy m»K 

iaT\va\»\y[ itvsK 




I «mMai! 

TTie groat cJeruiion of the Nelgiri? 
Ut^ wilb their perfectly isolated iK>9ition, 
" , ''m- nerd by both mon»xtns, unite in 
e of the most [>cr1ectly temperate 
ttd ^loabtc cbmate* in the world. The mean 
Aiuiuai tCTupcroturc of Ootacainund is 6S°-6S°. 
The axinuai range u coiiMdef»hlei being efpial 
hi »«n«t years tn JS*'. the Uigliest ol'served 
Itstpcmturc in the shade being 77" and the 
lowst Sy. TImJ m^an daily range is 17°. 

Tb« foDowine *^**^* preaenla a view of the 

The mean temperature of the year, t 
mean maximum and mean minimum, be 
about the same relation to each other as in B 
tain, bxit are about 10° higher, while I 
daily range is somewhat less. The highi 
observed temperature and the lowest in Er 
land are greatly above and below respective 
the corrcapouding points on llic Neilgherri 
that is to say, the extremes are groater, 1 
number of days on which rain IhlU in Ei 
land (exclusive of snow) greatly exceeds 1 
corresponding niuuher on the hills, only 1 
fair days being left in the one case and 2 
iu the other. 

At Uotacamund, mean 
hyi(rht«fbarninel«r ZII-OIS 
GrL'ute^t ranii^e, U'7U0 

M^An Annual range, 0' 
Me:in daily rmnge 0' 
Greatest daily nwge O 

The bygromctrica! state of the atmosph 
varies from intense dryness (from January 
May) to saturation, with moisture, during 
moasonn,and evaporation is in almost direct n 
Willi the dryness of the air. January, Febnu 
and the half of March, are uniformly I 
clear, and dry. The nights are very cold, ; 
frost is almost always to be found in valleyg; 
sheltered situations towards morning, disappt 
ing as the sun acquires power. The air io 
almdc is always cold, but the rays of the 
are very powerful. Rain seldom occurs be 





of March whtn t>»e fnifil disappears ; 
the air bpcomes milder nnd there iire generally 
a few hcav)' showers. ApriJ und May are 
uiild pleas:int months with frciiucnt hcuvy 
slmwera and tlumder-storms. In June the 
S. W, inunscnm deta in ; iii gcuorul 10 or 14 
days later thun on the Moluhnr C^iast. At lint 
the rain is pretty cun^tant and hea\'y, but dur- 
ing the whole continuance of the monaoon, that 
is, till the middle or end of September, there 
arc* fretjuent intervals of most delightlid weit- 
thcr. The tcmyicratiire being ficeulinrly 
equable and the duinpnej^ very triHing. Octo 
ber ia on uncertain month, being ocrxisionally 
blustery and ahowery, occasiomLlly very line 
and dry accdrJinir as tlje N.E, nion*x)n occur* 
early or late. Novenihcr is showery and un- 
pleasant, but after the occurrence of some 
i»eavy fugs in the early part of December, the 
frost seLH in and t]>e weather heconics dry, 
cold, and bracing. The seasons are subject to 
great tluctuutions, nIm(Mt as much so na in 
Europe. The climates of Kot.igherry nnd 
Coonoor are consi»iembly milder tlian tltat of 
Cotocamuud, and there is nlso some difference 
in the seasons. The 8. W. monsoon being 
comparatively light at both these stations, while 
the N. E. IS heavier. The formation consists 
fUmost entirely ofsienito in all il# modifications, 
granite more rarely, covered in moat places by 
a cup of hthomargic earth, in which the vari- 
ous constituents of the primitive rock can be 
distinctly traced in varioiLs stages of diainte^a- 
tion nnd decay. The latter in some places 
r«Mnmea the form of latcritc or soapetone. 
(The soil is of very vnri>iiis quahty nnd c*>mpn:!>i- 
ion. In the valieyH and swamiw it is ppuerally of 
deep black colour, and consists of disintopratcd 
^lienitofmcMtly hornblende)mixed with vej^etable 
tier, vtry rich, and whrn ihorouphly drained 
ily profhictive. In the wnodw alsc there is 
admixture of vegetable matter and the 
mI i« of jfTcat depth — on the sides of the bilk 
(•(fain it w much thinner, more mixed with 
[Ijihomargic earth, and consequently poorer. 
Tho »riil i« richer and mnrc fitted ftir agrJcul- 
tnral purjioses towant* the verjrc of the high 
ground, where the aitrictdtural (mrtion of the 
commimity (the Bu(ld;ii^ah and Knihar) are 
.exclusively hxiated, and uX]M'riuiic<- hu.-^ tau^'ht 
icm not to turn up the soil loo deeply. Vege- 
tables and fruit of every description are plenti- 
ful. The BuddsL'flh culti>-atc hurley, wheat, 
[jTBgee, and a ';: <» of millet in j^Teut 

lUantiUcs — a "- i called ket-rei-mow, 

[Aroarantus tristia) |>oppii*s, p^ailic, onions and 
iQitard — and without culture are wild oranges 
noe or two localititiS, the Brazil cherry, the 
»ni gooftehary, strawbcirieft, raspberries, bram- 
tfTTtcst, ami barberries. The Orchu masculn 
ii lirodocc* tiic cAlebrattd salcp misreer is 



plentiftil in certain localities. Of trild aniinjus 
are tlie ti^er and rheeta, the elephant, die 
bison (Bibc« caWfrona of Hodgson) the aambijr 
or hhick ruaa (Kusa aristotelis of (ruvirr^ aa 
iindescribed species of wild gorit, :i; tbr 

Capra tegagrus. The jungle ^: ittw 

mniitjak,) the beiir (Ursu& lahiutU'^) the wild bop^ 
jackalls and wild dogs, also otters wliich are 
numerous in the large rivers. Porcuptne*. 
martens, two 8f»rcies of monkeys, hares in oon- 
sidernhte nuuiben. In the ghauts and slope* 
towards the low country, the w^oodcock, solitmfj 
and common snipe, jtmgle fow^l, spnr fowl, pea- 
fowl and qiuiil. Hawks in great numbeni and 
variety imd a black eagle are also to be fotind* 
The black bird, the thnish, wren and birk am 
the same as their prototypes in Europe. A 
very small fisli is found in great numlten* in die 
Pykarru river, and the deep pools are inliabil- 
od by kitbocrte of a !)ir;T<. size. Cralw are oum- 
mon. A small barnde^ green snake is very 
common. Cohnw nre not uncommon in (>raiig« 
valley and a rather largo description of boa. 
Kleiw are very troublesome at certain 
nnd appear to breed in the ground. 

The Todawara or Tudalu are the oldest of thl 
inh.ihitanU, but of their origin, history, &c- 
nothing whatever is known. Their costume aini 
physiognomy arc peculiar. Their lat 
U partly derived fr-im the Ilala (»r 
Canareae. E;ich Mun<l or village, ha» 
separate, and somewhat larger huuse wl apart,! 
and sacred, as a dairy, into which womtTi are] 
not allowed to enter. They are eutiTfJ 
nonndic and subsist by the prinluce of tfai 
herds, receiving nlso a sort of ^-round-reut 
kind from the Uuddagali and Kuta who ackiuiw- 
ledge then; as the lords oi' the soil. Tbey 
p«ilyandric, tl»e broliieis of tlie fauiily luivioi 
only one wife in common : female infjuni 
prevails ; they slnugliter a number of bt 
at funerals attondetl with some cerenu 
They appear to be decreasing in number. 

The Buddaga, by tiir the n»o«l numeroiu 
on the hills, orn the desccudauLs of Mvwtn 
soodras, who, sometime in the tniddle of dM 
17th century, quilted their original ItK-ation 
Mys<irc to avoid the oppression of llie rajah, 
They arc almost entirely employed in cultii 
lion — hut they keep large tliK:ks and herda 
cattle and readily act n» coolies, cowkcopcn» 
&c. They arc a m<»st imiustrioiis race. Their 
numbeni are increasing, and their village* 
populous and tlmving. 

The Kotha are a race with habits like 
chucklers below. They are rather looked down 
upon by the Buddaga from Oicir eating carriixi* 
but they arc equally industrious, and are dm 
uoiversal artizans of the hills, making and 
repairing plougludiares and otlicr agncul* 
tuxal implements, as also the silver omAmeni 

N 74 



by tiw Toda aad BatlJ^^ wvmen and 

The Erular and tlie Moola-Coiriimbar arc 
vlmoit in a sUte of nature, irahubitiug the 
vildest recesses of the jungles oa tlie slopes of 
hilla, where they erect wretched huts, sur- 
by a few plantain trees and a little 
ihed ciltiTution. They avoid mankind, and 
an regarded as aorceren by the other iubabi- 
t»:i' \ 'tribute to their agency every piece 
o:' It beXalls their cattle or themselves. 

ia lie year 1S35, after a severe murrain hail 
pnT^ed among the eattle^ the Coorunibara to 
tile number of 50 or GO were a&iembled to a 
fiEMt, aud in the height of their mernmeut were 
cnieUy nuts«acred by the Toda race, scarcely 
M8 €Kaping. 

Th* experience of many years has undeniably 
poviMl the perfect udaptatinn of the climate to 
tkc tound KurD[>can constitutiun and itA grejit 
^over of rt^Sitt^ring to health tltuse who have 
foSered from the various dL^eoscs produced by 
tTMICftl cUxnate9. For continned liver-disease, 
Ud ehiooic dysentery, and tor teethini^ child- 
ren, t^y are wholly tuittuited. Little benefit 
M to be expected from a mere change to 
the Xeilgherrics without a prolonged re"<idcncc 
tWv« ftod caution ia re^^uired in f^uarding 
agBtajt peculiar effecta of liie ciimate. From 
die gT««U elevation and consequent rare/action 
01 tbie air. heat is much more rapidly abstracted 
§Nta the boiiy at a corresponding tem{>erature 
Mtf the le^'el of the nea. The power of the 
fUi*B nya or the dilTerence between the tem- 
p«catar« in the sun aud in the Rhiide Ia much 
ptattir than below, often amounting to nearly 
dtp : t2iu 14 {>cculiarly remarkable early in 
tW momng, and again after sua-^et when 
iamlids or delicate pcnons are very subject 
i» ndSicn chilU, in the uuo caae by coming 
iaSo ih*i house or sliade, when heated by 
fUtCttO in the open air, in Uie other by re- 
fi^Qiing out<iide after the huu haa gone down. 
Aflowmce must al:so be made for the effccta of 
Amhushod pressure of tlie aLiuuephere, inorea^- 
vi^ the quantity of bluid circulated in the 
ajalldjies on the surface of the boily, und more 
f^peOftOy on tlic air cella of the lungs, by which 
ihf" - — "'-1 circulation will be accelerated and 
til rt£ of a powerful stimultu produced: 

fc. -. tn^y be attributed the malaise, 

tcu .- '. i , I ,>it:!^isness and other uuplea^ant 
f» ' -need by many delicate per- 

b. t aacent. Grt-'at attention ia 

iIau t' 'liag, diet, und exercise: 

at^ n" ' omit to avail himacif of 

th' -• ivice lobe had on the spoton 

r<.' t . r i'.ii'i IA pictnro-'^qiicly situated in the 

i:i •.•.mi>:d by the central chain of Dodabct, 

fiptft wbkh two conaiderable spun run in a 

75 N 

semi-circular direction to the west, and com- 
pletely enclose it uu all aides except tlic W. N. 
W. The jjubordinatc hills and interjacent 
vallies have each its house perched at the sum- 
mit orslieltercd in the nooka, and the tcrrepbiine 
of the valley is advantageously occupied by a 
long narrow lake formed by an artificial dam 
which clode^ it to the W. and retains all the 
waters of the basin. The site has b<>en admir- 
ably closen, its central pocsttion giving it all as\- 
vantage^i of climate while it is free from the 
suspicioa of malaria which attaches to places 
nearer the edge of the ghauts, and it present) 
a great extent of level ground than almost any 
other {^loint on tJie hills, the priuci])al drive 
round tlie lake ibnoing a circuit of ^m 6| to 
8 mBes. 

Kotagherry, 17 miles E. of Ootacamund, 
affords an a^eeablc relief at certain seasons 
when the cold at Ootacamund is too severe or 
during the prevalence of the S. W. monsoon- 
It is also generally preferred by those, who, 
from long residence in India or natural delica- 
cy of constitution, are unpleasantly affected by 
the suddenness of the transition from the low 
country. This remark applioa still more strongly 
to Coonoor, the climate of which is a shade 
milder than Kotagherry, — Dr. Buiat ; UritUh 
Almanac for 1336 and 1838 ; DnnUTs Meteoro- 
logical E$tay$ ; Dr. Btnsa^ in tlu Madras Journal 
of Literature and Science^ No. 13; llarlncsjt 
account of a lingular Aboriginal rac^ on the 
Neilgherries, London^ 1832 ; Topogrni^liical 
Rfport on the Neilgherries^ hj Dr. Birch^ m.d., 
Afadrcts Journal of Literature and Science, 
No, 20 ; Baikie^s Observations on the Neil- 
gherriex^ edited by W. H. Smoutt^ Kfq.y 
CaUuHa, 1.S34, ^e„ ^." See India, Khtar, 
Buddagar, Kummbur and Thoilawar. 

cococca trinerva. 

pcstes fuscus, Waterh., Bl, 


NEIIXSHERRY GRASS. This is a species 
of lobelia, which probably came from Java, 
the Lobcba succulcntaof Blume, a Java plant. 
Wight, writing on the lobeUas nays : *' There is 
a small cespitose species much cidtivated in 
pot*, !)y amateurs, under the strange name of 
Neilgherry grass. — M'xmn, 


Hcri>ah or Serpah, Hno- 

Urtioa heteropbylla, Roji. 
Uir&rduiia leacbtttuiultii, 
Hooroo, Sunt of Amaui. 



This is the moat widely diffused of tlic hirgo 
Indian Nettles being found in Soutli Concan, 
along the Malabar coast ; the My«ore; the Neil- 
gherries, the valleys of tlie lluBalaya, in As- 
sam and Bumah. It is an annual plant, the 
sting of it pn-Kluces intense pain, the bark 
abounds iu Hue, white, glossy sjik like fibres, 


but ihntR j>robahly dilTcr with tlio lucnliCy in 
wMoh the. plant is g^^^**n. Dr. Wight deacriltos 
those oi' tiie Neilghcrrics, iis a fine 8(»ft fbx-Uke 
rtbrc, and fitted to compete with flax in the 
miinufiictnre of even very fine textile fabrics. 
*llie Todii pxtraot it by boiling the jilant, 
and 1130 it a.s a material for making thread. 
Mr. Dickon px^sed it through }iut muchiue and 
liquid, which rcndrred it likca bcautifiU, 5of\, 
silky kind nf flax. He rails it a womlorfiil fibre, 
of which tlic ti)w would be useful for mixing 
with wool, as has been duue with China grass. 
— /?ov?f. 

pcrmteti. Dm: 

Sciunis Miblineatas, IVuterh., Bhj, 

giriciw, Jerdnn, 

hylocritis Jenl, 

NEILL, Sir James, an officer of the Madras 
Army, who roee in the Modnw Fusilier regi- 
ment. He waa the flrst to stem the tide of 
rebellion in 1857. A statue was erected to hw 
meinory in Ayr, his native place, and another 
in Madras. 

NEILUXG. )tee Kunawer. 

NEISWURTEL, Das, Hcllebonia niger. 

NEJD occupies nearly the centre of, and is the 
tar>,'cat province in, Arabia, being, in its greatest 
limit/t, 040 miles in length from north to south, 
and 760 miles from vast to west. On the eautt 
Is the long strip of El Hiussa, or lladjar, on llie 
north that part of .Vnibia Descrta callctl Tauf, 
thi> Hijuz on tiic wi-^t. witli a part of Yemen on 
lite Aouth, and ilic dcstri of Ahkaf on the south- 
east. The surface, oa the name implies, is 
elevated, hut it is diversiiled with mountains, 
valleys, and plains. S^mic writer* consider the 
mouatatnous district Nejd Arad aa a separate 
province. The existence of a freah-watcr 
lake at El Asha, and of several in Nejd, as 
ONCcrtnined by Captain Sadlcir, has established 
tbo fidelity of Strabo in this particular. There 
ore otlicrK, but of small aiie, in Arabia Felix, 
in Teliomeh and in Oman, and one called 
Salome in Ahkaf. The Anezi, according to 
BarcharUt, are the most powerful Arab nation 
in the vicinity of S>Tia, and of ibcir brethren 
in Nujd Ic- ' ' y ^re the moat consider- 
able l>o*!y ' ' in the Arabian deserts. — 
Vol. 1 of th^ Bomfxttf Lit. 
!^or. : M Ambvt^ fnin$Uited 
I .. Vol. I, p' 207: BidUtinrU 
/.. iraphie <if ParU, 1843,7^ 101 ; 
Col. Vhftnn/^ p. 571. E%i}*hmies and Tigris, 
s.-.' ArT.'.' I Anirn-i-iM, Bcm, Wahabi. 

lice of Arabia. In the* 
K.-... ...,., uf the christians there is 

stMDgly oondwuincd. See jEIius gallas, Walmbi. 


NEK-HKAT, Burm. 
\EKMUN DUN, a venerated mahomedoiiSiittU 

NEKitA. Tia. Cordltt myxa. 

NEKRA, llmii. Canis pallipe', Sykfs. 

N-EKSH-I-RUSTAM, see Kara oghiaa, 
Naksh-i-Ruslum, Babylon. 

NEL, or NcUa, Xcl'li, Nellu, Kxny., Mit^sit, 
TxM. Unhiwked rice, Oriza sativa, W. 

NELA, Tam. a wood of a dark red colnvv 
pood for boat-work ; tree produces a small fnitt, 
which the natives cat raw.— /^/yc, M. and O, 

NELA ALUMU,Tki,. Rhyn.-hosia nuda, /JC. 

NELA-AMIDA, Tel. Jatmphn glandulifcnu 

NELvV HEXDA.Tki.. Abelmortchusficulncits, 
If. and A.^ 196, /r., 154, or Hibiscus pmslri- 
tus, i?., iii, 208, also Sida hurailis, Willd^ A, 
iii, 171, W. ftnd A.. 223. 

NELA CUEPPUDU, or Cheppu-totta,T«u 
Elytraria crcoata, VahL, or Justicia acauliA, &, 
i, 119; Cor.. 127. 

NELA^UMUL VAYR, or Nela gtimuJ vmyr, 
Tam. Root of Gmelina nsiadca, Baxb. 

NELA GULI, orNelagulimidi, Tei.. Slevcg. 
tin vcrticillata, J). Don, Adenema hyswpi folium, 
}V. Ic, »>00 — Gentiana verticilluta, H., il, 7V 

NELA GUMMUnU, or Ghuchakra gadd*, 
TxT.. Batatas paniculata, Ch. 

NELA GURUGUDU, or Neln guHmidi, TWt 
Slevogtia vcrticillata, D, Dan. 

NELA JAMMI, or Chinna jammi, Tb. 
AcJicia cineraria, IVUld. 

NELA JIDl. Tax. Marking nut. NcliqIdL 
nuna. Marking nut-oil. 

NEL.^ JIDl, or Konda amndam, Tkl. Bai* 
ospermum polyondnim, R. IV. 

NELA KALIGOITU, or Kalifroitu, Tn. 
ni(^nonia, sy*. A small species ; Q. .^^h)7ias»> 
thus parasiticus. IVfiH. ? 

NELA KDHHARI, or Purusha ratnarn, T»u 
lonidium suflrutictwuru, Oing. — W. atui A^ 
116 ; IT. /c. .30g~ Viola sutl, J?., i, 04». 

NELA KUMUL, Tam. Gmcliua asiatica, L. 

NELAM PATA, Malbal. Grangea made- 
raspatana, Foir, 

NEI-A MURA, or Nela chcppudo. Elvtr»- 
ria crenaia, Vtdd.—R. i, 110. PiJ. 'li«L 
writes Nela mint. 

NT^LA MULAKA. or Nela mullaku, «• 
Nol.i vakudu, Solanum jaapiini, triWc/. — «. 
diffasum, B. i, 5(S8. The fruit of this rar. U 
larpe and white, 'ised as a vcgt^table. 

NEL.VNARCEGAM. Maliul. Narcgnroia 
alata, W. 4- A. 

NKL.\ NEREDU, Tel. Prerana hcrbacea^ 
B. iii, yo, syn. Bhu jambu, Bhui jamb. There 
is some confusion between Prcmna herbaccA 
and .Vrdisia humilis — or Kaki ncrcdu. 


NE1.ANJANUM, also Lanjanam, Tbl. An- 




KELA-NUGA, Tbl. Lagenaria viiJgaria. 
- - - Cucnrbitn Isgcnaria. 


.>., Anin. Perhaps P. niruri, 

PALA. or Chtri pala, Tel. Oxys- 

H. Br. This is uj.plied to 

about Bejuwoda, running 


i — ? Cwrcxiligo orcliioides. 

TALI, Tel. Zapania nodiflora, 

'-. X, 47. 

'- i*<_>K-V, Tki.. Calamus crcctiia, R, 

. . i ; The words moan, ** ground areca," 

nul tfac botanical name U astsigiicd eonjec- 

r r-.ri- f1.^ ^<<mU of C*a!. erccius being used 

:.^^.n . . 'N'XA, Tpl. Caasia, fp. Br. 682, 
■J* C. •enna — Uheedc, ii, 62, has Ponna 
for C. sopbora. 
:LA POONA, T*ir. Ca«aia lanccolata, 

SAMPKNGA, or Veru sampenga, 
-rv, L.—E.Vuim, Br. 1005. 
; lELU, Tkl. Nut of Arachis 

[l-A TADI or Nela tati gudtla, TrIm Cut- 
I les, Gartn. — R. ii, 144, Cor. V6 

NKLA TANGKDU. Tex. Ca-wia obtuaa, R, 
ii,Sa4 — W. and A. 8iil— H'. /f^ 757- 

N£LA TAPPIDA, or Ncla cheppudu, Tkl. 
,.ita, HiA/. 
-JUiA, Maleal. l*ortulaca quad- 

V UMATA, Mairai. Datura fa«tuo«a. 
;fcXA USIKIKA, Tbl. Phyllanthiw ni- 

i, 15. ■ to Roxb., P. niadraspaten«3 

1* iW. - . 1 f^r Nalla usirika. 

\ VAKUDC, or Nela mulaka. Tbl. 

.i jacquitiif W7Wt/., 3. Fruit sumll, 

..^*-.\ VAMINATA, or Kulcka vaminta, 
Tk. Palanijia icosandra, W, and A, It may 
al» refer to the .imaller ap. of Cieonie and 
would be especially applicable to C. burrnanni. 

N'ELA VAVILI, Tbl. GcndnriL^Ha vulgaris, 
jry,._ir. /f„ 468.— tfujjticia gend.. R. i, 128 
^ShiMt, is. 42. Gandharam, Sams., literally 
*• BMcoct: of smell or perfume." The word doea 
aoc Appear Ui signify any particular Hower. It 
ooctm in Rnmph. Araboina, iv. tab. 28. wlience 
ii bai been adopted by Linu., WiLld, and others. 
Rnii. JM.IJ' '! ihe word to the incense obtained 
fr. • ;iUi the B. thurifera of Mebr. 

..rA, or Velaga, Tel. Feronia 

:itm, Corr, var. This var. ia comnion 
. ,,. v,ii-.,.<^j Itisasmall shrub with 
ih, ^'d,—Br., 793. 

.Nr.L.i w..-«uj^. , I *ai, Androgiaphia pani- 
cnl&u, Z.inn. 


NELA VKMU, Tel. Andn^-raphis fMiniou- 
lata. WalL—W, /<?., i>18.--Justicia pan., i?., 
i, 117.-— MfA/r. ix, 66. 

NELAM PATA. Tam., Malbax. Grangea 
mailenispatana, Fair. 

NEJ J.M-PALA ?— Writrhtia tomeutoan. 


orcbioidea. See Mtx^li. 

XKLI-POULI, or Kamarang, Averrhoa 

NELI TALI, or Kedangy, Seabania a.'gyp- 

NELI, Saxs., Tkl. ludigofera tinctoria, L, 


N. polygama, Sprtng. | KugenU pulygama, Aord. 
I 11. ind,,n,p. 491. 

A plant of Ppnang, Voifftf 4G. 
NELKAK, liixiK Dalbergia sii«oo. 
NELLA, Tel, Andrugraplii^ panieulata. 
NELLA BllDINGA. 1^. Cucumis pnbc- 
acens. WUhf,, W. ($• A. 

talaria linlfulia. Linn, 

NELLA GULi, Tel. CicentUa hyssopifolia, 

NKLLA-GULI-SIENDA. Tel. Cardiosper- 
niiiin hallcacubum, Linn, 

NELLA-.TID1, also Jldi-Ghenzahi, Tkl. 
Marking nut. Seinccarpus anacardium. 

NELLA JIDI NOONA, Tel. Marking nut 
oil, also oil of Seniecarpus anacardium. 

NELLA JILLIDU, Tkl. Calotropis gigantea. 
NELI^ KALAVALU, Tel. Hongay or 

NELLA MADU, Tkl. Terminalia tomentoea, 
ir. ami A, 

NELLA-]\LANTHI, Maleal. Inuua silenus. 
Jenlon. Lion-monkey. 

NELLA MOLUNGA, Tbl. Solanum jac- 
quini, WUhi. 

NELLA-PANNA, Curcubgo orcliioides. 
NELLA PIKU. alfio NoUe pirkum, T.^u. 
Cucumia tuberosufl. Heijne. 

NELLA POLEEKI.'Tbl. In the Nalla Mul- 

lai a light wood, of coante grain, unserviceable 

except tor temporary purptwos. — Mr. Ixith/nn, 

NELA PL'RUGUDU, Phvllanthus multirto- 

rus, Willi. 

NELLA L'MAT.\, Mal£al. Dattira faatuoso. 
Mill., Ro.vK 

NELLA ULIMERA,Tkl. Dioapynw ehlo- 
roiylon, Ro.rfi. 

XELLE PIUKUM, Tam. Cucumia tubcroaus. 
NELLI, Maleal. Cicca disticba, Linn, 
NELLI, Tax. Embhca officiaalis, GaH,? 
NFJJvI CHETTU, Tel. Premna esculenta, 
R. iii, 81, also Premna latioHa, i?., iii, 76, 
yy. h, 869. Br., 512. rcfera to Usirika or Em*- 
blica and Phyllanthua confounding the Tamil 
with tlie Tclugu name. 





JfELLlKA. or Boa maUcca, a fniit of Japan 
■which is pra*erveJ, as ia also a fruit called Che- 
rinielle. In this slate tiic l<<rmer taatc^ quite 
%o(i and t«ndor, and l^ as large as a hen's egg. 
The pulp has a subacid taalc. — Thun. Trav.^ 
Vol. ii, p, 292. 

NELLI-KAI, Tim.. M^leil. Fruit of Em- 
blica olFicidalis, Euiblic myrobalan. 

NELLI-MiVRA, Cait. Nelli maram, Ta». 
Eiuhlica officinalis, Gcertn. 

NELLI-POO, T\m. The flower, and Nelli- 
pallam. Tiu. The fruit of Phyllanthua cmblics. 

NELLOO, SiXGH. A generic term for any 
one of the Acanthucca>. Sec Acuatbua. 

NELLORE, a town, aUo a district in the 
Madraa Presidency ueartheBay of Bengal, 170 
miles long, 70 miles broad and with 935,600 
iuhabitauts. Its chief towns are Ncllore, On- 
gole; the Pennar is its only river, but it has tlie 
Pulicat Marine lft;^oon, from the waters of wliich 
much salt is made by evaporation. Th^ lan- 
guage spoken throughout the district is Telugu, 
but several races continue migratory or unset- 
tled. The YanatU race in llie Nellore dis- 
trict arc estimated to number 20,000. lied, 
yellow, purple, brow^u and ikTey sandstones <;»ccur 
in iho Podelay, Panoor and Pedda Retldapully 
talooks, and rrjm Pullayboot(K>, fine ;;nuned 
sandstones, Nellore is in lat. 14*^ 27 N., ionp. 
79° n9' E.. 12 niilca W. of the sea^orc. The 
mean height of the villaee, SO feet. 

NELLU, Tam- Unhuaiced gr&iii of OrjTca 
saliva, Linn. 

NELLYj Tin. A Travancore wood of a light 
brown colour. Used for building in gcnortJ, — 
CqI. Frith, 

NELLY MAKAM, Tam. Emblicu officinalis. 

NELU, TjtM. A Mahxbttr wood of a dark- 
red colour, and considered j^ooi] for boat-work ; 
it produce* a small fruit which Oic natives eai 
in a raw state. — ^/y, Forests of Makttxtr and 

NELU, Swon. The Honey plant, grows on 
Horton pUiiw, Oylon ; the fluwcrs en»it a Ka- 
nt aronia r^.**cnihling that of new honey. 
It riowers oace in eisht ye.iTs, and bees tJien 
olustrr on the blossoms. — ^iini Ceylon, 

NELUMBALY^ Tkl. Ncrium tonientosum. 

NELUMBIACE-t; Liii<n, The sacrtNl-bean 
triW of plants consisting of 1 :<pccics oi the 
genus Nelumhtuni. They nre hrrhaooous plants, 
with vory lorgr Irtn-w and llowors, inhabiting 
stagnant and tjuiet wntcrj in North America, 
Weal lndii-s, liin Caspian region, India, Persia, 
Ohin:i, and Ejiypt. Writing rrgTirding a Ne- 
lambium of Chinn, Mr. Knriunr s:iv5 no flower 
.. ■ ' ' than 



Mid All W«fv ftvUiju 


1ft wn 

.d on tliOU;.. 

were while, 

out of tii« water WjU i eJih»«or«Ui boan 


standing* above the beautiful clear grecD 
The leaves themselves, ad they lay U] 
smootJi surface of the lake, or stootl er« 
long foot-«talks, were scarcely iesA b( 
than the flowers, and both hamiouized 
together. Gold, stiver, and other kinds of fiaht 
were seen swimming swiftly to and fro, 
ap{iarently enjoying themselves under the 
of the broad leaves. At another place he 
he once obaerved in the garden of a 
at NiDg]x> a very beautiful variety of the N) 
biimi, N. vittatum, different from the 
white kinds of Ndumbiuni, its tlowera 
finely striped. It was evidently cxtremel 
in that part of China. Tliey are abi 
in all pai-td t>f the province of Kiang- 
Shanghae, .Stxwhow and Nanking, whci 
ponds and lakes are often frozen up ax 
ihenuonieter frequently sinks to witiun 
degrees of zero. Dvuing the spring and i 
mer montlis the plunis form and perfect 
leavea, Howers, and fruit: in autumn, all xki 
parts whicli are visible above water graduaOj 
decay, and notliing is lefl in a living stti 
exce])t the large roots, which remain burii 
deep in the mud, andUtcy ooutiuue in a don 
state until tlie warmtli of spring again calls 
table life into action. The Lien-wha N< 
bium is cultivated very extensively In 
ftjr the sake of its roots, which are esiceu)«d 
excellent vegetable and are much used by 
chiKses of the commuiiity. The roots 
their largest siz« at the period when the 
die off; and arc dug \ip and brought to 
during the winter months In the norili of ' 
The stalls of the green grocers are all 
loaded with them at that season of the yearl 
Although in high repute ainong«it the native 
being served up with many of their dishoi 
flimiing part of others, they arc not gcw 
liked by foreigners. An excellent desci 
of arrowroot is uiadc from them, which is 
sidcrcd espial in quality to that which Engt 
imports from the West Indies. The teeds 
also held in high cstimatinn : they ore 
nionly nxwtod before being served up to 
— VoiffU }>' t) ; Arttt/i^, pp. :J50-52. 

NELUMHIUM, a genus of plants '■ 
ti) tlie natural nrd<tr Nelunibiaoca) "f 
bean. The blue lotus grows in Kaahmix aailj 


N^mpbwA neliimho. Linn. | Tfttoftn rubn, iEaa6. 
Ncluuibo nucifunt. G«tf%, \ 

Kninnl;|uuiinik|KM3u«B]Qfa > -n, £«IA, 

Prflij^huJ, t -t'lvi'i. !ft«fa 

Tti>»-lcyiih. y 

white lotu*, Kko 
.^■. ih«»n. 

KsAwml dodttU, 


U wnA III couniernci a iVrvnur towards women 
thrtt tlio joins of'AVjterD Inrlia »et up their 
iitiji;:c It)* Ntftiiinalji, a fact commtiiiicated in 
t'*>iiri<itricc' U) C'olniR'l Tod h\ one of the ttect. — 
Tr. of //itui,. Vol. ii, p. 4o\ 

NEMI-TIRTHA^ a gh;iiit, wu*rM to the me- 
mory ut'ChoitunvJi fur liis huvinjr Imlti^l and 
bathed lirre in the omnte of his wundcringD. — 
Tr. of/lin't„ Vol i./». 8. 


NEM.AIA PL'NDOO, Tni.. Cilrua auranti- 
um, i>rati;;i'. 

NKMMi (.UErrr, Tkl. nalbergla oojei- 
nonVw, /?., Vol iii.^i. 2'JO : IT. /r../). 31*1. 

NEArV ATH, svv Knshua, Nemi, 

NKMC>OKA UOOT, (he pooU of ^^ereral 
fl|>ei*ic« of ('i>*«ini(>elt», ciBclent substitute for 

NKMOlMin.AArniT.V, one of the MyArty- 
phylla<-cK\ nil luinuul }>latiUt, and rt,f|uiru a 
grunt deal uf nioiHtiirti, jUTowing :ind flowering 
in *hudy (*itu:Uion.H, the colours are white and 
jinrple, blue and dark-pur^de, tJioy are natives 
of California, iind North Anitrioa. Nomophila 
iiisigiiiSf and inacuUta are Ino tender to sue- 
well ou the plains. N.niaculutu, the !>fK)tted 

■iflty, succoeiLs tf) a certain oxtonl if sown nrtcr 
the heavy raiuji are pajl. — RuUUll ; Jaffcftf, 

NE.MOUHa^DUS PKOClKJlS, s^-u. of Ca- 
j>ricorni« huhalina, Htu/i/Ann, 

of Xeniorha^lui huhalina, JrrJ, 

NrCMROUO TEPESSY, a nmund al>out 
miloA frnm lingila*!, a ponderotw mass uf 
ruin, which in callol hy the Arabs Tull Aker- 
kouf, \^^lgnrW Agor^>af, and hy thf Turks 
NViiiroud 'iVf>CMy. both wlii'li np[>ollatiuns ni^- 
nify the mound of Nenm^nd, vir Ninirod, not 
the tower of Xcmrntid, as it ha« bc€*n tnuw- 
Ittled. — Mitotan's Trufrls, p. li>2. See Akar- 
kouf, Uahykiti. 

NEMirk, Grz.. Ilrxn. SnJt. 

NEMLIlv.\, lli.vD. (-■)ftsftm|H.^Io3, 

iVEMUK KA TEZAB, irisn. Muriatic acid. 

NENLKJOX, Si>-on. Oalhcr^ia lanceolaria, 
Linn, JiL Yielding a hard, though coarse, 
oj>en-j?Taiiit.'d, hoavy Oylon woiwl. 

NEXEK, ace Kcdah. 

NKOCUA LAPIDA, Cramer. Limacodcs 
grnoiona, XWrttr. A moth common on the 
wcatern side of Ceylon, with dark-brown wings, 
which in produced from a i-aterpillar that feed* 
00 the caria^a and sting* with virulence, 


rarcDuptarus avgyptiacua, 

Sootigm, SoomU^ SiirDtii. 

Kaj-lmmiih — f 
ritri-^cdiU, t^j,, 

M*njii tiridi. 

T^IU b<»r*wa. Tat, 

Sitiit'tiii. uTtiitt U'aifreo. 

%'ii]turpnt(iMnnt. l*avi 
V, )rti^r\*»iranus t^p^y 


ri.- . : k*n, „ 

KaI tniLrvli Rum 

ica vv\i 


ear». 1 



This Inrd, one of the Xeoplironine, 
Europe, ^Vfrica and AaIa, U con»i 
peuinsula and in Central and Ndnljerf 
hnt is not known in Bengal. A *injcl* ; 
hits been known to stray beyond its »«iiil| 
haunt so far as Britain. Its chief fod 
refuse of all kinds, lliis bin! is evidently 
• Kite* of Majnr A. Cunningliaraa • K^Hnkj 
205). He writes — '•the eagle ( 
the * black bird') and the kite (chu . . r 

white bird) arc common onougii, ^^B 
ia the large niven.'* A second specieflB 
genus, tlie N. jjileatus, inhabits Africa oiiI| 

NEOZA and Chilgoza, also N< 
Piuua gerardiana, Gerard's pine. 

NEPAL. ThL« kIn(?dom U in Mid-I 
between the snowy range and Oie valley o^ 
CiangB:*, It is separated from Tibet bf| 
Himalaya mountains and hounded "ti thr si 
by the British territory. Tbemyi^ 
tory of Nepal like that of Kashmir. 
with the desiccation of the valley, for agiv 
of water by a muni, called Nai muiii». 
the name of the country Naipnla, 
scendants swayed tlie country oOO yi 
first authentic liistor)' is B.C. 844? year*, 
the Kerrat tribe of eastern mountaineer* i 
64(5. Then the Surya vausa race of ruleni 
178. The Ahir, or original sovereigns hi 
in Jk.P. 4y. The Neverit dynasty wa* naU 
in A.D. 470. It was one of this «i. 1 

hoba deva, who in a.d. SS(.», intm i 
of the Samvat era into Nepal. In tlic .\* 
yp^ir 7^*1, A. II. IfjOO, Jaya Ek.sha Mnl! {rtr 
Kush Mull) divided Patau, Khivi 
nepa and Bhatgann between his li 
three sons, and one of ilie BhatguiM 
17^1, lianjet MaJla formed an n 
Gurkha which ended in liis own subve^ 
and finally in tiiat of all Nepal. The Gurifc 
dynasty descended from the Udayapur l{aj| 
occupied Kemaon and Noa kor. tor six or j 
centuries prior to their conquest of Ncpi^ 
A.n. 17«8. J 

Nepal lies between Kiuuaon on tlio i 
and Sikhiuion the east, at the P^ot of tlie Il| 
laya range, between the Himalaya nnd: 
Terai. It is 50l> miles long ; east tu j 
90 to IflO niiica broad with an nre« of 54 
Apiarc miles. The surface gem r 
of valleys varying fnnu 3,000 \- 
above the Bengal plains, the capital of j 
maudoo is in an oval-shaped valley, IS? ij 
long from north to south, and fr»)m et4 
wteit 10 miles, long. 27° 42' N., lat. SS** ifi 
and 4,628 leet above the sea. Bhyncur««. I 
lat. 29^ 35' N., long. 70* 3<V E., whI 
feel. The slope to south and the 
drained by the Ghogra, Gunduk, 
The geological formation of tho hiUy 
»'tB\i of lime!>toae, homstone, and congi 

a;iHi 6| 

c^iabl»r 119 uccur of mast remark- 

[>2estaui riuiy, an J variety. The cli- 

mle reseiublcfi that orftouLhem Europe. The 
ilWjr » bounded on the anrth and south by 
3tp«n4oufi mountains. To the east and west 

r^ -1 f'--; My, tlie weatcrn end detined 

[ a low steep ridge, called Nli^n 

^--es cloao behind Saiiibh<K> 

* d by .1 more considerable 

. I ilioahouk. To tlie ea;»twiird the 

: hie hilla are thoae of ICaiiichouk 

iiif they do not reach the eleva- 

uk (tKe highest on tlic snuth), 

6he>jfH«ri» whicli is by far the liigheat 

in. The bottom of the valley i« uneven, 

t» ravinw. and dotted thn>u;rh- 

Thc country in diversified 

J Mireial inhabitetl vuUeyfi. The hills rise 

ovoriii tfaf* cuhninatin;^ ridge of ttie Himalaya, 

nipt of limestone, horn«tone, and conglo- 

3Ste, Owing to it8 elevation, Nepul onjovB 

climate rcacmbling that of SouUi Kurope. 

Sbdv iiw on the mountain-chain which sur- 

mDodfl kh« capital, in winter, and occfisiunally 

Uk ill the vaUcy. The whole region is well- 

Bitered. The Nftpal kingdom extend.s for 600 

^ limalttva, from the western 

Imitv Hi to llie eaatern bordor of 

KID, iVout wltich it ]A separated by the 
K&Ii. Its capital, Kathmandhu, is 4,000 
ftbove the sea, and nbuut thirty niil&t 
tht (vlaina of India. The position of 
&e MlM of the Himalaya at this part of the 
ra^po. has not been traced ; but two giant 
■MW9 |>r»j^'t from the axis towards the Indian 
p*^ tbd Cidminattng peaks of which form 
feature from Kathmandhu and 
&e Gangctic plain so that their 
boB been correctly determined, — 
Dhnwalpjiri being 27,000 feet, and 
Goanhithan 24,700 feet. By these 
tbp whole of Ncpaul is divided into 
grett river baains, that of the Kanmli or 
h> the westward, that of the Gaadak in 
OOOtre f»nd that of the Kosi or Aran to the 
c on the water-shed between 
• Kosi, is upwards of 10,000 
ol lies betwixt tlie 27th and 37th 
flntj'iil. , separated frum Tibet by tlie 
L4 and bounded on the rn^uth 
— itory. The mytliological his- 
ke that of Kashmir, commeDccs 
linn of the valley, for ages full 
walfcr, by a muxii, called Nai muni, (whence 
ttBme of the country Naipola,) whose 
daats *w»yed the country 500 years. 
ocoupiox a tract of country about 
hoftdred and flftv milefl in lengtli, and 
to one h' in breadth, 

bciwc - -' N. lat. It 

ed uo the north by a part of Tibet, 

from which it is sepamtcd by the IlintaJaya 
chain : on the east, by ^ootan and the little 
state of Sikkim, from which it is separated by 
the river Teesta; on the south, by tlie British 
Indian province of Tirhoot, from which it is 
divided by theTerai, an immense forest, ilie east- 
em part of which is c.'ille«l tlie Moray district ; 
and on the wtat, by the kingdom of Oude. The 
divwion« of Nepaul are Jumlu, Gixirkha, Nepaul, 
Muckwanjiore, and Mormig, The principal 
rivers which traverse the territory are the 
Kalee and 8urgoo, which, meeting at a place 
called Pranmdee, form the Goggra and Gun- 
duk. The GunUuk is supposed to rise in the 
Himalaya, and Hows into the Ganges near 
Patna. The upper part of the river is called 
8aligrnmee, from the fossil ammonites, called 
salignim, whicli are found In it, and which 
the hindoos hold in veneration. To the ex- 
treme west (if Nefiaul, Ucs Almoralj, a hill 
station, wrested from the Nepaulese in the 
ift'ar.-i of 1 SI 5-1 fl ; to the extreme east is Darjel- 
ing, another hill station, used by the Supreme 
Government of India a^ a sanatorium for inva- 
lids. The principal British cities and military 
stations which Iwrder on the Nepaul territtiry 
along the line of the Ganges, arc, Berhampore 
(c*>utiguous to the Morung district), Monghyr, 
Patna, Dinajwre, Ghazeepore, Benares, Allaha- 
bad, CawnjKjre, Lucknow, Futtighiu*, and 
Bareilly ; the Iaj*t-tuuiicd town lying op- 
[>ositc to a Ncpaulesc fort called Doti, and 
a few miles from the hill station of Almorah. 
Tlie Terai, or Turry, or Turyanee, is a long 
strip or belt of low level land. Tlie word pro- 
bably, signifies low or marshy lands, but it is 
sometimes apphed to the flats lying bcluw the 
liills in tlie interior of Nepaul, as well as to the 
level tract bordering immefUately on the Britieli 
frontier. It abounds with large and lofty forest 
trees, the chief of which are the Sal and 
the Beehiaeori pine. Some of the 8al spans 
reach the length of seventy to eighty feet, and 
are generally considered un»jualled lor strength 
and durability. In this respect, however, they 
mustjneld to the teak, tor there is this peculiarity 
in Saul, that it is seen to warp wwn alter hav- 
ing been employed in bulk for many ycara, rising 
into large fissures longitudinally, and falling a 
prey to the white anta. Small quantities of 
gold-dust are found in tlie Gunduk, which runs 
5»rough the Tcrai, and Cassia lignca likewise 
produced in tlic jungle. It is named Singh 
llowla, and is much used in Hindoslan in 
spicery : tlie bark of the root does not differ 
widely from cinnamon, for which it has of^a 
been mistaken, but the bark of the trunk and 
branches possess tittle of the cinnamon ilavoor. 

Enonnotts timber trees are found in tlie Terai. 
In :uIdition to tho 8al« and the Bcchiacoun 
pine, are to be found the Sisaoo, the Sctti-saol, 

N 81 



lical. an iron wood, i\w K&liksel, A 
wood, tlic S;ijk. t)ie Hurra, Uie 
Sinini and the Mortlta. UcsIHm tlicsc*. there is 
a small quantity of ebony. These woods con- 
stitute in a ^cat measure the commercial 
ivcalth of Nepaul. WikmI merchanU congregate 
at die Bouthonmiost (Kilnt of the furest near tlic 
river Gunduk, because of the facility presented 
by that river of floating the timber to Calcutta. 

Buyond the Terai, an<l still bearing its name. 
is a range of hilLs of a!)out the same width, at 
t)ie northern ba«c nf which commences the 
Nepaul valley, nearly oval in shajK?, alwut 
IweJve miles from north to sontb, and nine 
miles horn ea^t to wePt. Its circuit has been 
rpu^'hly ftstimatcfl by tlic inliabimnts at twenty- 

war ; and it is likewise oa 
gulshcd fn>m Deo Paum, by L 
Lallit-Patuii and Lall-Patun, U la a nt 
to^n tliaji Khatuuuidoo. 

lilutUjouff \a f»erhaps ^till more superior ti> 
KhalniaJiiltN), lor tliuu^^h the least considcnUiU 
of the throe (owns in point of sixe, yet its buiU- 
iugs in general have a more striking appMi^ 
uncc ; and its streets if not much wiilor, are tl 
all events much cleaner t)ian those of the m^ 
iTojxtliii, a distinction which it owes tn its Ad- 
mirable briok f<avemcnt. Bhatgong lies E. by 
8. of Khutuiandi», at a distance of nearly eij^kt 
nuid miles. Its ancient name was Dhiimia|k»- 
tun, and it is called by the Newar, Klx^fww 
lies ; by whom it in also described to : 

live c<«, or from forty tu fifty miles. Tl'ie , [•; APT'if-' «J'e numroo, or guitar of h 
range of mounliiins lo the nortli of the volley 
is stupendous ; the ranges lo the east and west 
arc much less lol^% the immediate head cf the 
valley to tlic westward being defined priucijmUy 
by a low, steoj) ridge covered with brushwood. 
At the fool of the northern range, situated 
Uf;on the eastern bank of a ?mall river called 
the nishcnmutteo, in lat. 27° 42' N. ; long. 86° 
E., stands tlie city of Khatmandoo, the capital 
of Nepaul. It is not the birgcst of the towns in 
the valley, but it is thr residence of the rajah, 
or ruler of Nepaul. In length, Khatmandoo 
may measure about a mile ; its breadth is incon- 
siderable, nowhere exceeding half and seldom 
extending beyond a quarter of a mile. Tho 
town is (Ssiingiii^hcd in ancient Iwoks, as Gor- 
goolputlen : tlie Newar call it Yindea, whilst 
' iv)ng llio Parbuttia, or roountaineera, it is 

'led Kultipoor, an appcllaticin which seems to 
:ced from the same source with Khatmandoo, 
^id derived, it is !>clieved, from its numerous 
wttxltn temples, which are among the moat 
r^triking objects in tlie city. These edifices are 

»t confiiieil to the body of the town, but are 
over its on%-irons, particularly alonir 
sides of a quadmnguKr Unk, or reservoir 
of water. The houses are of brick snd lile, 
willj pitchelor [Miintcd roofs. On the street 
aide they have frequently enclosed wooden bal- 
conid of "{»cn carved work, and of a singular 
fiMhkm ; llie Ooot picKrc, instead o{ rising per- 
pendicularly, projecting in a sloping direction 
luward? tliv uv< -^ of the roi^f. 'lliey are of two, 
^,. ' - c^, and almost without a 

tt mean and poor appear- 
l Uc airv.:*^ ore exceedingly narrow, and 

very filll'y^ 

' ' ■ xt impnrli 

7'.'und, riti' 

indot>, aiid 

It is the favorite residence of llic brsimui 

of Nepnul, containing many more 

of that order, than Khatmoudoo and Potnn 


Kirthipoor occt^iiea llie summit of a low hill^ 
about three miles west of I'alun. It was ati 
time the seat of an indejiondent princo ; 
ite reduction <:o9t the tioorkliali prince «> 
trouble, that in resentment of the ro«ist 
made by the inhabiUinU, he barbnroualy o^iumJ^ 
all the tnales, whom he captured in it, to be 
deprivtvl of llieir ntises. 

Cho^'ar is also sitnated on an emmenoOf 
wliich ^rith tliat of Kirthipoor, forms a kind nC\ 
s-vldle hill. 

Kei«tn! contains every variety of climMtu 
Tlie fourtli of it lies in the hot plains uTUm 
Ganges, and tlic remaining tbr(>e purls he on iIm 
slope of the Himalaya from the elevation of Aw 
thousand feet np to the limit i»f perpetual snow. 
It is all(^;ed to contain from forty-three thounnd 
to flt>y thousimd square miles, and to have rao 

million inhabitants. It 


zerlond of India ; bill its arc;; 
three Switzedands, while the aiuuuut oliU 
lation is no more tlian onc-tliird \virt na 
The height ofNcpaul above the lcv*il of tl 
is about f«mr lliousand feet. The thrmio 
ter notwitlislanding tliis height, rni 
nsual height nUnit mjon ruries fru 
A little after sunri.'se, itstantU between 60P 
54'^, Imt it is occasiunnlly ns low as 47> 
nine in the morning, it tturtiutte* from 
f$(S^. The mean temperature in March is 
The seoiwns are pretty nearly the 
those of Upper Ilindostan. The rains 
mcncc a little earlier, say in the month of 
! rtrt in from the S. K. qtinrtcr ; ihpy 
illy very abundant, and break np toi 
Uii: middle ufOttober. In the wpstof N«piUi 

n, T»>'k- I tb(' Guruu:; and Ma^ir tribes, sm.^II, with 
^of-xu extreme Mongolian type, full of 
inlour and energy. Thny nrv known a«{ 
9 caifted YcikMici by tbu Nir- i G^iorkha volUiom. Tlicy have cQUiidcniblii i 

»2 N 82 



liy. Thf I I propW 

nUi sc'vural cftAtcs 
, into rirrtt. Apoonii, 
unii cuiaaes. i iie Parhattiah triLie, 
, cultivate the western land's at 
, &<i. Ainoni5»t the Ncpaulese, the 
dttxinction prt'^'aiU of bralnnaiut and 
with their varioiis sub-divisiona, viz. : 
cofifiiied almost to tbc valley of 
tJie I>berwar and Margi» the huahand- 
il fiahemiru of the western district.^ ; 
c Bbotiah who occupy generally Kacbar, 
•otuc inuiilies arc pliiuted in tbc lower 
The Bh;iraa arc said to be separatists 
Nev-ar, who shave their luiads like 
To the eaatwarrj of Nopaul. some 
are occupied by Limbu. Naggankote 
lodothers. The irreai aboriginal fiixk of the 
inhiiiitints of tbr niotintainft east of the river 
Ni^paiil, IS Mongol. tJio martial elates 
are the Kha?, Map^r and Gurung. 
ing a very numerous clan or race 
Mih-dividrd. The Elthai'iah, who 
05 lanenage, are descendanti more 
** \tm ^mrc of Kajputs and otlier Khetri. 
The Cbcpang, Ilaign and Kusundn arc three 
iribM rendiiM? amonirst the otJier inhabitants of 
ibi VftDi^v '" maze of dia- 

Bt, '-la range we 

r Kiraiuui \iltich ^uij^s west as fara^ 

rrrr, in lonffitudc HG*^ 44'. 

: ng in the higher parts 

unectcil with whom are 

iSmu. jVJnng ihc lower hilla arc the Ma- 

extijnd to the wt::3L as fur as Palpa. 

about here wc should apparently 

imu, Chcpiuit^, Hajm or Vayu, and 

l«h*. In Centnd Ncpaul arc the Newar, 

ttwl Brahmo, a diuleot of Mogar, a]:)ii 

li or Dorhi, Danwar and Takaya. 

: ' ■ t!\c Terai, between Chuinpa- 

(iimdno valley, as far wc^staa 

The«c last four are chi^t^etl 

, mic languages. Tlie rest 

i:«.i, u::h more or less infusion of 

• The Parbattia or Palmria, a dialect of 

b spoken all over Nepau) and is the 

kkn^guaicc. West of this again comos the 

sli*n Uic Thak.^ya, Sunwar, and Sarpa, 

-•Cts of Kmn.tnn and Giirhwal, which 

Uft on to the Milchan of Kunawur. the 

d Tibarakad north of it. Dr, Hun- 

e Nepaul races aa wider : — 

Eatt to Wtiit. — Serpa ; Sunwax; 
Munui ; Magor ; Kli.ik<<ya ; Pakhyn ; 


Grv'p, Etut Nf}Mul — Kiranti ; Ro- 

■lag; Chbingtangya ; Nach- 

. Vakua ; Chouras)^ ; Kul- 

Tiittlit0{f7a f BabiDgya ; Loborong ; 


imbichbong ; Ualali ; Sai]g-pang ; Dnmi' 
Khaling; DungniaU. 

Broken frihes of Nq>aul. — Darhi : Dcnwor 
Pahri ; Chepang ; Bralimu ; Vayu ; Kuawar 
Kusunda ; Tharu. 

The martial classes of Nejiaul are, tli( 
Khas, Magar and Giuning, each coniprbing 
very numerous clan or race, variously raraifiedP 
and sub-divided. It has been calculat<^d rhat 
tliere are in Nepaul no less tluin tliirty tliou- 
sand Dakhriah, or soldiers olf tlie rolt by rota- 
tion, belonging to tlie above throe tribea. Theirj 
energy of character, love of enterprwe, and free^j 
dom t'rom the shackles of caste, arc conspiciuni 
and in the opinion of competent judged, tliei 
are by far the best soldiers in India ; thci 
gallant spirit and unadulterated military babil 
might be relied on for fideJity. 

The Newai" compose the army, engross 
situations of trust, whether civil or militaryj 
and are cou£ned almost to tlie valley of Nepaul.' 
The Dherwar and Mhargi are the husbandmen 
and fishers of tlie western districts ; and the 
Bhootia, though some families of tliein are planted 
in the lower lands, occupy, generally speaking^: 
such parts of the Kachar as are included in th< 
Nepaul lerritorie?. The Bhaina are a sort ol 
separatists from the Newar, supijosed to amount' 
to live tlioiwand ; they shave their hcarls like tbc 
lihootia, observe many of the religious rites, 
as well as civil costume of the latter, in a 
dialect of whose language they arc said to 
preserve their sacred writings. To the east- 
ward of Nepaul some districia arc inhabited by 
Limboo, Naggunkot and others. The Newar 
are divided into several cast^-sor orders, most 
of which derive their origin, like those among 
the more ancient hindous, IJura a primitive 
clasaiBcalioQ, according to tirades and occuimi- 
tions. The peasantry of the Parbattiali, or hill- 
[leopie, are divided into four cluiiacs, denomi- 
nated Awal, Doom, Seoom and Charam, liter- 
ally first, second, third andfourtli. The Awal 
peasanta possess live plouglis and upwards ; 
the Doom have from one tti five ; the Seoom are 
thuse who, without being proprietors of ploughs, 
are considered to be at the head of a few or 
more labourcTs ; and tl:te lanils of Nepaul proper 
are cultivated, almost williout exception, by 
Newar; those to the westward, as Noorkale, 
etc., by the Parbatty tribe, called Dherwara. 
The ryots or peasantry arc distinguished 
also into Koohrya and Perja. The former are 
those settled iu bertha proprietory, or otlier 
rent-free lands, and are not liable to be called on 
by government for any services, except the 
repair of roads, and attendance in the anny 
upou particular occasions. The Pcrja, who 
occupy lands actually belonging to the prince, 
though perhaps in the immediate possession of 
jaghcerdars, are, on the ooutrary, obliged to 
N 83 



lon^Tirioiw services, both at the call of tlic 
JA);»heorJ:ir and of the prince. The great 
.i!>ori;.'inat sUv'k of the inhabitants of die mmm- 
taiiH, ea«t o( the river Kali, as in Nepaul, 
it* Monpih Tlio fact id iniKribcd, in charac- 
t<»rs si* plriin, upon their faces, formA, and 
I:in^is;i'M, thul we may well diapeiise with the 
ftU]-»erfltiini« ami vain attempt to (raee it histori- 
cally in the nie?urre chrnnitle* of harharians. 
lAua and Di^Tirchee, in Thibet, two Uir;;e rities, 
are great ftir depola ; thev «re only forty nmrehe* 
iVoni Khalniaudoo. Beautilul dresses nmde of 
fura arc hnni^ht by the native mcTchanti* fn>m 
these citie* ; a fur cloak wltli lliick silk lining, 
can ho ha<l tor one huiidre<l and \\\\y Morcc 
rupeu4, in Bntidh mouey little more tlian ton 

The niountninoiw parts of Nepanl are rich in 
mines uf iam and copper. The coppt*r isnfa very 
su|x*ririr kind, and heloro the opening of a trade 
between Great hritjiin and India, w;w ))ri (er- 
red for c)>nsumpti<in in the terriloriea of tlie 
king of Oudc Ui that exporte<l from Britain. 
I^eail niincM, viuldJng »]»> a propnrtitin of 
silver, arc to he found m Mouikote, and it in 
supfioKed that there aregtjtd mine* l^j tlie nortli, 
though as yet no traces of gold have been dlv 
covered excepting in the bedii of the torrent 
which rush ihrough Kaclutr to the eastward. 

KatmandiKi U^iittiaied at the junction of the 
Bhagnmtly and Uwhuintty» and enntains a 
population of :<0,00(» inhahiumtH. A rr.iditiitn 
iit ciuTcnl in NcpanI that tlic VHlley of Katman- 
doo was at some former pi^riod a luke, and it ia 
ditBcuh to Ally in wliieh character it would have 
appejired the niont beautiful. 1*he valley of 
Nepaul v* almortt unnvalled in it» fertility, sup- 
porting &$ it dtM'tf in eornfort and plenty a p^ipu- 
lation of 400,1)00 itilmbiUnt*. being 300 per- 
sons to the wpmrc m'de. Throu>rhi*ut itA whole 
length and brciulth not a aU>ne is tn be fmind : 
it lA well-watcretl ; it* teiii^K.'raiur« 'i» debfrhlful, 
the thermometer in the hniicMt ninnth seldom 
rciU'-hw 75''', in tlie eoldci^i nover talis below 
iiO°, In phonology the Mepaul lan^ma^'cs have 
Strong rcicmhlnncp to ca«'h other nn<l to tlie 
tbor. The Ix'|x'ha i* more ■ Tibetan in its 
tenuinals thiin the others, having ahonl Tt' per 
cent, of coa'uiiantA, m funninf; uo \va^ than 11. 
iHo-Kfuiin, *• anytiiing," bocomw tham. The 
resembles the spoken Tiheta.n, having 
It 34 per cent, of neiuly the Haine conw>- 

ii!C5 are more vocalic. 

:•- portion of luiaals, 

i r^ijuvrar nnd Ma^^. In 

d Nfrwar, Trt is idment nr 

: vrx^c of the whole, 

rlir only cotwonanud 

I finally the 

..ui the east 

i:>< iiidtujj AiK>r. la their 



]>hor^e!ieelemeni« Scqia and Lcpcha 
s|M>ken Tibetan, 

ThcGuninff and Map^r txibca are small, 
features of an extreme fthmgxilian type, fs 
martial ardour and energy. They are 
fl.^ the Cnwrkha soldiers. They liare 
derablc intellectual ability. Tht- Newar 
Tibetan features witl» a fair and ruddy 
plexion. The langiiage of the Ma^rar. Gi 
and Newor i? chicUy Tibetan. Further 
arc the Keranti, Mtinni and others. 

Tlie KJuts or dominant race, accardii 
Manu, are outcastc miHtary triltcs. 

Tlie (rrtor^vi race nding in N'/'; 
be Rajputs, but Mr, Hr»d^son«iV' 
!anl bralnuans, descendants of brahman n 
grants and women of the hills, said to 
inlledorij:in. but brave and fierce, nnd Irj] 
Chinese called Ku-ru Ka-li. Not onlr '' 
they brave ami skilful soldiers, but th 
wonderfully advanced in the art oi' fnbri 
the implements of war : they cast their 
ordnance, manufacture their own muskets, 
powder, and cartridge-lxjxea ; in fact, 
inftrumcnt or weapon used in civiliz*'^ n 
often clunip*ily fnongh, but capable of 
used, with etfect. The Goorlai eontjiie 
Ncpaid now compow the army ; the/ 
grants of land called jaghircs, on which they 
when not actually on ser^'ice. They are a 
baiid'iome and inde|»endant race, priding' them- 
selves upon not being able to do anything bul 
tight ; and have a tree and sometimes noble car* 
riage like the Tryolese. The Ci«x>rfca anJ 
Bhutani, on the east, and the I^hidi nnd Kana> 
wari on the west, dwelling anion'..'^' •'■• ■■■"■— 
of the 1 hmalaya, are according t« . 
mixe<l races, between the Bbfi ,.nu\ \ m 
Tibet and the Itindoo ratre of tlie south.* Za 
feature and figure, the true Otxukn are aJwait 
I remarkable, (Vom tlicir broad Chinese or 
Tartar-liki' physiognomy, tlic small eyes, 
nose and meagre islii.sker-;, as well as the 
stjuare make and stiudy limbs. The Goorka, 
in everj- description of costume, and in all 
degree of raggedne*-*. are to be *ccn mingM 
witli inhabitants of Kuiuaon, Sirmfir, anA 
(turwbal. In ^7^2, the Gtxirka race ma^ 
tered ilie whole of Uie valley of Nepaul, and 
the hiil country from Sikhim to the G<?gra a^uS 
a party of them cr«<^nd the Himalaya, and 
apj)cared surlderdy belure 'JVr^hoo Loomboo. 
The Llama and priests hastily evacuated their 
convcntA, and fled to Lhasso, and the plaec 
was plundered by the Gi)i>rk», who retiml 
immediately with their Injoty. The TibKam 
applied to China for aid, and an army wad de- 
lected for llie punishment of this a^'t of unpro* 
vuked outrage. The Gtx)rka submitted an* 
conditionally to tlie Chinese commander, who 
imposed a tribute and triennial luiysiorn |» 



[toTi of all the lt\»ty taken ] cliee anO Tee^ta rivers cerleJ under this 
;iad he tnok 

hiKH^res ior wcTc ma<lc over to Sikkim 
these sf ipu la tions. Tho 

■ at iho ftanic liiue taken 

dcr ChineM protection. Checked towards 
r ca»t by tlicstf evenU, the Goorka extended 


The murder of Giiggim Singh, a (hvouritc of 
tlie mnharjini and the rnaswure of thirty-ono 
of the most inHnential chieft in lft4(»,]Kived tho 
way (nr llie rwe of Jun;» iiahadtmr to tlie office 

\aT dominion westward, 8uhjufjatiii^ Kumaon, , „f pHmr minister, and he wa.s rreiited a niaha- 
r- -—- - ' nil the hxW country to tho Sut- i ^jah hy the n.:.h»rajah ..f Nci^aiii, and invoMcd 

I lastings commenecU his admi' 
dominicm extended ha far a.s 
to the coiit, and westward to 
. Liiiu occupying the whole of the 
rrv in the innuntainouH tract which 
northern bt-rders of India, he- 
the hifrhlands of Tartary. They 
[ULT^d these trrritories during the pre- 
50 yc-arft, from niauy dii^united hill 
whom they dUpoRsciGiKt^l, e\tenninniing 
licA x* each raju fell before them, 
^ly intercourse of tlic BriiisJ* Govern- 
V t.rnd xniA cxchwivcly of a c^mi- 
firitlsh [M>htica| reliiiinnd witli 
;i iiir inrafiion of the valley by the 
rk& r%cc under rajah Pirthec Nurain. 
t7, '' ^ ir rajah oi' Katniandoo, 
bft; by tlie Goorka, applied 

LI.' Vi UiL- Bhti-sh Govrrnineat. Aid 
Itod, and Captiiin Kinloeh wan des- 
with a Jimnll ioroe in the luiJtUe of 

with the perpetual sovereignty of two pmvinees. 
lie c ffected the uiarringe of a son and two daugh- 
ters into the royal family of \epaul. During the 
mutiny of 1857, and the sniwwjuent rampaigns, 
Jung Hahadur rendered awi»*tance to the Bri- 
tish in the re-occupation of (jornekpore, the rc- 
c:iptnro of l.ncknow, and tlie subsequent capture 
of the rebels who infejute^I the Terai. In con- 
jtideration of the!*o servicea he inw creiited a 
Knight of the Grand Cross of the Hftth, and 
under a treaty coueludc<l on 1st Novemher 
18f>0, the tract of territory on the Oudh 
frniitler, which had been ceded to llie British 
(Jovornnient in |J*16, wius rcjiinrctl to Nepaul. 
The Nepaule*!' nanallv esfinmte the popu- 
lation of Nepaul at o,2(,i0,0()0 or j5,(100,000, 
hut it is probably not more than 2,000,000. 
The city of Katiimndiw contains fn>m 30,000 
to 3o.00(» inhabitant'*. The nrcn of tho king- 
dom is about i>-I,<M>0 srpiare miles. X\s revenue 

i.^ unknown, but m ^upiKised ti> be about 43 
r-imT-en,*on. He wai^, however, comiielled I i-jj^j^^^ 'p^p (Jonrkas pay no triburo to tho 
dimatc of the Terai to retire. I British Government, but every tlvc yearn a 

miAdion U J'ent from Katniandoo with proflenw to 
Pekin. Previous to the Nepaul war in 1814 
the (toorkas had extended their comjncsUt west- 
wards na tar as the Sutlej. Hy the 5th Article 
of the Treaty of 1815, theNepauIeiie renounced 
all claim to the countries we«t of the Kali, and 
the British were Ictl in p<H'*eaaion of the whole 
^^ Diitftrchi, the Llama of which pUu-e | ,ruet of liilU from the G%Ta to the Sutlej. 
fiither to the emperor of Chma. Kumaon ahd the Ochra Doon were annexed to 
Uie plunder of the sacred temples the British dominions, and the rest of tho ler- 

■f, incetiug but a feeble resist- 
id, and extinguidi»cd the 
. w'OA eventually recogniicd 
Goverumeut ha rajah of Ne[iaul. 
years previoua to 17!*^> the Goor- 
beea extending their conquests 
;lion of Tibet. They had advanced 

tlie luufftror of Uiina despatched a 

Tn punish the Nepaul rajah and 

led an ignominoas treaty 

thin a few miks of their 

•on tho Goorka and the 

, dcclnred on lat November 

anbiouj lampai^n, in which tlu^ 
fought ni«jst bravely and with much 
lirfi llie Rritiflh in ponscAtion of the 
e of the Kalce, and t)tc Ooorkas A'lii^ 

ritory, with the exception of Subathoo, Ilaen- 
giu'h, Sund(H:h, and a few other military posts, 
witf restored to the liill rnjaliji from whom it 
had been comiuercd by the Nepaule-ie. In Nc- 
pjiul they Twe the bark of Photina dubia or 
Mespiliw bengalensis for dyeing st'arlet. Neftaul 
is said to contain 1,040,000 inhabitants, of which 
5i»'),OoO are buddhista. The Nepauleee were 

deteated by Sir David Ouchtcrlony on the 28tli 

Febniary 1810,and the Nepaul war ended on the 

treat for peace, Negitciations wiTo I 12th March IHIG. Nepaul ceded Kumaon by 

broken olf by the Gu^rka* re- the convention of Alniorah on the 27tli April 

the demand fur the IH15. — Sir Mm Shor^, Lomi. As, Trans,, 

''iie-t were tltere- i Vol. ii, p. 30 ; Thomas\ Frinnep^ p. 270 ; San, 

BritiHh Govern- ' Com. lUjjort; Smitii'n Five. Wurg at Nfpatd^ 

if5l*i. wheu the Ne- Vol. i, fK 63. See Buddha, India, InscripUcna, 

tvcred U) Sir David ' Katmandu, Kba-^, Knit, Lepcha, Limbu, Ne- 

ly the treaty ut St-gnwlee duly signed i war, Sanskrit, Shawl-goat, Tope. 

The hUl lands etwt of the Nu- NEPAL CHILLY, Capsicum frutcsf 
S aad iiart of tho Xeni between tho Nu- \ Linnet also Cflpaiciim minimum. 
85 N 85 


KKprtELirH UTcm. 

NKl'.a IIORSE-SHOE BAT, scg Chcirojv 

NKIUL VM'KU PLANT, floo Daphne omn- 
nabiiui, nW> TlivmolcU:. 

XEl'AI- Hg'MY SUJCEW. Soreit liodj^soivi, 

NEI*A1^WCX)D SriRKW, S^rox n«inori- 

NKJ'ALA, San«. N«i»jUftm, Siwcm. Crcv 
ton rwmU 

NKPALAM, Tel. Jairopha curca5» L,— 
H. jii. fJSd. 

NEPALA VKMU, Tbl. The oxftct lrrin«Ia- 
tifju of tliix name U " billor croton." The 
84X1. jiyn. in JwaranUika, which in ir., who 
rcndcM it Mc<lii*af.'o tTk*nk*niit, in Jwarapah, p. 
ilTifl, lit., " fi'VLT reiuuviu;^'." The wuly plant 
ahfiworiii^ thi.« ilcfioription iti Cr^il^n ca-'avrilla 
of S, America. The uHuic wouM imliniic tiic 
exiatcncc of tt phuiL with siinilar pmiMTiit^'* iit 
Imiia. Some kintU of Phyllanthiis have hitior 
rtMiU. but OTo »Mi|y u-*^ a* diuTtitio*. Cn«ton 
and Jairopha pottcias dra&Uc but nut tiUiftfbriI« 

NEPALE.R, HooK-Lixo. Tiub. Syn. of 

NEPALIJM, Tkl. Croloti litdium, 

NEI'EN'MUCE.K, Liwll. The pLt<.-her- 
pl.finl Iriho of one gcnUH and nix «p<*cie». Tlie 
pit4'hcr-pluiit jrrowh uti ):T\xA^y liilUnbtnit Ain- 
wiv, near ilie Jyuteit liilN iiftd cruwlu nlon^ thu 
grouii<l. — /Jwiker, iltiiuJour.^ Vvl, Xi, p. 3lo. 


K Ifidks, l.twi. \ N. pliylUmphorm. 

Chu-lon|^lx«». Chln. 

Tlip nrtilvf« nf Aint»«»yiiJi hcliorc that rain 
will foU if ihoy I'liipty ih«^ pit.-hcr. N. txnipull- 
liicfii, ./(i^i^M an<l N. '. y«/'i'., grow in 

Siu;;«|Kjrc. One up- in Ceylon ; seve- 

ral sipocies ciccur in ll«»iii«it. The Untch call 
this plant Kaiuiokons kniyrl, or tho cnn-fniit, 
from it« siniHiliir form. — I^nnants ffiitdoMtnn, 

NEPENTHES of Ilomer (OlyM. iv, 1. 221) 
fUppQSod by aomft to bnvo been hemp, CannabU 
aativa. It has also been BUp(v>(ie<I thnt opium 
urns tbn Nepenthe of Uomer. — PowelVs Ilauil- 
houk, ro/.i.^. 32K 

NEPEKA, Siw«n. Carvota urena, Linn, 
Ani*.>melc!fl ovata, IL Br, 

>\ IcooopbyliA, SL i Zufji yubi*, Panj. 

;»h HimuUy^. ut from 
li pvcn in sharbat for 
• '.././.. tStrvari, uji. 

rUA, Jit, Svn. of Aniso- 

AraCA, Unn. Syo. of 
S6 N 

r:TA KCDEKAI.IS. Ba»lran 
PANJiU, PoU'flfH /faiul-hoiti-, Voi.'t, /». 

NKPHEIJUM,n genus of plants of the 
order Sapinilaceaj. Under th<? Vunn 
Mahratta names Andgeree and VanK*, I 
son mnntions a tree growing in Canara 
Sniuhi, (iYkivc tlie ghaut chiefly at the Ni! 
and jHiuthcrn junplca. WirmI said to be 
able in hou«c-bnilding. Mr. Tliwaites 
in Ceyl'iu. Ncphchuni bifuliaturo, 7^ 
modern te-fiti zed Tree un the lower lUdulb 
from Kandy. at no great elevation which 
in April ; Nephelium eximiuin, u large 1 
the central prtfviiice, at an etevatii'n of 
to 2,<X>0 feel, (lowers in May and fruiti in 
and Nephelinm crectum, Thv., aim ol'th 
tral province, up Ut an elevation of 3,00 
Three Ri>eeics of the geniw are celebnii 
their fruil«. %'iz.. N. litcKi, /Mn., the lit 
sooth eastern A£ia:N. Innganiim, the 
of China: and N. lappnccum, the nunbirton 
the Malay jteninsula. Dr. Masi:in nu'nt>imi 
small iTiferinr Tenaaaerim fruit as the i 
lium, eaten by the natives only, tl 
lonjjing to the same pena<* which protiuL 
famona lichi^ and bearing its fruit in 
like that. One of the indij^enoiw Ncp 
trees, a wild ranihutan of Tena-Vierim 
fruit whfwe nulmrid is very agrccal-Ir lf> t! 
]ialate, and much ro«eniMes that of :l 
butan fin famous at Malacca. Malnym My 
is the wild r.imhutnn, and the tree ce 
belongs to the same genus, the spucriot 
are N. lapparenm, lichi : Ion—" *'—i 
ruhnun, verticillatum and vari 
Thw, E-n. PI. Ziifl.. Vnl, i. p. r.T ; » »u,,. 


Rjiiolnil; KAUibiit-iui, MalAT. 

The rhambut-an fruit U protJucod in bondi^ ' 
terminally; die pulp, which surround* a h*<ii 
of the Mize and flovour of a rob-nut. is truntj 
rent, and of a delicate sweetijuh uci'l rtAvtui 
it is in apf>earancc not much tmlike the fruit 
the arbutus, hut larger, of a brij^htcr red, 
covered with coan»cr Tiair or iv)\\ wy.'^--^ 
whence it derives itA name. Tlic part 
gdatinousand nlmoflttransparwit pulp^ui i 
iiig the kemol, of rich and jileottant ». 
//dv/5 Snraivnl't p, 73 ; MnmUnt History ^ 
Sumnt.'ft^ jt. 101. 

NEPHELIUM Lrrcm, w,^a. 

Pimocanius lichi, Luur. I Euphoria lichi, Utitf, 

BcytaUft lichi, ifoxft. | 

Titn li ; Ue-fai, Cinif. | KalimK km t LlcfaU Ma 

This tree, a native of Cliina, is on 
green, and grows to a large (*i»e. The fruit 
of a dark-brown colour, and cnT>T' 
yellow sweet soft of pxilp ; in Hi , .* it 

not mttch prized — {>ei4iaps frotn its inforkf 
quality to the Chinese fruit, which u maoll 
«(fteemed. The fruit ripcus in March awl 




«alt. wliicl* tlie natives extract by lixlviation ani! 
subrte^juont t^Tiiwralion by tlie sun in »ballrjw 
OJm]>aritn«r)U neur the banks, nnd they scU 
ii to the jvMircr olaa^es, particularly the Hhcels, 
in iho ne'yilihourliood. ThU stratum i» usually 
from tliirty to forty feet tliick, Tht: one on 
which it repofl(?*i» and from which it is divided 
by a Btnnjjlv marked horiwmuU line, and a 
dilfercuctf of colour (thin last being of a redder 
hue) contains a very lnr>ro pn>portion of car- 
bonate of }M«ln in gonenil, but slightly cont;i- 
minatcd by ilie muriate. ThU bed rarely ex- 
ceedi It'll or fit'iccn foct thick, and rests imme- 
diately OD the b;w;dt fnrimri]^ the bed of tjie 
rivfr. In the dry flea^m, both Uicse salLi form 
a thick frtiorescenco on the surface of the lank, 
and this alone is collected by the natives. That 
fruui the lower bed fomw an article of *^xf)ort 
for the twe of tlie wa.**heTmen, &c.. &o., but the 
soda ibtelf is not extracted like the common 
ftalt, nor iAit» value btit in the above way known. 
Tlie bed of the Norbada, consisting for a con5i- 
derablo portion of its course of ba«»ltie n»cks 
givefl rij*e to numerous shallowa and sniall fnlU, 
Of thi'i«?, the principal are, one at Deyree, where 
the river w much contracted, a second at 
,j!?ema*larah, a little below Mhysir, and a thini 
the Hiu-n Pahl, or Deer's I*oap below ChicuU 
wheucc, till it* entrance into Guzernt, the 
finds its way contracted to within half 
it-S usual breadth between two hilly ranges, 
its c^Hirsc being much impeded, m a» Xn render 
unaviiration impracticable, by large mavtsi and 
elevated rid*;e3 of the rock. ra»«ing higher up 
tlie strcatn from Mundleysir, the northern bank, 
after about thirty mile* becomes nKky and pre- 

ipitoua and consi^its of gently inclined beds 
ehiefly of greetwtonc slate, containing inlerpoa- 
«d mica in jimall gralai. But the island of Mun- 
dntta and part of tlic opjxifiite bunk appear most- 
ly to consist of hornatone Alate of a reddish 
or greenish grey and somctiineu porphyritic. 
Above tlitSi for a consitlertiblo distance is, on 
each bonk, a very wild wiK»dy tract, renembling 
that alrciidy noticoi below Chiculdah, except- 
ing that the river is in general deep aiul le** 
obstructed by rocks. This part consists 
of a succession of low hills and deep ravines, 
And water-courses is covered with high thick 

►rfsets, and ta acorcely capable of beijig travel- 
in most parts for seven or eight niilcM from 

ic river by auy but foot-fiass^Mifcers. Iron ore 


II the 

hills irdtabiled by tlie coolie tribe. In lh»* 
hills are situated the several cornelian m< 
Krom HtuT**aee to Chiculdah, the whole 
from the Saipooni tu the Vindya nioun 
nearly level, wcU-watercd, eultivatof] 
habited. At Jubbtdpoor and in the n^h 
hoodof Saugur, fiMsil mammalia, shells and 
cified palms have been recently disco 
Fijssil i^helts have also been found iu k 
the trap hills, which have broken up the 
stones near tlie sources of t)ie Taptee. 
river is separated from the Narbadu by a 
of biwaltic mountains ; and having tl>e 
direction tm tlie Narlmda, its whole 
I>ears to ho in the basaltic formation. — C 
}*iOviucfit (itu^Hter ; Or. VopUtmi^ Vol. i, 
the Botfihui/ /jiff ran/ Tnitwictiotts Jo*tr, 
Miatij: Soc,^ Vol. xiii, j^y. 616-517. 
W. corner of Map, 

caryophyllilolia. Neredi-j»audoo, TKl. 
fruit. — fVilUL : Stmrtz, 

NEKEDLT, Tbl. Eugenia jamboUoa, Ltt 
R> ii, 4S1, Svzyijiaui jam. H'. 4* A. 

NEUEMJKNA, near Patun SongM in K 

alpe. ii)rms denac forests iu Norfolk Bay 
all alxmt Sttcba, Its :«lem resembles wbt 
cord and is often 300 feet lon^ ' ' ^ la 

a large air vessel, fi or 7 fe* ' iwl 

witli a bunch oi' dichot4minu> iLav-.s, cucti IU 
or 40 feet in length. The sea otter whan 
tish-Bshing rests nn the colnssal air vohcIs d| 
this giant sna weed, and its atenis funu&h 6A^ 
ing tackle. — Knriwuj, 

NKKGINDI, I$£Na. Vitcx negando, Lmn. 
RfKcf,, : H\ Ic, 

Klanxlendron roxburghii, M*. ^ A, 

NEUIJA MANU or Neraai, Tkl. EIto- 
dendron rtixbur^rhii, W, ij' A, 

NEKIKU/riM. Sec Olay. 

NEUINJI, Toi. XehngU, Maleit,. 
biilas liinugiui>^us, Linn. ; Rox^, ; fV. . 

Cerium oleander. 

NEIUTA, a genus uf Gasteropodoiu 
lusca, the type uf the faiiiilv Neritid». 

NEKITi:!^!-:, a tkuuly uf mollu^ca. 

Gmi.—SmtM, the Xerjtfs nw. H6. •p./ow«i; «<) tfi 
> ' r. \ li^foMa^ 30 sj>. 

iUj IX) tip. 
KavieeUa, r*rt. 18. 

ler nnrite, rw. 70 ^.fa^ ^ 

the •iUiiitiru httnk are the Kajpcc]>ly i ticcd, Cuuueosi bark, l>ycs. 
».*> N 88 

NEait*M ODOttUU. 

I Vi riiiiii .Nirciiinii. 

Ttrrien .rand highl)' 

I. Kuro|ican oom- 

.:i.^il with tliis uM-'lul 

oniujjT?-red tlawers Ua\c the irrate- 

..r tin f'ine-iipplc. — Oenl, M^, 

...ARIL'M, Ait., aiul.N. 
, ayufl. of TuiK-rnajinontana 

ituni, Linn 
R, Jir. 
KUil'M GliANniFLOUUM, R^rf^ 

lora, H, Brown. 



1, Ait. 

I NVri^iin olonndCT, Lour. 

of Kuliu 

of lUvi. 

,GU. ofOiusc, 


\1 nil, 



Trans Indiu. 

Jndi red xnd 


Mtft tTm varieties of this slirub^ one 

ilowvnty the other with red, it fjr^'ws 

U cttItir*tcH in every garden of 

In the Dt'khiin, the douMc 

grrow wild nn the bankatif riven, 

^hiw. aful red (lowers : tht* root is 

Tlierc nro t^vo other vartetica very 

mot with l)(;arin^»^ doiihio flowers 

w!utc anti I 

•taik, n 

to (be sliiuli. 
caUt*<l til'* Kxilo- — iatroducwi 

budtiing the red 

:n several purta of 

•/ apjKjaronce may 

i'he yellow conjje- 


I with a danpt»roiis 

I as yet bcon insidatt'd, 

imv»» been made to pnv 

Tti urtiTity and volatility are very 

,it is even a piptilar belief that the 

|of the tluwers in a close apartment 

fit liM-i noun. Amongst hindnoc^, ibi 

tuc Racrcd to Siva. The single white 

"■ li siifaid-kiirpud, the mn{7lc 

itpijd on<l tiie beautiful hirge 

variety is called puduia-kurpud. 

bark and the Icavca an; olHoinal, 

The root contains a yellow 

uinic, acid, wax, and tjugur, 

1 volatile j«i.«on. Tlio bark 

t! t!je same poUotiooa rosiu 

r in tlie liber or inner 

I carlnTOate of so<Ja, and 

rrjfd ovtif mechanically 

ilJod with water. Tho 

[ii Gra]neutJy rc^vrttid lo, for the jmrpose of 

8^ N 


-ii^!f-d(»istnif*tinn liy l1»» wuni'/n of India wbi 
t4>nucuteil with jealoiLiv. Tlie root olihc hil 
phmt i$ much more violent than tliat of the 
p;arden, and in tht; hills is con8idr*red juiisonovw. 
Jcalonfl women so frefincntly have rerouffle W 
it timt. it is pmvcrbiid among the feuialcfl of 
the hillii, when f(narreUin;.', lo bid each other 
^n and eat of tho root of Kanor. In a ca*o< 
[vtiscming by aimmon oleander (Nerium wU 
rum), a man about 35 yearo old awalloweil ai 
ounce of the expressed juice, and inimediately 
fell scnseleason the floor. lie did not rec^jvrr, 
even by \'if*orou.H treatment, from a state oC 
collapse, under 4<> lionrR, and durin;;: that time 
hail coiwtant gpa*inotUc seizures of tho wlioli; 
body. The stalks are said to he used as hookah 
tubes. The powder of the dried leavea m given 
in colic and used as an errbiue. A wasli ia 
made from the bark wbicli is used in itch and 
for destroying vermin. Kxiemally the leaves 
and bark have been u^d (and.somctimM ev( 
internally) as a remedy in herpeji and itcl 
Tlie nt-^ped woixl is employed a.-* rat's-baiu 
Tlie WixkI itself is wed by some ciwtern nalioi 
as tlie best material |i>r guufxiwdrr charcoal.—^ 
PowelVs Ilaiul-hooK\ VoL\^ jk ;i(It>; AV/. Ctfc; 
Or9. Riihkll ; hir't,^, p. 18*5 ; Ainsf'i^'s Mat, 
Med., p. 70,- Ihnifhfr-fer^ j^P' ^^'^ •^-*'i 
O'SfinttffhiuASff, p. 445 ; Mitson. 

Ksctiolh-un piscidiura, iVujkt. | Kchahi ofSyUwt. 

Tliis \» common in the Khaa^ya and Syl 
mountains, whore it forma an extensive perennial 
climber. \U bark contaiofl a lorj^e (juantity of 
fibfe, which the native-i use lor the same |jur- 
poses Jw hemp. Dr. Koxburj;:!), in steeping 
-tome of the young shoots in a fish |M>nd, in 
order to fticilitalc tl»e removal oi the bark nnd 
to clean the llbros, lourid that many, if not all 
the fishfa, wore killod : hence the specific 
name which he appliefJ. Dr. Wight formed 
tho plant into a new genus, Kclialtuui. The 
wh'»le family of '• Apocynaccae," trrniod *' tlog- 
lijineH, to which tliis belongs, are truly so. — 
HmtU, Fih, PL, p, 3l>2 ; KoafK, Foi. ii, 2>. 7 : 
QiHhntofhnnftf^ p, 445 ; Voif/t^ p. 525 

NEUIUM *TlNCn)inU.M, lUvh, Syn. of 
Wrijrlitia linclorin, 7^ Br. See D)'es. 

Wri.i,ditia tonientoan.— 7?<>»i. 4' -SJcA. 
NivKKA.GoKDi.CoiiJsaureiis, Linn.^Bhj-^ EH. 

Nl':i:MADA, a name of the Nerbudda river. 

Sec Inscriptions, Sala^raina. 



M-:K0 DI FUAIO. It. LauipWack. 

NERRKLOO, Sisqh- A tree ol tlu' coit 
province of Ceylon, tho w^dol -^";'^^^;K>* 
L. 5« to the cubic foot and ^f J'^/ ^ -^\*: ^' 
yeai^. It is used in cnmmou bou.. -Uuaaii^ 
— ifr. MtndiB. 








NEKUniAU. in Malabnr. :i cnMte of «ilt- 
mnkera anrl tifihemien comprising llic Vettuvcr 
ant] Muknvcr, or Mukwa ca^lea. 

NERURI— ■? Phylliinthiw ncruri. 

NKKVALAM, Tm. Croton tiglium ; Ner- 
valhun cottay, Tam. The seed. 


NEKW ALLAH, the ancient capital of Guae- 
rat. See Cainala devi. 

NESHK, ubo Chal, Hu\d. Eagle- SeeNedur. 

NESIITUL seeUindw, 

NESOKlA-lIUrrOM, %.Syn.ofNe8old» 
hardwickei. — Jrrdon. 

NESOKLV UN'DICA, Jtrd, Syn, of Mua 
providcna. — Elliot. 

NESK, Arab. Eagle. It vk ibcNcsrof the 
llebrewfl, und Nesher of tlie Chttldeans. 

NESSIA, A genua of ^nukes of the family 
Acontiudidae which may be thus shown : 

Kau. Accntiadidflc, 

Acontitij^ layardii. Kth., Ctilombo. 
-Neeia bujUnui, Grey, C*ylon. 
„ roonodACtyla, Beil^ Ceylon. 

KEST. E50. Geb. 

Ni.lo, Sp., Tjlm. 

Yiwtth, TiritK-» Tkl. 

The ne«ta of birds greatly vary. Tlioie of 
the weaver bird, tailor I'ird, honey-sucker and 
oriole, are made with much art. The edible 
neat of the coIocaJia swallow i.s formed of in- 
llpiMatc<l saliva in cavern.^ : swallows, 9wii\«, 
bee-cutors and weaver birds build in companies. 

NESTOR, SCO Simiada;. 

NESTORIAN, a christian sect in Kurdistan 
and McBopotamia, so called (nym Nestorus, who 
waa Kishop of Constantinople in the 5th century 
and wlitjso doctrines were spread with much 
leal through Syria, Egypt, Tereia, Indiii, Tartary 
and China. Nestnrian Tiyari women and girU 
bathe unrcatrained in the presence of men, in 
the ittrcanM that paat tlieir doom. Soc ludia^ 
Kurdut;u], Mesopotamia. 


ObonaalA, Ghar, UrKi>. 
Nldo; Nid)o;>'idiata, It. 

Ncti, Omu. 



Jhal, UtND. 

l^lka^ Panauk* 


KetAj, RotiooUft, Ragma, It. 



Jala, Mxur. 



Net-making or the art in which the fabric i* 
rojuircd to be tnuu»i)arcnt, but in which the 
fibres are decua»ated and retained in thoir 
places by knots, that the inlersLiccs may rt-iaiu 
Jicir form and sixf, aiul prevent objects from 
lacapingi se«m8 to bare been known in the 
Mrii«st ages in E4;ypt, and is practised with 
the gmtest skill throuf;hout the K. Indies in 
^ftricty, from a few to fifty fathoms in 
Tl»o6C fn>m Singapore arc made with 
ADtlOll, sod othvn with the tlbrij whi. h ia very 
if DoC iid«atical wiU», tliat f<'mungtbe 
grass. Nets aro wu^en also of 
9xA boiled iu a solution of j^am- 



er (Uncaria^^ambicr) to preser^'e tliem 
rotting. The smacks which swarm alor 
Malay coast pi out in pairs, jiartly thj 
crews may afford mutual relief and prot 
but chiefly to join in dragpng the net 
to tlieirboatfl .In the shallows of rivers, 
heavy poles org driven down, and nets 
to them, wliich are examined and ch( 
every tide. Those who attend these nets, 
over, attach acoops or drac-nets to their 
ao loaded that they will sink and gatK< 
!mle, ray, and other fish feeding near thi 
torn. Lifting nets, 20 feet square, are 
pende<l from poles elevated and depressed' 
hawser worked by a windlass ou shore; 
nets are baited with the whites ofcpjrs 
the meiihcs. There are, also, Casting net 
Sicnc nets. The Rimi fibre. Trap fibre, 
and hemp are all employed in uet-makii 
Hopk^Arts.Jt'c.^of India^ p. 505. SeeFisI 

NETAR, Hi5D. Ia.w land. 

NETAVIL MAUAM, Tam. Antiaris im 
BluifUi^ liianphius, 

NETAVIL MARAM. or Chundao. Tj 
I^puranda saccadora, a very common and 
iiirvst gigantic tree of all in the Wynaad jungl 
Coramboor hags or sacks are ma<lc from tJi 
bark : wood not much used. — Mclvor, M, K 

NETELDOEK. Drr. Muslin. 

NETEK. IUb. Soda. 

NETHEULAND. a name in use ibr ; 
European country, called Holland, occupied 
the Dutch, also for Belgium. The Dutch 
huge possessions in the Eastern Archij 
See Arcliipolago, Dut<:h PoBsesstons. 

NETl BIRA, or Nunc hira, Txi., LtiiBi 
tandra, 7^, iii, 712. 

NETl IXJNDA, or Tiyya donda. Tku 
onia umheliatu, Klein. 

NETTLE. This name is applied to plants 1 
when touched imjmrtastingmg sensation. Thi 
ore classed by botanists under die 
order Urticaceft of Endlicher, which 
the genera Ampalis. Antiaris, 
Hatis, licehmeria, Umussonetia, Cannabis, 
cephnlus, Doritcnio, Epicjiryturus, 
l>epurandra, Morus, Parietaria, P< 
PnKTis, Trophifl, and Urtica. Of the 
of the gena<4 Urtica, of which there are 
about twenty, many stin^, as also do 
Bochmcria : t^rtica and Bochmeria 
useful tibrcH, and the Broussonetia papyriiierv 
{»aper-like bark. See Urticaoear. 

NEITLE FIBRE, sec Decascliistia 

NKTrE PALE, Tam. The country 
bejry tree, the iVuit is one of the most 
ful acids of India. 'Ilie tree grows to 
twelve inches in diameter, its wood is not 
any ase. — £</i/*, Mai, and Can, 


N ao 


goose teal or cotton tenl 

_ I, Burmah and Malayana, 

little gnslet, it U anwary and familiar, 
reedy and graaay tanki», flies with 
id otters a cackling call. It breeds 
old trees, ruined houses, temples, 
and luyg eiglit or ten «3uaU white 
the Bemicea girra of Gray and 
SOS affinis of Jerdon, and \s 13 or 14 

filioNeru, TiL. Water. 

ELIA, a mountain summit in 
its name from Nuwara, Sujou^ 
lence, and elia, light. It wa» 
:lish officer* in lt}20, and by 
Bamea had opened it aa a 
1'2 foet above the sea, and, 
vins rwe 2,(*U0 feet higher 
are range? from Sf^ to 81°, 
ily variance of 11*^, the average 
^ and the highest observation 
thermometer 70°. The 
falling liaa perceptibly de- 
late yean, probably owing to the 
ring of the surrounding forest*, to 
tot coffee planting. Its highest 
-tailA-galJa, 8,280 feet in eleva- 
itB name from the plants 
lere amongst the rocks (galla) 
ited for the (" talla") leaves in 
lura). It ia a favourite place 
ihe oomioencement of January 
May. At that time the rainy 
tces« and visitors rapidly dii- 
$ RifU, pp. 32-33; Tenti^nt's 

Harp., of Kotgarb, Cupreseus toni- 

. (from phtpo¥, t nerre, and 
\)t one of the orders into which 

is divided. It may be illus- 

the LiboUuIa or dragon-fly ; Kphe- 
[ay-l!y, and Phryganea or alder-fly. 
SJ9 £. Indian genera and 




Waiwooti, East Indies. 
lUchcM, black. 
/. £a»t Indiuo. Expan- 

^tetwood, Kfist Indies. Expansion 

East IndiM- 

A«am. Expansion H incliefl. 

EmI laUififl, Expiutuion 2^ inches. 

lUreK, Wf$iicotid, Ea»t Indies. 

imff riilouTftd. 

r»ri. ■ '■ •<></, HylbeL Expan- 


riy I inch. 

-^A Central India. Ex- 

■luli fulvoua. 

Mnntispa nodosa, WtstwootU Assam. Bxpanstuti 

NEVA LEDI, Tkl. Vitex leucoxylon, R,, 
iii, 74. 

NEVALI ADUGU, Tbl. Vitex arborca, 
H,, iii, 73. 

NEVARI DHANYMU or Ni\'ari dha- 
nyainu, Tel. wild vnr. of Oryza aati\*u, L. 

NEVEIUT, Bee Nepal. 

NEWAL, liiirD. Uerpestea griaeus, Gfoff,^ 

NEW ALA, Hum. Vitia indica. 

NEWAR, a race who occupy tlie great central 
and fertile valley of Nepaul. They use well-built 
houses. The native Achar is select^ as their 
priests. They eat bet^f and drink alcoholic 
liquors. Tliey burn their dead. On the 11th 
August, the Newar farmer diMtributea mash 
rice to the frogs. The Newar are the cultivat- 
ing peasantry, have Tibetan features with a 
fair and ruddy complexion. The language of 
the Magnr, Gurang and Newar ia chiefly Tibe- 
tan. Further east are the Karanti, Munni and 
others. The Newar are divided into several 
castes or orders, moat of which derive their 
origin, like those among the more ancient 
hindoos, from n primitive clnsiifloation, accord- 
ing to trades and occxipations. The Newar are 
more skilful artisans than the Ghorka, hut their 
talent does not lie in the same direction. The 
Newar excel also in bell-making ; it ia the 
trade of the land ; they are all bell-makers from 
their youtli, and proofe of their skill are exhi- 
bited hanging at the comers of pagodas, swing- 
ing from the roofs of houses, surmounting 
dagobas, in fact, the device upon a Nepaulese 
banner should be a bell. In jewellery they 
are no less expert, and are elaborate workmen 
in all metals. A coarse paper is manufactiu"cd 
by them from the bark of a tree, which is flrat 
reduced lo a pulp and then spread over a sheet 
and dried. They are as excellent agriculturista 
as tradesmen, and the rich soil of the valley ia 
not allowed by the industrious peasants to lie 
fallow a moment longer than is necessary. 
There are not, however, many Newar employ- 
ed as Nepaiil soldiers, and the army is chiefly 
composed of Muggur, Gurung, and Krat, The 
Newar women, are lady-like in their appear- 
ance, when compared with some of the Bhotia 
tribe. In an account of Nepaul in 1803, Colonel 
Kirkpatrick observes that " thoagh the Newar 
have round and rather flat faces, small eyes, 
and low spreading noses, they bear no resem- 
blance to Chinese features ;" but there is a great 
similiirity of the maws of the lower orders to 
the Chincjw. Their inipcrturbabte good humour, 
unalfected simplicity, their picture»(|ue dwellings 
and sturdy limbs, plainly pn>ve them a hill 
race. This class of the inh-ibit-ints of Nepaul 
are a cheerful, happy race. — Olipfta nfa Jourtuy, 






pp, 73, 74, \M ; CaUiiifi Kii'l-j HI trial's Aecount 
lif Ntptd. Scr Iniha, Nepal, SfumtBhira. 
NEWAICA, HiKD. ]kT[H!8tuit gri^*i3, alati 

NEWJJKUUY, sw U-ed.s. 

NKWIiOLI), Captain T. D., an infttutry 
officer of the Madnw Presitlcnoy, known for 
liM continuoua contributiona on the got»U>;_'y und 
klsUary of |«irta of Southorn Asia. Cupt. 
Newbdid rose in tlic I2tli M. N- I., was a 
ilwlingruisiicd jrcolnpiat, and most accompliahisl 
orifnUiIist and ficliolnr, AA-fistunl tn the licsi- 
ilent at iJydcrabiid. 06. 1800. Wrote on the 
licryl mine in Coimbatiire, in Kdn. New Hiil. 
Jl., Vol. XX, 241 ; Valley of bitnatwr, Mml. 
Lit. Tr»na. IS^S, Vol. viii, part I, 128 ; Tem- 
I»er»turr of tlio sprinpj, wolU, and rivers in 
India and KgvpU l*bil. Tna^. and ru-publi.'slicd 
Kdin. New 'i'iiil. JK. IS 15-4 fi. Vol. xi, «fl ; 
Gotilnjriail notei wx Uic Siiuthcrn Muliriitta 
(Viuntry, inlil. M. Trana. 1815, Vol. xiv, part 
1, 2fi.S; Omooim brocci.i and depo*ita in the 
C1VCM of OilLi St:K.*rgiuii, Si»uthcru India, Ibid., 
1814, V.d. xiii, i«art 2, p. 610 ; Visit lo the 
hitter tako^, Imthmiw of Suez, in L()nd. As. 
Trans. 1H45, V»^l. viii, 353; Geological notes 
fniMt Mfusnlipataiu to Goa; On tlic Aliiinc 
jtUwiiT, icL'brrg. dilnviaJ, and wavti tx-anslaiion 
ehooricfl, with rdi*rcni;i3 to the de[Kwiiis of 
Smthem India, in Bl. A;i. Tram., Vol. xiv, part 
1,217; Gt>)l»n;ifnl nuU's aeroAS the penmsiilu 
i>f Sontltern Imli.i. from Kistivpatatn ; Ihld., 
*J1*(? : WUUity of the Persian poet«, in Mod. 
\aU Trana,, Vol. ii, 245; Summary of iJ»o 
goolo^y <kf Smthorn India, in Lond. A^ 
Trftiw. 1845, Vol. viii, i;i8, 213; Essays on 
the moirical <x>mfio4itiorw» of the Persian [>oel^, 
with a notice of tlieir jxKjtry, Mad. Lit. Trana., 
Vol. ill, 113, 232 ; On tlie code and bi^ftorical 
MSS. of tlic Siiimese ; On the progress of 
f'.n.l-lliism to the e.'i!«t ward ; Ibid., Vol. vi, 117; 
lieotrit frcfth water dcp^itA near Kurnool, in 
lil. Ao. Traan., 15^44, Vol. xiJi» 213 ; Acwunt of 
the Mfdiuinodan Kinp of Achecu ; Ibid, \o\. 
iv, 117 ; Ni'tico uf Milayan code ; ibid, 300 ; 
Sit*.' of llai, or Ai. n>yal eily of tbo Canaanitos, 
in R*>rri. Gw. Trans., Vol. viii, 3;i5 : A 
1 il notice of him appeared in the 

/, , .//i«, May 1850. — i>i\ BtUsl's Cata- 

■>EW CALEDONtA, we India, 

NEWKL FBUIT, Cali-ptranihcs cnryo- 

NEW GUINEA or Pupua, » great island 
on ibo eastei'n bonier of the Eastern Archi- 
palik^^. ltd north ctraftt \s u'eueralty hi?h ; 
t'^ I. there \a low land, but n 


of mountainn 

' an<l elcratcd 

■ feet abovn the 

tf isp f^nsrt wul ui Uic Papuan rawr* 


1,500 mileA in extreme In 
double that rif Boraoo; but its lin 
\a probably leam tlian that of the latter 
(200,0(MI ac|uarege<»>rniphlcaJ miles), as 
every rea«m to biJiuve tliat the Mn\tX\ 
Xew (luineu. immediately oppontc to tlio 
of Carpentaria in AustrulJa, foma a dcei 
dentjilion similar to tlir Great Buy on the 
c<xist, titcre l>ciu;j u ftpace of two dijfzrvas 
half of longitude in whi<;h tlae land has 
been seen. Of this unexplored space, 1 18 
or four-lillluit of the wliole, were taken 
of by proclamation, in the uame of th? ku 
lloliand, in tlie year 182S. As th. 
of iler Majesty s shijjs employfd 
ing service ore said to havn l 
not to interfere witli c<Kijit» ■ n 

(KiwerB, unless Uic intcreit^ of navi^tioo \ 
\y rcHpiiro it, this in some d«^eo 
tht; fact that so larj/o a apace of ooaflt« 
000 miles of a European wtilf-Mi. nt Uii 
been established more than 
mains still uuknown to ci\jli..i ..^.. ^iiiu 
names by which tlic island is kmtwn to 
ropcans and Asiatics. New Guinea and 
Papua, bitth distinctly refer ti^ the leadii 
culiiirity of the race by wliicli the COOM\ 
inhabited. Tlie mu«t striking 
feature of tlie great casteni 
in a back-lwnc of lofly m<' 
parcntly extends tUixu^dion 
practice of standing up to | 
is repeatedly noticed by Lieutmaiit^j 
Modera, and it aeeuLs to be j;t in nil 
the coasts of New Guinea. Ttio bri:»wn-<ol 
natives of tlie Archipcla;i:o all sit, or 
whilr paddling their canoes, excepting ibe 
Laut, or Sea Gypsies, who stand like tlicPaj 
and give as a reason for assuming tliis 
the su]}erior facilities it alTords them of 
turtle, and of cliusing tlie.m wheu dtacoi 
The tradt; with New Guinea and the 
Islands, (commonly called tlie Uugis 
and the Trepang Hrfhery on the nortii 
Australia, i?* carrieil on chii>ily in vgmcU 
Padewahkau. These leave Macassar 
other ports of Celebes, for tljc Eiwt^m I( 
dming the westerly inons*ion, rctii 
»)utJi-tKist trade wind. The nortii 
island, thai is t/> say, tlie portion U _ ;■ > ih 
W. of tlie range of mountainM ah* nij 
to, partakes uf the rugged and broken clu 
oftlie volcanic islands of (he Inrlian Archi] 
but the south-western |»art is low and 
ting, and wc may conclude that it bears 
derable resemblance to tlie northern 
Australia, since tlie sevemi Dutch na^ 
who explored the gulf of Garp«ntana, and 
are in the habit of coa-stin- 
Guinea on tlicir way to A^ 
them ua being portions i>f tbu auuc ctmtuiral 

N ^i 

3fEW auixEA 


■i\ in uiir maps t husband. The negroes of .\, Guinea are in^ 

I TTt'-^ Strait find varloiii slates ol' civilization. Soiuu of tlia 

aji lo limt itwviliirii)'. A I niUe^t dwell in rnispniMo liuts und seek a biiro 

tilfHoeoual uf tin; S, W. ctnist of ' -mbitUtonce by tho ulu'we or thu »[*ontimoou» 

U gi\en in Modems *' Narrative ' prL»iiuctioiw ol' the forest. Tbrrc are, liowever, 

of ihe Dutch Or\'eltc * Triton* j other ueifr<j tribes living on tbc eoaxtjj who htivo- 

1S28," when tliii* coa?t was ex- 

a view tu Ibrming a eeitlcmeui : 

iultinuaiiou wlueh beai'4 upon 

liA S, W. part iii known to native 

Papua-kowivoe and l*apna-Onen : 

uC«d by llie ujo^t treachoroa't and 

loade i?onio advance in civilization. The«e 

dwell by whole triht« in hu^e barn-like lioiwes 

raided on p«j»Ut. like Um#o of the wild inhabit- 

antM of Bomet^, but ruder. Their beard lA- 

cricip. Tlic fni'eiioaJ is hiirh and narrow ; eyes 

large, durk-brtuvn, ur black : noKp flat and 

iir tribe*, and up n» the present time broiid: mouth lar>re. lips tliiek and teeth ^ood : 

o- led there. Tlie few have re;/ular feature!, and mout are apatlie- 

fj ■ v. ^V'ai;j:iou, and tic. The ordinary men wear a waint cloth 

%A iJie u<iju>--eiil u^ukit, have Itecome mad» of the bark of a tree, called '* mar,** 

>{e« On the S. W. eoaat, l)owever, and wliich i« wnippc<i round tlie waist and ])affled 

Ittge iftland of Jobi, llie Papuan race i between the le^. Women wear a Bbort sarony 

ytry barbarous condition and take to the knee, generally of blue cloth. Men and 

rtututy tu a»b and murder. The i women tattoo their bodic« on occasions, by 

priekin/? the ekin with a iish bone and rubbing 
in lamp black. Tlie Dori poopic are a Bcafar- 
ing people an<l aj-c expert swimmers and ilivers. 
Their prahu^i have outriggers and are excavated' 
from the trunk of a single tree. Their ftwA 
rJan^ coudici] eUamber at Dori, sup- ' coiwistfl of millet, obi, maize, a little rice, fwh 
oQ larger ixMtti. on eaeb of which is a ' and hog's flesh and fruits. Sago i^ imjwrtcd in 
aajriD^ of a naked man or woman with small quaniitipji. 1 hefl i« oonaidcred a grave' 
rvroJuni.' -near. The i>eaple of otTenc.e : they are chaste and marry one wife- 

(CREBibte ' , u Ke and Aru ialanda. The dreft*ea of tho eiiieta among the natives o( 

icm Hie Very hand.*ome. taJl, well- | l>3ri con.->iHt of the suilner, or short drawei*» of 
w*Il cut featuruii and aqniline noses, i the Malays, and the kabya, or loose eoat of] 
oolour i* a deep bniwn,itl\en appixwiching I calico, with a handkerchief lied ronml thoi 
black, and their frizzly hair i.' combed up i heiwl. Tlie common men, and liic chieli* them- 

intcrror of Dt)ri are called Arfak, 
The l*apnana of Dori bang 
Arfak under tlic eaves of their 
wKiob arc built in the water, on pot^ts, 
u|> U> by rude wooden bridges. 'Xliere 

a mu(>-Iik« form by means of a long six 
iurk. The language spoken at Dori 
»l«r*|i)od by the Papuans at Humlwldt 
Dori peoj)le aie great carvers and 
fDieir food is roota and vegetables 
game as a luxury. The Arfak or 

selves, when not in the presence of stnmi^'ei'a, 
wear only a ehawat, or waist cloth of the bark 
of the fig, or of the paper midberry free, beatea 
out like tho bark cloth of tlie Polynesians* 
The Papuans inhabit ilae shore, tho Arl'ak 
dwell in the mountains and interior. BotK 

N. Guinea are generally black but these main classes arc divided into different- 

>Mwn like the Malay. Their hair, 

more or \*xr> frizzly, is sometimes short 

itted, iii'ttejwl of being long, lou^c and 

Mr. Karl describes the feature* of the 

Lca IVpuans at« of a decidedly negro 

;— b nwvl rhit nrnjies, thick lijw, reced- 

id chin<t, and thai turbid colour 

he tlie white of the eye which 

a (• -mister ex]<re^sion. Their 

:xio!; I y a deep chocolate colour 

clcwely approaching to black, but 

1y a few ftliades lighter than the deep 

that is otlen met with among the negro 

•-■-!». The nuiuy Papuan tribes in 

generally in a i»tatc of warfare 

iiierand return fnan their warlike 

*» ith lieatitf. They are superititioua 

* ity called Karwar, IS 

Miisnlt on all ort-a-tions. 

noma in liie tamily of her deceased 

r)3 N 

tribes, who are generally in a state of hu-iti- 
Ijty with each other. The Papuans of l)<iri 
resemble those of Mysole which i» called Long" 
Island in the Kn^^lish chart*, and lies about ten' 
miles to the cast of Dori. In general ihoy aro^ 
short in stature, the most 5^, very few 0| i'eel 
high, but niiLsciilnr and well-made. Their' 
eoltmr isdark-bnnvn, inclining tA> black insoine,^ 
Two Albino cliitdren were »een there (nf tlu 
same mother) with white skiu, ratlicr j-assing 
yellow, with some brown spotj* on the back an( 
with wliite crisped hair and blue or green cye.i. 
The Papuans of Dori are generally affeoied with 
skin-diseases, in some theskia looks as if it were * 
covered with seiilcH (ichthy^isis.) The hair i* 
black and crisped. It had u reddish tint at the 
outer cutis. They iktually wear the hair the 
full length to whieli it will grow, which mak<^ 
their bea^I, from a distance, appear twice its 
:ictua] akc. In general they bc&\u>f ^uVc 




care npon it, su 
t»pi>earnncc, and jrires 

it has a C1I0O1 
them a wild aspect. 
There are 8omtr, liowever, whose hair, whether 
through art or naturally, is smooth aud 
even, as if it had been clipped. The men 
wear a comb in their hair, consisting of a piece 
of bambtTo having 3 or 4 long points on tlie 
undfT side, like a fork* running into aj>oint 
above and generally carved. This comb, which U 
stack in nblir|ucly at tlic side, has a &mall strip 
of coloured cotton fastened at the lop whicli 
liangs out like a streamer. The women do not 
wear this ornnment. The beard ia strongly 
crisped but ithnrt, the hairs of the heard 
arc aoinetime» pulled out. Must Papuanti 
have a high but small forehead, larj^o di*rk- 
browu or black eyes, tlat hruad noae*, larj<e 
mouths with tliick lipe ami pood teeth ; many, 
liowevcT, Imve tliin crooked noses and tiiin lips, 
which gave them a European phyBiognoray. 
They pierce the earn, and wear some ornament* 
in them, or their tobacco, which they roll in 
pnndnn leaves and of which Ihey are gruat 
consumers. The appearance of tlie Papuans is 
lazy and stupid; moat of them are very ugly, 
only a very few have regvdar features and a 
lively aapect, Thedre^ofthc chiwfsis the before- 
mentioned kabaya, breechca and handkerchief, 
which they have some difficulty in fj3teuing 
on their stiff crisped hair. The rest of the 
men t^ro wholly naked, with the exception of a 
chuwat or waist cloth. ThU, which is composed 
of tlie bark of a kind of % tree beat out, is 
called by them mar, and is wrappetl round the 
middle, drawn through between the legs and 
fastvuud behind. The women wear a short 
saroog, generally of blue cotton, which hani^ 
ti> the knees, or a kind of bn'e4'hes with very 
abort leiis. The body is otherwise entirely 
uncovered. Some however wear tlie »an>ng to 
abovo the bosom. The eliildreu of both Ht^xcs 
go entirely naked imtjl tlie a.^c of puberty. 
All wear rings on the arms comf>otM'd of fish 
boow. ihelis, copper, silver, twisted rattans or 
nahoi. These lagt, u( tlio bre^idth of two 
fin^'m and usually roil-colourwl, arc put on tlie 
arm at an early a^fc, and adhere tightly to tlic 
•kin a^ ihi* liiiili ^mw-i. The men m<«tjy wear 
a similfir baml nf rattan on the wrist of the U-ft 
hand, but murli broader and which sits Iixku; on 
llie wri4tv in ord* r rn prcvont thf* skin hein^ 
strippetl otTby i' with 

the bow. Thi'v Itront 

|iarli of the txxly altt^r tht: i-tc.ith ol" one of their 
i, for instance, on the cheeks axid wider 
evM after t>io death of the father ; on tho 
^yr ihi' grandfather ; on the shoulders ; 
(nr the mother, and on the back for a | 
I &Im> tattoo, but cliicHy , 
s: of IhcirfenuUe reUktiomi. | 

Tiw &g\uv» afip(w ftf> be chotitn at will ; mwtly 

vo-croased klewang, 
runniug iulo each other. l*his tattooii 
performed by yoimg girls, by pricking th«i 
with a fish-boUQ and nd)bing in soot. 
scara are acco on some, aa 11^ they had 
burned. The uumber of such scan oi 
perHon are sometimes as many as ten, 
probably used as ornaments. 

The weapons of the Papuan consist 
bows and arrows, the spear, klewang, and 
ang, as well as tlie shield for protection, 
bows are IbrmtHl of bamboo or of a kind of 
tough red wood ; th*i string rests in two notch< 
near tlie ends and is made of rattan. The 
which tliey use in war are 6 or 7 feet longt 
for ordinary u-m* are mostly 3 or 4 feet. 
arrjws are farmed of reeds, a littie shorter 
the bows ; they have very long taperiog ] 
of bamboo, iuh bones, pointed Ixjnes or 
hardened in tlie lire ; sometimes, but 
generally, tlie^c points are of iron. Moit 
the points have sliarp barbs, which geoi 
prpduce incurable wounds, especially in 
cose of those who have no kmiwledgc of 
heahng art, and leave the cure to nal 
They do not apparently use poisoned 
The jxiinta arc ]>ut iuto the arrows and I 
with thread, being ot>cn subsequentljr bl 
ed. They generally have a great qoaatit^ 
arrows in roadinefle for use. The speats, " 
the arrows, have barbed points and are i'- 
y to 10 feet long, and frei|uently hi 
below the ^M)int, a small hmich of ca«M>w] 
feathers. The klewang and piirang, which thi 
make themselves, or purchase from shi(«, 
of the usual form. The shield is of wood, 
sided, 5 to feet high, 2 broad, somewhat 
nut at the edge and furnished with a h^i< 
the back. They are generally carved on Uii 
outrnde and ornamented with the figure of 
Papuan in a sitting posture. 

The flora of these countries is rich in Filioe^j 
Scitaminea*, Aroideo! with edible n^ts, Gwn 
vulacea and Solunacese. The Gramincst 
Saccharum, Milium, Oryza, Zea, the beai 
Phalarii* anindinacea. Amongst the fruit 
were seen Carica papaya, Mosa p;ii 
Rromolia, Ananas, Citrus anrantium in 
quzuiiily, Canarium commune, T«rmii 
calappa and Mj-risiica mwdiata. Along 
shore tliere are Rhizophora, MyroliaJantw, Matt-j 
gium. AWccnnia, Barringtouia, Ela^nrarpof^j 
Xanthoxylum, Celaatrine», Ficus, Hicinra;,' 
Artocarpus, Calamus, Flagellaria, Bambosa*^ 
.\cacia, and CuAuarina. More than I"* 
of insects. Soarabei, Bnprwtides, Cum 
and also beautiful Lepidoptcres and Hemi] 
This country is also rich in beautifiil 
Arachnides. AmonL'^t th«^ birds there aro 
Psitlacus galeritus, Phlyciolaphos sti]| 
Poittacus aterrimus and s|ieciQ9 of Bucorot, 



flofpAradi«arethchrown-feftthcro4jwiUi ; me wnoie irom luiung wiui uit? iiim wii 
white and oran^t-ooloured feathers on | The people of Doriare fishers nnd traders, the 
i the wholly black with Inn^ tail and I Arlaki nre agruiihurista. The former cnlch 
|>eni boak ; a small yellow kind with i turtle and triiMing, which they sell for hojwLi, 
[Mge cokwred breast ; another kind rcd« with { knives and cloth, and piirehnf>P of the ArOvki 
peiM projecting from the tail, with a atuull ' their rice and yams, ploiituias uiid breoil-fruits 
rem colour>c^| curled bunch of tVathcra at the and numbers of tame cockatoofl and lories, 
ndv. Epimachus moi^u^ a bird of the coaatB I which they sell apiin to the Tematc and 
( New Gtiinea, i« the Upupa magna, Om.^ | TidorC traders. All these natives have tlie 
RDperba, Lath, Its tail ia ii feet loujj, i characters of the Papuan rare very strongly 
iuiad-feathen are liLslrons slecl-blue. ( marked ; the Hat li^rehead, heavy brows, and 
femus animalii are few in number. ' larjre no«e, with the u|>eK hent dnwTiwarda : are 

wild hog?, imd a species of mar- 

Feremcles doryaniw, about the size of a 

with Hcaatv reddish hair Ukc bristles, an 

• d mmit, short tail, and a pocket 

I which it carrier its young ones. 

r inbabitanta were found by Lea^on 

^m I ' " ' *'^ be quiet and inolVensive. Not 

^Bj^' > <r Bugis, or Ueramesesottlcmeut 

^Bfei h several are ftcaitercd 

^ft t the prin<npal being at 

Bwaijy, a large i-tUimJ, forming the apiKirent 

Vtb-WMtextremityofXewGuinea^fn^m which 

liii^arBted bj a very uarrow strait. The stjitc- 

ofteo found on uiapA that New Guinea is 

ttbafaitcd by Papuans and MaULys,"* is tliere- 

le Ukcorrpct. The whole northern (»t'iiiaKula 

f New Gtiinr«, aa well as the iHlancU of Wa- 

ioa« Saiwatty and Boluuta, are exceetlingty 

^gMaml inountjunnuA. There bia coutuiucd 

n of ja^wl and angular ran;(C9 of liills, 

here behind tiiem, ridge beyuud 

1* fnr away into the interior. Over 

[ ; iry 8pryo*ls an mivarying forest, 

*<.i:i>-niuit «iuited ftppciiranoe, broken 

thef eery widcly-wattered clearlnKa of 

the lower slopes. Near Don 

tainii retire a little backward, 

rwch their greatest altitude in the 

itAk nuig«, which the oi&cera of the CViquille 

Mocriaincd to have an elevation nf lf,500 feet. 

Duti harlnjur* or bay, ia furmed I>y a long, 

kv prwikootcrv, curving round tnwardfi the 

Arfii reogv, which ri^es abruptly Irom the 

ffpotit^ mdo of the hay. Towards the extre- 

ti!ti .pfihi* nroDiontory ia situated the vilhig^ 

rpporiite, at about a mile, is the 

d of Maiuiinam. and a smaller 

The inhabitants of Don live 

ooaat, or more properly in the 

an, m (hey always huild their hou^vs at or 

li^ iam water-ioark, raided uu posts, and 

notthlB by a rough and tottering causeway 

Iraa tlic bcAch. The natives of the interior 

differ perceptibly ia physical cha- 

have a distinct language, and arc 

by the Dori people. Their 

in vtry simiJar, but are raised 12 or 15 

lugh, oo a perfect forest of thin poles, 

titm f4 which are put diafruaally, and prevent 

95 JV 

almost universal, ra well ns the hai'sb curly 
hair, which often ft>rms an enormoiw stiff mop, 
and is then highly CRteemcd- It has, in fact, 
a very grand and imposing effect. The colour 
of tlie skin varies greatly. In general it is a 
dirty black, or 8»x)ty colour, but varies to a 
fine brown which is nt'Ven qtiite as light as 
that of the pure Malay races. lu mental and 
mtind rharacterifllirs the Paptians differ re- 
markably fn>m the M:iliiy races. They nro 
much more iinpuUivc. and do not conceal their 
emotions and jta'isions. Tliey are intjuisitive, 
talk much and luudly. »nd laugh boistoroiiiilv ; 
reminding one of the negro character, as much 
as of the negro form and aspect. The nativca 
of Dori arc not U> be trusted in anything where 
j^yinent iu concerned. If they do not actually 
steal, it IS only from fe4ir of cf>nse<|uencej». Tl»ey 
are, however, nota tiairsampleof theNewGuinea 
tribes, having been toi» much in wntact with tho 
Inwest class of mahoniedan traders with whom 
they timl it uecoasary to take every aflvaatage 
in self-defence. They possess tljc rude artistic 
genius of 80 many of the Oceanic tribes, de- 
corating their hou.-johoid utensils and the prt>w9 
of their canoes witli elaborate carving, and tlic 
poalft of their council-house with ob&cene carj^- 
otidcs. The language of the Dori people re- 
sembles tlmt of the Aru and Kc Lslands in 
containing a larpe number of monosvUabic 
words, as well a& oUiers excessively polysylla- 
bic, offering a remarkable contrast to tlie 
striking diflsyllabio character of the whole Ma- 
layan group ol' languages. The principal 
ardclo of trade on the northern coast of New 
Guinea is a fragrant aromatic bark, called 
mtiflsoey, which ia carried to Java where the 
natives extract an oil of great reputed efficacy 
as a remedy fur vaiious disurdora. This is 
obtained only at one locality, Wandammen, 
deep in the great bay. Besides this, tortoise- 
shell is an important article of trade, with a 
small qtiantity of boche-de-mer and sago. 

Adi or Ai Fsland, near New Guinea, is the 
Pulo Adi of the Malays, WcsseLs Eylandt of the 
Dutch, and is in lat. 4° 19' 8., long. 143P 47' 
E., (East Point). Palo Adi is separated from 
the large ialand of which Cape Kntemoun forms 
the S. W. extremity, by a sinughi :& nuiva ^toid^ 




wblch Bccms to be full of *lmij;on, nnrl filiotiW | am ptirrhnjtpd hy (^inc?*? and nom.-timi 
only br venture*! ii[M->n with tho ffrcatrst caution, pcnn trudrrs from TtTnaUs in Mohuii 

Moii^ra la al>out 2o iiulcs in length lyiny; to I ruler of which plat-c awiinifS supreme imOi 
Uio N. N. K- of the great Kc, distant about SO I over all thdse parU uf ilie loa^t of Svvt G\ 
milttf, and is the soutJi-weftterniniwt of a gruup [ wbicli his subjects have been in i}*e hsbil 
of hi^li ialand^ wliich, until lately, were conni- , visiting for purpose* of trade. 1'he trodi 
dere<1 a» fonninji a part of New Guinea, The Aiou aJI employ snmll vessels, wliich nJona 
inhabiiania are Papuans, and an they do not | ndupted forgoing within t)ie reef ot AJou- 
bear a hijzh chanuiter nnionp their neighbours^ l iheir chief rejwrt. Tbey bring rod and wl 
Uioy are rarely visited except by traders iVoni 
Coram and Ceram Lant, who have found menus 
to conciliate tltem. The sea is unlaihomable 
Bt a short (li-itAncc from the island, but there 
are ieroral indiircrent anchoi*a^ei» on the nortli 
side. N<> ve*«c*l sliould attcmjit to visit the 

iitland for pur|M»cs of trade without prcvioiwly una and reven-retul, which ut the 
oblaiuing a pilot at Gorum, who will al*» act as with all the Papuan tribes. A ve- 
interprotcr, tJio natives not bcin;; ivrtpiMinled these islamls for ])iirposc« of trade slumld »h 
with the Malayan hm^uige. Wild nutineg.-^, be proviHed with a native of Ternntt? or Tiib 
trepang and tortoise-sheU uro to be olitnined to act as pilot and interpreter. 
bere. but imt in stilficient quantities to tempt a Ansus iHlnud is inhabited by Papuan,. I . 
Eiu-oiKr&u vessel to vUit tlie island for purposes j hotwes, built on frosts, are placed entirely in 
«f trade, particularly as these articles can be water. At very |nw water only is ' ' ' 
obtained more readily at some of the adjacent partially unc«v.Ted. This bench eor.^ 
p«.rts of Now Guinea. Krd calico, puran^ or j in ^-hioh the mangroves grow hutn 
ehoppiiig knives, eoarsc cotton sbawls and hand- completely obstniet a landing. *J1 
kervbiel'ti, with iron, Ja^*a tolmrKw, nuukets iind 

caliciXis, tiiick bi-ass wire, old il •:' 

l>cad.s, and all sorts of ornamental (i 

the Negroes of New Guinea deliidit m jji un 

as tli(*ie of Africa. The natives are toUnl 

friendly to stranger*, but must not l>e 

too much, as they are inclined to be tm^rb^ 

gun-|>owder, are the principal iirlicles in de- 
mand. Tlic chief traffic L* in slaves which lire 
*lUlribii»*'d nmong the noii^hboiiring islan*]* of 
iht "* .0, and are sonietinii* earrietl as 

ifal ' 1 Celebes. This prnbubly accounts 

for liie delicunry of otiier articles of export, 
^irttt 0r yowl, h a group of islands situated 
about 70 miles W. N. W. from the Cape of 
<jrmd Hitpe, on the west coast of New Gmnea, 
ftjid iK) miles N. E. from the island of Waygiou 
in Uie Gillolo jtasisnge. The group consists of 
circular low isles, 10 in niimbcr. Tlie Ini-gest 
li«s in about lat. 0^ 25' N., long, l^l*' 0' E. 
The gnmp is surrounded by an extensive coral 
reef, neiirly a degree in circumference, tlie 
Houtli-wcstern portion of which is sojiarated 
i)rom the main reef by a nnrrow, but deep chan- 
nel. Aiou-Baba, the hirgf^t of the gn>up, lies 
on ibis di'tnehed jx>rtiori of the reef and is about 
7 miles niund and .'lOO feel in elevarjon. The 
north-easteni tir Lnrgrr fef, wbieli ermtaina the 
ii^lands of Abdun and Kunibar, witli sevend 
mrnl islet*, is said to ba^e an openino; on the 
N, W. side which admits large ve«ela within 
the reef, but if this be the awe, tlie hnrbour is 
["not fre<|nonted, tlirre being no lemi)tatioa fc 
the w»y of rcfrrshmenbi to induce large vcsscIb 
put in tliere. Th«- ' ' ' -'h, who are 

Ufa fpw in nun i-upy them- 

aimost ex' i li&bing and in 

tiirtlo. w: ltd Iwnons within 

fi{iuHt£U\Sv aud Lrr{4Uig. 


from this cause, are situated on the - 
islands, principally on an island with :i 
lying opposite to the kiinipong, ! 
Paj.uans we:ir their hair in ndU. Tl 
anec is g«x)d-ri:iture(l. f«ces regtdar. 
tilully black, the mouth brnad wiilj 
regular teeth, and the ft»reheiid high but 
row. Many have thin liiM and Him '^- > • 
noses, whicii give them a more Enr 
siognoniy. The men are geneniUy ii:iiiii»m 
nnd weli-furmerl, sront^ witlnmt being loo 
strong and muscular ; the women very f^ 
linking; and s^mmc children 'with tery tcigtd 
sort faces, nnd long pendant cnrling bair. 

The Ar'nt group of islands is sittiat 
on the northern verge of the Great AtMlf 
lian bnnk, and extends fmmi N. to S. a 
100 mik"*: but as ibe eastern side of 
groni> hiL^ not been exploreil, its JimiT' in Tb 
dir»:"ction are uncertain. Some of tl 
islands are of eoiL'siderable extent, In 
the north, lying close (o the edge of the 
are rurely more ibitn 5 or (> milci^ i" -■ 
ference. The land is low, being onh 
above the level of the sea, except in s|",,.^ 
jmtchca of rock rise t*j the heiglit of yo U 
but the lofty trees which cover tlie t" 
country give to it tlie appearance of b 
more elevate^l. C'oral rt*rft extend lium ti 
shore* of all the iblamls. and in tJie 
pextfi of the gnjnp these are often of gra 
extent. The islands are dividecl fn.)m m 
I row cbannebt, some of which are 
. and in one of tlje«u* tlicre ii said 
Ihcae I be a wliii'l|<>ol of 80 fonuidabJo a dcaeriiitii 

N 9& 



-^ niU not wiiturc ti> apfiroat'li 

' II'. r \. <-i>U. L'jiiiTi the wliolo, it 

rridcn* lias uol beeiilertijuito 

ir-.i... < ..jAion which has shaken 

[bhnttrs, n circum^WDce tJial might natu- 

[pcictcd from it* jxwitioD on the very 

bank, auii in Uie c!o«e vicinity of 

11 ' ■ t>ie Great Ki Island being 

■J.4un'f la on the south c<»a9t of New 

the women are tatiooMl on ilic 

and fioul of the budy, but gene- 

spcn fishing on tlie rcoft which line tJio 
erwferii side of the bay ; and Uiey were drwB- 
i4i in a petticoat reacliing tij the kncvs. 
The fentnres of the luon would not he di»- 
ngreeRble, hul for tJio conimoti custom *yf 
daubing thoir fncM with hlnck-lcad, to which a 
ihiok piaalcring of red ochrotia earth was 
gctierfllly added. 'Hie Conua te!tblw. Linn., 
found al Aneifeum, of the New Hebrides, bitea 
and injecta n pninnnuus ucrid fluid into the 
wrtund, occfwioning ihe frfirt In swell, and often 
cndanf;erin|L5 hfc. — Cnptnin Elphin^tone Erakine, 

th(7 K-(*V. tn vertical ^^in\^ss,\ Sftmuix of ihf fVeMern Pneijtc, p. 'Mi(\. 

inected l>y zigznfr 
'• are more coni- 
loroarm nnd "^^'^ist t)iey 

ftnd on thr 

[ueu'Jy so cliiburato as U) rcseml>lc 
The men are innr»- mrcly tat- 
Mid ^^n only with u few line? or ^tan, 
I'^ht breast. >xmictinic3, however, the 
a5ted of a double series of large 
jilretchini^ from t}ie shoulder to 
ich. In the great Island of 
Ith ite «avi\^ ncirro population, 
' ' 'iioies, the presence of 

not rcx-»onabIy to he 
irVi I'apiutn^ />/'- 4'% "I, 121, 
'J/r. Logxtn^ in Jour, fnd. Arch., p, 321 ; 
cr, rM. ii, p. 02 ; Cmufnnrx Mnhtf 
atuf nic. Vol i, p, 143; iiikimri, 
\M )tujf of the HattUsTittkf, 

/'. J- • ck'a Oruf. of Citfil,, 

^oirx of a Vouage to Nno Qxtinea^ btf 
Jt U'f77,>.-^ A-,/., p. H. 0. R., in Journal 
Ii il Sodfttf, Voi. xjtl, 

"2 fu w r , II--' -'ttrff, \ValUt4!f*9 Archi- 
ng 62^ IS'VioO \'Journ. hid, Art^, 
1852, pp^ 330-3. Sec Ahcto, birfla, 
r«^to, Xc?To race*, Negroei, Pitt Strait. 

:B!UDES. In Tana, the colour of 

*Jcin3 i* a shiuy black, and their 

coTCTrt'l thudy with hair, or a kiml of 

^.11 I have black or brown eri-ip hair ; 

.renter number 13 twiste*! and tied 

.ioa-'e number of thin cords, the 

NKW 1UE1.ANI>. (.'nptain Kejtpel mentions 
(hni the water, where he anchorrd, wna ao 
heautifully clear, that in fijrty fathran« deep the 
cnral <holL*, and seaweed growing at the bottom 
could be dintinctly seen, and (nve it nil the 
api>e:iranc'c of a beautiful submarine garden, — 
KrfypfP-f /mt. Arch,, Vol. iu p. 208. 

NKWSPA1»KR PRKSS, ihe firat English 
newspaper was puhlwhed at Calcutta on tJio 
29lh January 17tJ0. Tliere are now several 
hundrerl newspaper* printed in British India, 
ill tlie European and many of the vernacular 

NEW TESTAMENT, a sacreiJ book of the 

NEWUJ, a river near Bhopalpoor in Raj- 

NEW ZEALAND, in theSoutli Pacific Ocean, 
between Australia and N. America, consists of 
two liirgc and siivcral imall i-^Iands lying between 
L. 34i and 47J S., and L. lOGi and 178| E., 
w 800 miles long from North to South and 1 20 
miles brond, with an are.i ol' 90j901> English 
S4uare Uiiles=4,703 German s^jiuirc miles. 
It was discovered towartU the close of tlie 18th 
century by Cai»taln Cooke, a British navigator. 
It.s two chief .Straits are named after Cook and 
Fnveaux. Tlie first liunian inhabitants of New 
Zealand were the ance^Ujra of the Maori. Two 
races of human beings, a brown and a black- 
skinned, iuhahit the islands scattered over llie 
Pacific Ocean. The bn)wa race occupy all the 

firirclcd out, about two inchw from I islands from the Sandwich group in the northern 

itj, wbtfTe the colour is a sandy- 

oflc is gencraUy rather flat, and 

' . tdatc colour ; the ears of 

r.cil, and fiat rings of tor- 

c:iiJ ^.'-her trinkets hanging from 

rv wrnr \iniversaUy die wrapper, 

(in;^, in many ca«e3, tied up by 

*\f some kind of plait, passing 

ond prwlucing a much stronger 

►ney, a<:'cording to our notions, 

total absence of clothing would have 

ihc more »\ that tlus atrange garmcjut 

B0 a pocket, wherein to dcpcrtit a pipe, 

tolAoco, or any such article that they 

jtain by Iraffio. Several women were 

1*7 N 

rif'miKphere to New Zealand in the southern, 
and from the Tonga group in the west to Easter 
Island in the east. The black race people 
occuj>y the islands extending from the Fcjec 
to New Gmnea both inclusive. Certain physi- 
cal features distinguish each race. Those 
with brown complexioas have generally lank 
hair and scanty beards, and apeak essentially 
the same tongue, although divided into many 
dialects ; while the black race, numbering 
several varieties of men and speaking several 
distinct languages, have frizzly but not woolly 
hair, and abundant beards. Fronch naturalists 
call the islands which the black race occupy 
Melanesia, or the islands of black wxcn, «<\v\Vt 




lynain is Hp(*Iio(] U> the UlnnJs [HjoplcU by 1 afWr the hitidix> iiifl 
tlio hrowii 

race. Intorniixturc Ua^ occurred 
between the black arni brown races attbcir [joints 
ofjunotjun ; 'JuO milcHacTt^sa the truitewind, from 
the Fejee ulaudit tu i}»e Tonga isliin<U, beinj; a 
a voyage of no diificulty to u maritime |>eoplc. 
The i'ulynesianfl, or brown-skinned race, have 
beenagain subdivided in toMicronesiansandPoly- 
nealans proper. The former occupy the Pelew, 
CamlLiJc, Marianne, and Tarawa iaIftndA, and 
the latter Uie Sandwich, Navigators, Mart^uesas, 
Tonga, iSociety bdands, the Dangerous Archi- 
pelago, Koater iiiland, and New Zealand. Tlie 
Micr:)nesian8 are distinguidhed from the Poly- 
neaiaua proper by their low atatnrc, their lan- 

uence began to 
there, and before the arrival (tf Utc mniuii 
tnulcrs and settlers from Arabia. Ii 
oolouiett were efltablisbcd in Java in Uia 
century aiter Christ. According to Javi 
amuiU, the lirat arrival of tlie hindooa 
Indian Archipela^ from Wedteni IndiA 
red about i.. d. 800, and tiie uiabuuii 
tradition to the Archipelago began in 
127H. The date of the la«t uiigraiion is 
ably correct, that of the hiudoon beJug axon 
tant id uacertoiu. Fi*om these two greater 
it is interred that tlie Malay ancestors 
PolyneEiiuns lefi the Indian Archipelago 
al\er the commencement of the christian 

gua^'e, Mongolian conformation, anil absence of ' No hglit in thrown on the origin of the 


the system ofTapu or Tabu. 3etweeu theMicro- 
uesians and the Polynesians pn>per there is as 
much ditTcrence as there is bolweeu Dutchmen 
and Eugliiihmcn. Ethnologists have clearly 
establLtbt'd Unit the Polynesians proper are 
sprung from the Malay family of the human 
race, and Mr. Hale, the best authority on 
the migrations of tlie Polynesians, is of opinion 
tliai the Samoa or Navigator^a islands were 
first (occupied, and that from them all the 
other Polynesian islands were peopled. For ages 
Malay fleets have habitually rewirie*! to AiLstnilia, 
1 at the present day 200 Malay proas accord- 
Q to Captain Kin^, annually fre(|uent the 
II -iidtit of that continent to fish. For, 

u\. ■- norant o'C the compiws, the Polynesi- 

an^ have naiiita for tlic cardinal jMiints, and 
9t*er by the star*. It was thi« grand principle 
of selecting a cour»e which broutrht tlie 
Mulay fleet to Navigator's islands. From the 
Malay and Pulyne*ian cust^im »jf giving new 
places similar names to thow from which 
they came, evidence is furnished that the 
Malay mute to PoI)'nesia just given is the 
correct one. New South W:ile» and New Zea- 
land derive their civilized names from a mixJifl- 
calicm of this law. It will be obscrxed that 
several places in the Indian Archipelago have 
analf^gotts names to SaiDou or Savii, the Puly- 
nwiian name of the Navigat/>r*a islands, Kama 
in Malay Mgnifies " Uke as,** Samoa, " all to- 
gether.** Thuii in clortc pniximity to Tnuor, 
there is a small ifiland cailetl Samoa ; the *>«th- 
em extremity o( Timor is called Sammow, ami 
there is a Sunih.iv.i, Snma, Java, and other 
names in the A: !e»embliiig Samoa in 

sound. Even n- ^ liice of tlie Malays, 

Sutnotxa, the derivation of which t<»rm is un- 
known, ouinoL fail Ui strike lioth the eye and 
the c*r. Froiu Oie rcmaia* ni *ome Hindoo 
aod JpwiAh custitnw among tlic New Zeidanel 
bcmndi <>f thr Pol) hf^ian race, and tlie entire 
i ' ' ' ^ ' IV, ciutoms, 

n from the 
ti • l\ 1.1} u«^u took plac« 

'Jv N 


Ztahuidera from the name Ma*_iri wh'irh 
call themselves. This word, rei 
guifitfi "native," is used in coni 
to pakeha, or stranger. But the Kev. 
Maunsell tlunks the New Zeolandirv Lays 
sprung from different islands, in con- 
of three lingual peciiliaj-itics. The .N^-, 
nation, living in tlic neighbourhood of th« 
of islands, pronounce A ad if it were tk, 
Ilongi is rendered by them Shongi. The! 
ranaki natives do not pronounce the A 
but supply its place by a curious jerk i] 
voice ; fun becomes <r», and hohoro, orra in 
moutlis. Some tribes in the Way of Pleni 
not give Xy the singular nasal sound of 
Maori linguistn, and in its place lue Sa. 
phyaicid form (^f the Polynesians, to whom tS? 
name of New Ze;dandcra can now be j^vnn u 
Hs follows. In stature they almosi e<{u;il i 
men, and they are taller tlum the : 
tants of the temj>onite countries of the 
nent of Europe, the average height of th<} 
*ei being five feet six inches and ii 
Chiefs by birth are not taller than I 
men, but they arc taller and bett^a* dcri 
tlian slaves. Tlie tallest New Zealand«r* 
was six leet fire inches and a half. In 
weight and girth of ch««t New Z- 
e4|ual to Englishmen ; ten stone a\ 
ing ilicir average weight without clutUvii. 
b-xlily shape is peculiar, and this ficculi 
coiiai^ta in having longer hodii.'S and longer 
with shorter legs than En^di<ihmcu of 
stature. The lengthening of the arnw occ\ 
the fore-arms, and the sliortening of tJw) 
the bones below the knee, the leg buries of 1 
Zealanders are indeed an inch an<l a 
shorter than these bones arc in Engli 
Their long IxKhes are produced by the si 
the spinal bonea and the cArtilages ^K<twc«a] 
tJioae bones. Tlie inferior extremities 
Zcalanders arc stout, but in con 
of the shortening below the knee, the caii 
llieir It'gH look unusually high up 
walking they turn in thoix to^,. tokv sbi 



for the hairy man," madn young men crircfiilh* 
puil out ovcry indication of bcnrU or whiikf r. 
ii8 tertiary strata contain remains of the giant 
bird the Moa, ami tlic genua Uinornis, nnd 
I'alnpteryx. U lias coal, gi»Ul, otipper, iron, 
cthromc ure nud gntpKite. It is remarkable (or 
its windless binLs, nl'the Apicryx spenica. Earth- 
quakes are trei]Uont, espcoiiilly in the volciiuit! 
line between Tongikrirouiid White Uland, when* 
un Ukc Tarawero, nut a un^W muuth pat^e:} 
without at Icaet one slight fthock. Tho rm't of 
I'terw esciilenta, formerly Innned the chief ali- 
ment of tlie New Zealand natives. The Kauri 
(Uammara au-siralLs) ; the Kflhikat4ia (Todocar- 
p»u d:wrydiuuk-s) and the black birch, the 
Tawai (Ka;nLS t'usca) arc the chief forests, but 
mixed with them are tl\e folluwing trees ; 
PotLucarpuB lotura or totara. 
„ f|.'i<'nt^ nr niatai. 

^^^^K P '11 or Ruuu. 

^^^^^m r :ioiiIe3or tiuekalia. 

^^^^^* f >r luwarewa. 

^^H the Hinau. 

^^^^^ 1 i^fhylla, the Kowu. 

^^^^^B I tiiijirahs. 

^^^^^ I' L-iipreaainum or Rimu. 

^^^^ ' dtwrj-fUoideii, anil P. ferruginaa. 

^^B '^ rohtuta. 


,, tomentosa. 

Vitex littunUi:). 



Anioii;:rtt tin: lar^i "»t forest treo« are Motro- 
eros rohasUi cr ItiLi, the trunk of which fre- 
quently meiHurt^i -40 feet in circumference ; 
the Kaliikalon { l/rfftospennum), Tiiwu [LnHnts) 
Pukatea {L<ntrclin), Karika {Corinotitrpus,) 
The Damniara australis furnishes the l>e9t H)ii[V 
masts, and Bpar?*, and its gum 19 Inrfrely export- 
ed, its timber to lh« ralue <if X34,376 and it« 
gum tu X2O,770. The ulde»t tnink^ attain a 
diameter of 15 feet, a height of 100 feet to 
the low^ci^t branches and 150 to ISO fcft to 
i>4e crown, trew ol i\0 to .SO feet to tlie 
crown nro pmbahly :*50 t*i HOi) ycar« old. 
The X :d flax or Phormiuui tennx, is 

nllar-i The bliiMonw eont:iin a nwect 

ney juiuv, audench plant will pro<lucc nearly 
kalf a (lint. At the root of the leaver ia a 
Bttnii-lifjuid gnra-likc substance which vrves 
for seaLng wax and glue. Its relative tena- 
city 18. 

Biiropeui hiMup. 1 1 
„ IUX.T6, 

Tbr ' " 

by w 

hm oumi<^< 'I. 

TH«^ inr)«;lnn btnli Aptervx aiwtratia and A. 
IT; ' ' iina occur. The 

X. wva about II j 

ff,- intopuji. The 

.. The pciiplc 
•: dkboot 43,000, but 

Xew Xealond Itsx, 33. 
SUk. M. 

if furniAhfts the flax. 
. braked, swingled. 

are rapidly diinintHhim; in niunber. Thoy 
the Melaue-iian or Papuan race. 

Capiaui KIpliiuxitiae Kr^kiiu< hoard il 
Merted that Iherc did not ext-tt in 1^5 
New Zealand males of twenty yearn of 
who had not^ in tlietr ehildhouii, 
human Hesh. In New Zealand the 
produce a mujt brilliant blur-black dye 
the bark of tlie Kao tree, which in m 
abundance. Some of the Ixjrders of ilie 
mats, of a most majfutficent black, lire 
with thw substance. It has biKMi trlwl in 
South Wales ; but, adth(Mu;h found well 
for flax, hcuip, Unen, or i^ihcr ve^table 
ductions, it could not be 6xed on w*ooU at 
mal matter. It is of great im]>ortanctf dS' 
chemical science should !>€ appiie<l to deriat 
some means o\' tixing tliLs valuable dye on wooL 
As the tree 13 so common, the bark could he 
biyl in any quantity at about X3 I0«. a too; 
and tweed manufacturers are in great wint c^* 
a black dye fur their check and other 
Captain fClpJihtstone Krtlrint Islaruli 
WssUm Pacific, p. Ii75; TTionttont Stori0 afj 
New Zealand^ Vol. i, pp. 61-7S ; Hutnl^oi^tt ' 
Dissertation vn the lanyueu^e of Jtttvg ; /xiMi 
I'ritcftanl; WilliaTHS ; yon.'thcKtUlUr't *Vj 
ZeaUind ; £ihf*olofjtf ttnd i*hif%ifdfM/tf af 
United StateJi ^c/fhn/uj i^rpfdition yV'Will 
to 1842, htj Horatio /laU, PhiluUlphia^ \\ 




NEYADASSE-GAS.S. Swoh. Eurya ji 
ca. Thutift, 

NCJA BACI, HiTRai. Swictonia chicki 

NGA-PEKN, see Karang bijllang, 

NGA-DJU, the n:imcafl]iu inhabttanto OQi 
the Kahayan t»r Dyak tIvlt in iV^rneo. 

NOANNAM, a name of Auani or Aonaun. 

Arracan. Sie Linden. 

NMARI, a territury which - 
whole of the ujijK'r valley *»( th. ti 

the Maniwarovara lake Ut (he crest of the !\*^ 
gyal mountain. jSee Gnari, ltidi:t, Nari. Shanl- 


NGA YOUK THI, Brnji. Capwcum. 

NG-HYKT-PUA, Bcbm. Planuinn. 

NGOO-BENG, \Svm. In Ta\-«y, m 
wi>Trl used for poet* and planking. — Dr, Wt 

NGCKVniA, Bi'RJi. Cawa »|>ecics«. 

NGLVSI, BrRM. Cassia Ugnca. 

woihI of maximum girth 'M (Mibita and 
mum Jen)/th 22 feet. Abund,<inl all orer 
jtroviucct. When ^eas'>ned it lloaU iii water* 
It IS a Wood of no durability nr strength : aiiijti 
I 100 



O&e.' Nicholson wad etnpIoye<l in the AlFghan 
war of IbSH to IJ^42. and till at the re-takmg 
of Delhi.— TV. of Hind., rot. ii. p. 358. 

NICIAS, tee Greeks of Aaia. 

NICKKL, n brillianl white metal rc*emhlin;r 
silver : ductile and maUeablo, and capahle of 
receiving a high polish. It is usually procured 
firom speisc, a compound of the mcial with 
nic, found associated with cobal t in Germany. 
Alloyed with copper, it forms argentane or 
Gt-rman silver ; and ib beVides naed in making 
mariner's compa«ses, and for otlier purposes. 
Nickel and cobalt, occur ncnr Saltrogam, in 
Ceylon. — WaUrston ; Faulkner. 

NICOBAR ISLANDS lie hetween 6° 50' 
and 9° 20' North latitude, and 92° 50' and 
1)4'^ 10' Cast longitude. The group consists of 
nine smaller ifJands and some smaller ones. 
The mofli southern are called respectively 
Great and Little Nicobar. The ialaud is more 
than 2 miles long and 8 acnMs in the widest 
part. The Danes fonued a settlement ou this 

up in 1756, but abandoned it 12 ye^ra 
In 1864, Capuiiu Steem Bille, the Com- 
mander of a Danish Corvette, having' reported to 
his Government the present unhealihy state 
of these nominal jfoeaessiuns of the Danish 
cn>wn, and the great expense which would 
attend any attemiits to make them inhabited i 
by Europeans, Hid Danish Majesty came to 
the determination of finally abandoning aH 
right to tlie islands. Tlie OiHciating Su])eriu- 
tcndenl of Marine, in his letter to Government, 
dated the 13th January states that Mr. 
Mackey speaks very favorably of the Nioo- 
hars as a field for colonization, and is of opinion, 
that if ihe jungle were cleared away, and other 
sanitary measures adopted, the Nicobars would 
booMiiC as healthy as Pennng ; an opinion in 
which the OtBciating Superintendent adds, he 
has evi'ry reason U) concur. The surface of 
these ijtlaudK is liilly. At Ihe southern hArlx>ur 
of Great Nicobar, the nearest hill on being 
measured was (<>und to be 1,575 feet ab^ivethe 
level <if the sea. Thero were otlier^ in the 
interior, of a greati»r height. In Little Nic<i- 
bar, some of the hillft are supposed tu be alx>ut 
1,000 or 1,200 feet above the sea-level. The 
of Bompoka rises abruptly from the 
U) the height of 750 feet. Pulo Cobra 

tinall high island, bristling with cocoanut 
and betel-nut trees. Little is known of the 
int«-rior of these islands. At Great and Little 
NicolKir '* not a cleared sjMt is to ho seen, ex- 
cfarrc a slip of land. A targe 
\\ wa» obifltrjed from the natives 
• e Liiland,at low- 
1 rrrd wnnd whon 

«• r. Coftl 

j ■ t-'ondul, 

vdtf oi Great Nicobar, and 

102 N 


at the southern bay of the same ItSanl 
coal, though collected in vari'irus jKula 
Nicobars, seemed to be very much aliWI 
(heir natiu-e, though diiferinga little in a] 
ance. They bum with little flaine. They 
to bear both in appearace and chemical 
ties, a near rosemblaucc to the pitch, ur 
nel coal of the Uttlo Tenaaserim river, 
amoimt of the whole population spreader 
tered over the Nicobar Archipelago 
exceed the moderate number of H.iM.lOl 
of whom about 2,0()0 inhabit Car-nicohi 
reasa hod a population of about 500 soi 
Nicobarians are strong and capable of 
very heavy bunlens, some of them 
without any trouble 200 cocoanuts. The 
guage used is polysyllabic, abounds in 
and ita pronunciation is harsh and far 
monious. The chief food is the jmlp of A< 
nut, yams, plantains, papayas, fowls, and 
all pigs, which abound in those isli'-' <- 
not uncommon to see round a single i. 
or (JO of them. The quantity of pi^/., .^.t: 
eaten is almost incredible. The Niojl 
though voracious, se^jaratc the grease from 
flesh, and keep it separately for culinaiy 
poses ; they never eat, or rather devour anv 
but the tl^i, and that for a single f(!«tSTal 
There was seen and countotl 76 \m^ 
killed for satiating the wolf-like appetit** nf 
inhabitants of an inconsiderable 
Theressa Island. In this respect, i 
could not be a match for the Nicol 
The Nicobar IshintU are called by tha 
lays, the Somhilang or Nine Islands, 
or nine of them are of considerable ft 
the others, nine or ten in number, 
small. They extend N. N. W. and S. S. 
about 53 leagues ; having several safe chaai 
between them. They arc unljealtliy to Kt 
peans, who are subject there to attacks «/ 
mittcnt fevers. Car Nicobar, is the moat n< 
em of the group. Its centre is covered 
long graas. The names of the other i»l*ftt4 t 
Batty, Malve, Chowry, Theressa, IV*mi 
Katchaee, Nancowry, Canmorta, 'I 
Tillangching, Sombreiro, Meroc, Lit' 
Island and Great Nicobar Island. The 
arc described as having a dark skin, the 
tic coat of the eye, yellow ; flat foces, 
scanty beards. Their chief aliment 
in hogs, poultry aud coooanuts. They 
the Ividi or genii of tlie bills and wonda, 
their priests are called Malain, The 
mens of the languages d Camicobar 
Nioobar Islantia offer dissimilarities. 
Nicobar Islanders appear to have bets 
early colony of the Mon race in its pnrtj 
more west Chinese and less Indian ooadil 
Tboy arv Hatter faced and more obliqiM 
than the Rakhoingand Mon, in this r< 




lull thbos of the BunnaD 
4sj they have been ruucb 
with Malay colouistz. Nicohar phono- 
allied to thAtof the Silong and Simang. 
Kioubar people, pitibably migrated from 
buc the interior ol' Great Nicobar 
ii occupied by a Negro race. Caloenas 
ieuA, the Nicobar pigeon is of great 
and splendour ; its appearance and habits 
t a near approach to the f;i>LllinaceouB 
birk. Ii lives chiefly on the ground, runs with 
swiiineM, and flies up into a tree when 
Ila nest is of the nide platform 
tioD usual among the pigeon laiuily, 
at Khezn wad built in a tree about ten feet 
(be gTuund and contained a single white 
Tke Great and Little Andaman Islands 
the LttlJc Coooe, and their dependenoies, 
tb<* Ulaud of Nanoowry, the Islands of 
Nioobar and Cor Nicobar, with those 
tussr them, including Tillanchong, have 
tTMied into a Chief Comtnissionership. — 
from the Rtoonh of the Govt, of /n- 
4m, lianu J)ej>t,, >Vo. 25, pp. 66-67 ; Jour. 
Vol. iii.. yo. 6. 1849, pae/e 272 ; 
' Voyage^ Vol. i, patje 244 ; Hor9- 
t. Sec India^ Malacca, M.on8oon&. 

FF. sec Khcraon. 

•NTI, or in Latin, De Comi- 
(]f Jioblo liuniiy, who, when 
. rcaide>l as a merchant in the city 

, In what year he started from 

ftcuee in his travels to the Kost, is not precise- 
b luMMiu ; but it seenu to have been about &.u. 
Ultf. He podsiM through Persia, sailed along 
liie cnoAl of Malabar, viaitod some parts of 
ifae intcaur of Hindustan, and also the 
hU. ■ ^ Ion, Sumatra and Java. He after- 
tor • the Aouth of China ; and on his 
leiuiji ji^itted along the ciasts of Ethiopia, sail- 
«i op the Bed Sea, cros^d the desert and 
*Ti**Tir1 Cairo, where he lost his wife and two 
fJiiifrrn, and returned to Venice in 1444, after 
ive yean* absence : and us a penance 
■ .r\^ apoetaiised to the mahomedan re- 
IjBD, the pipe Eugenr IV., rct^uired hini to 
tjai/i hid adreuitUTLS to P«:)ggio Bracoiolini, the 
tf^ ■ Secretary, and the original Latin appear- 
-^- - 'he fourth hook of Poggio's treatise, de 
■ • Fortuni, lihri quiituor, Paris, 1723. 
'"ambay, Vizianagur, Palgonda, St. 
n, Sumatra. Tenaswrim, Ava, 
to Quilon, C-ochin, Calicut, Soco- 
> wurrl. — ln4. in 15 Cent, 

.0 Guois and resins. 


NA, a genus of plants belonging 

Soi»nace». Loudon has 14 species. 

lifcdUT 31, but th« following are the better 
kncrwB, and all are r«M^ognised tobacco plants ; 
X. aa^MMtifoUa. Ruiz & Ptic, Chili. 

N. bonariensis LeAm., Due.no9 Ayrtis. 

N. fruticosa, L. the N., fruteacLua Cnv., India. 

N. 8[Uilino«ft, />., of I'eni. It is the N. militaris, 
L. Tuhaciis viriilis, Monch : Sairnnthus glu- 
tinosub, (i. iJi/tt, 

N. multivalvis— ? Columbia river. 

N. niuia— i^ Bocky mountains. 

N. paniculfttA, /yi>ni,,N. virUliflora of 0»T.,Peru. 

N. jK-nica, Lmd., Persin ; Sbiniz tobacco. 

N. pluiubagimfolia, >7r., the N. cerinthoidoa of 
VUtm.. ttio Grande. 

N. qiutdrivulvis, rmrsh., N. America, Missouri 

N. rvimnda— ? Cuba, Havannah tobacco. 

N. rotundifolia, Ltitdiey., Swan river. 

N. nibtica. Lntn.^ Europe, Asia, Africa, Ameri- 
Cft. Kn^'lieli toh., Oodavery tob.. SjTian tob. 

a. tabiK-um, Lhm., tUc N. Imvoneiiaia of Log., 
The gfnus Nicotiana contains alwut 14 spe- 
cies, m(»t of them pelding tobacco fur smoking, 
and many of them cultivated in the gardens of 
Europe. The narao Nicotiana was given these 
phmu* alter Jean Nicot, of Nimes» in Laugue- 
doc, who was an agent of the king of France 
at Portugal, and there procured the seeds of 
the tobacco from a Dutchman who hail procur- 
ed them in Florida. Nicot sent them to 
France in 1500. Tobacco was the name used 
by the Caribboea for tlie pipe in which it waa 
smoked, but this word was tranafvirrod by 
the Spaniards to the herb itaelf. Tobacco leaves 
when projHjrly dried have a greenish yellow 
colour, a strong pleadont smcU and acrid taste ; 
taken into the stomach, by persons not habitu- 
ated to its eflects, violent vomiting, diarrhoea, and 
collapse are occasioned. N. quodrivalvis hna 
capsules with four valves; it grows near the 
Missouri River, and is there smoked by the 
natives. N. multivalvis has capsules with 
many valves ; it is cultivated by the Indiait^ 
on the Gilumbia liiver for smoking. U is a 
fetid plant, and the calyx, the most fetid part, 
is selected by the Indians for smoking. N, 
nana, a small .«pccies of tobacco, is a native 
among the rocky mountains of Nortli America, 
and is smoked by the Indians. N. repanda 
is a native of Cuba, and is said to furnish 
the tobacco for making the small cigars known 
as Queen's. The Macuha tobacco, which grows 
ni Maninque is deemed the fiuest, and next to 
it in esteem is the Cuba tobacco. Nicotiana 
mocrophylla, or Orinoco Tobacco, is a herbac**- 
0U8 plant, with ovate-acute leaves clasping the 
stCTn ; thK>at of corolla inflated, segments short- 
pointed. The stem rising from 5 to 7 feet high. 
It is a native ot* America, and is fretjuently 
u^cil for smoking, the milder Havannah cigars 
arc said to be made from it. Tlie ITavanah, 
Persian, Manilla and Maryland tobaccos have 
been extensively introduced into the Peninsulfl 
of India. The English smoke more of the 
strongest tobacco than any nation in the world. 
0'iS/iHw//iiiewy, yi. 471 ; ^^y- ^tf^- 

NICOTIANA PERSICA, Shirax tobacco,^ 






a herhmToua plant, clothed with daramy ^ it Brat bemime knmvi 
doint, with the k'jivcs ol' tlie rt>t>t ohiong, those , Virginia, where the l-- 
of tlio stem acuminate and seasilc; coroUn nuaintcd with iw properties. Oi the 
KiIvcr-«ihapG<l, witli a lonp tnbe, ami rather species it is that which is must ixunruoulv 
une<jua] it-ftmcnts. This tohacco U niihlfr ihaii vulwl in gardens aa an ornament- It 
that pnxluced by the N. tabaciuu, and but a cuUivated in Kiir(.i[>c for the purpMe of 
small quantity is consumed in En^dand. — A'li^. i in^c. It is grown over all the plains of 
" I Indies in the Himalaya up to 7,400 

^ U'iwt on the Chenab to 11.000 (cot The 
E»o- species are howt-ver iu some ctftacs 







KaUnr-tiunAlca, Cuiufut 
Taaiuitfi i'uis. 

Kngliw totncco, Hko 
Qodaverj „ 

&Llonit'« tobncco, 


Kiiiknlti Urualni, 

Tu iNKM-onuroso, 


Schrank haa de»tTibe<l a large numt 
rarieties of the annmon tobaoco, 
die size onrl form of tlieir leaves, a« well 
colour and form of their corollas. TW*! 
lliis plant ina native ofEuroi>e,A«i«, Africa, ^*^ .*« '^'f one must commonly ctnploj 
and America, but grows on the c^t of tlie ■ "*^*''"c t-»':u-co and c.garj. Mr. Iloylc 
Mediterranean, and Uience finds its way into I ^"^ on the anthunty ot the I'ersian worl 
India, where it is highly valued, u has a her- | .^^'^"^^f?;*^*^-^**"* |^*^ '""^^^"*'-^^^^^ 
baceous *piare stem, with jietiolate ovate quite | '" -*• "' ^^^-^ <*• '*• '*'^^^> ^'^"'^^ ^^^ ^ 

entire leave* ; tube of corolla cylindrical 

longer thnn ihe calyx ; segmenii of the limb* 

rounrJinh, obtuse. It wa* the fir*! species that 

was introduced into Knghind fcir gniwlli frtim 

America. It grow.-i very well in that climate, 

and in^mo places i^ ahnosi naturaltHud. The 

tobaccos of Sulonica and I^takkin, which arc 

much esteemed, appear to he thcprorhicc ofN. 

rustica. From tlic extensive mnge of chmate and 

difference of situation which ih'w plant occupies, 

its clinmrtor* ^utfcr L-onsiderabte chimge ; hence 

a number of varirtici have been described. 

Dr. Hooker writing of this species, says, to 

wind up the feast, we hod pipe» of excellent 

mild yellow C'hinese lobat-co cidlcd '* 'IWjing/* • •' •■ 

made from Nicotinna rustica. which is cuitivat- , "*«w<"'t "«"»• •'<'»'•- ^^l it, p. 232. 

od in East Tibet and, anr^rding to M. M. I MC^OTUIS, tlie rpieen mother of the 

Htic an-i Gabet in West China. It resembles Babylon ; she counselled rcsistcnce 

in riavour the finest Syrian tobacco, and is f'yrus, but after a seige of two yean, 

most agreeable when the smoke w jiassed | drained the Euphrates iiitothetrcnchceirh' 

throni;h the nose. Under various names, it is I h:»d dug around the city, and his soldiers en 

the reign of Jelal-ud-din Akbnr pndahah. Fr 
India tobacco proltahly found its way to 
Malayan fKininsuln and China, though 
quotes the authority f)t Pallas, Loureiro. 
Rumphius, who think tobacco was 
China at a period anterior to the discovi 
the New World. The common tobacco of j 
(Nicotiana tabacum) is much iniport«<l' 
Tibet, whore it is called " Tumma, 
a corruption ot the Persian ** T»i; 
is said ti fetch tlie enormous pn- 
lb. at Lhassa, which is sixty titii- 
India, Kice at I^hassa, when clh 
for 5 lbs. ; it Is all bought up fur rntinnR for 
Chinese soldiery. — AViy. Ciyr, ; i}r.i. \f.ix^' 

cultivrtioil at many otlier places in the Panjab, 
Mnltiin. Utishiarpur, Delhi, Hurriann, i&c, also 
in the gangctic Doab, Uudh, &c., it appejire to 
l>e this sjiccies that is grown to some extent in 
C<^joch ISahiir. Rimgpur, and A«ftra, Efu/. Cy<i. ; 
/>. J. L. iiUwartf M.D.; Punjab Plantg\ HooWr 
Himm. Journal, 

N. tuvanensis. L^. 

Uujjir bbanf. An. 

ralui, }tcM«. 

Comtoun tolnoro, „ 
VirKini4n tobnoro, „ 
lIcatM tt-U ivitii*, M 

Swe«t 9(*4*ntr*J tob»oco, „ 

T*ni*kbu« Itfxn. 



&tll4SlrBL [WHTB 




, Mamt. 



it, through tlie hod of the rivt-r, and opei»f«<l] 
the gates for the rest of his nrmv, A.n. JSf^. 

NIDAM PAINl, Malcal. A Malabar 
which means long Paini, It grows to 
two feet in diameter, and seventy feet 
and pnxluces a sort of varnish which is 
with wooil oil for painting wood. The 
use the spars for rafting timber down the Tift 
and for the yards of small vessels. It is a 
of little value being neither strong nor 
— Ef/ifr^ Forests of Malnhnr wW Can < 

NlbAM HHETn, Male.%l. M 
amplexiraulc, lioxft, 

MDANA, Sa.xs. A fint cause, from 
prep, and cla, to give. Nidhee, Saxs^ 

This ipocim is said u^ hnvi* h<wn imported ' nee. prep, and dha, tn pl.ioc. 
from KngUnd ii Imr. It isahpr- i Nlt>l 1)1 TirNCHrVl). It. Wihie I 

bvft^iraA |.brit, . ! ,,|.i,.T,i..hMoo- .NilMJH L)E LA CHINA, Si-. Kii 

I' I*. 

I NIUICA, Tkc. Desman thus trW^uf 
a aatjvw m the \V wl Jndra, where ' Willcl. ; IK. and J.; A U, X,'J 

10^ n 104 


native Hakim and Baiiia, as aromatic adjunrti lo 
tive or bitter remedies. In Bc*iij.ti1 tl»ey 
given to nureet, in Uie boUef tJiat they 
the secretion of milk, and facts t«nd 
to corroborate that opinion. In ertiptiona of 
iho akin, the see<l8 reduced ti> powder and 
'fkiized with »e«imum oil, are much used as 
external application. The seed will sel- 
bc preiw:ribe<l in substance. The tinc- 
ture is a useful, warm atimulant, and may 
be aildcd conveniently to numerous drauglita 
»nd mixtures intended for other purposes. The 
popuLir miide of giving the ni^rella to nuncs 
is by mixing the powdered seed with curry, to 
which hnwevcr it communicate* a very heavy 
and disagreeable flavour. The price of the 
teed in the basaars is fmm one to two annas 
tlie seer = 2 lbs. avoirdupois. The tincture 
<if it is stimulant and diaphoretic. Dose, half 
fluid drachm to two drachma. To prevent 
injury in furs, feathers, Ixx^ks, papers and 
clothes tliat arc lodged in trunks, book cases, 
&c. ; it is useful to place along with them 
small packets of camphor ; or Utile cup of 
camj-hor dissolved in alcohol : packets of Nigclla 
sativa, the " kala jira" of tlie bazaars : piece« 
of the r«x>tB of the Aconitimi ferox, the dread- 
ful •* bish ;" '• Ati Sinj!cea bish," or bislmak of 
the bazaars, may also be used, but its higldy 
i»f<noua effect.<4 on animal life. re<juire its use 
io b« hiul recourse ui with tlic create**! precau 






Hi!rD.> of Ravi, Ilamiltooia suavedetis, AmAi 
also Dnphnc oleoides, (bhat) uiggi, UuD., it(b 
WikAlr^emia salicifulia. 

NlGIIANTl.SiKB. AGIcwary oftheVcd 
MGHT OF H>WEU amongst In 
7th night, of the 7th n»onth, of the , . 
of a man's age, is termed Bhimarairi, or Nsk 
of Power! and is considered llic end of a 
natural life. AAer that, a hindoo is coutdM 
exempt from all insUtubed obsermncea. — fftl 

flowering Cereus, Ejco. Cereus glandiflorui. 

NIGHTINGALE. Dr. J. D. Hooker, m !^ 
Himalayan Journal, twice notices " the Nighl 
ingale,' as having been heard by him ; but i 
a time of tlie year at which no real nigbtii 
gale ever sings. The true nightingale r«pilM 
ly ceases to sing, somewhat abruptly, about tfc 
beginning of the mcmth of June, and this alik 
whether it has yuung to tend in the wild stall 
or when confined in a cage ; and oaptire nifhi 
ingnlcs re-commence their song, il* in bisll 
and vigour, about January, and continue in fii 
song (nr two months or more before tbeir «i 
brotliren arrive frurn tltcir 80Ut}icrii 
This bird never sings out of season. Dr. 
kcr's " nightingale*' refers to some other 
and must probably to the Shama. ** On iha 41 
October," be remarks, '* I licanl the nigbtu 
gale for the tirst time in tlie season ;" and w)m 

. Cups of carbohc atid nre useful. Tlie oil , nt I'cmiongchi (a former capital of Sikbim), 
m N. sativa seeds, U a clear and coloiu-less but , Januarj', be notices that *• nightingale* witt 

'Xatber visdd nih It is employed |)rim:ipally na 
a medicine. It is called jungle jeerah oil in 
Mysoro.— 0'<S/wM^A.i>. 1G4 ; Boi^^./'Aar.,^ 430. 

^Shun«z, Aa. KuUnii, OtnL 

MuffreU. Bawft. lUU-nra, Hua). 

K'.iiin.nn. l>cx. KoUnu; RaU-jtra, „ 

.1, „ SUh (Uiuih. Puns. 

versMd, Bko. Kri»hn« jir»k», SA-va- 

.**iD-ill ., „ f. Kftloodooroo, SntoB. 

Flut»-(»5^«d, EoYTT. Ciirin mm«um, TxM. 

Oemoin nigviU, 0«». Mulla jiUkara, Tat. 

Mslsntliion, ^a. 

These seeds have a great resemblance to 

deiiciously ni^ht and morning, whl^ 
surprised u.% as the minimum tliermonK 
to 2S*^, and the ground next day was 
with hiiar frusi. These birds migrate 
in < )ctiiHer and November, lingering 
Himalayan valley's till tlie cold cf early 
drives Oiem further south tu th*- pi 
India, whence they return mirth in 
and April/' but among the numcroi 
lections of Sikhim birds exaniiiied, no 
men of a nightingale has ever occi 
is the hirii enumerated in Mr. Ht 
of the si<ecies inhabiting that region, 
Calliope cumtscbatkensis, a delicate litt 

coane guupowder, are tri»ngiilar, slightly com- 

nr«ai0d, dbtuse sdjove with oblique bnsc9, rug<t9e, 

black ©xlemallv, internally of a greenish white much like a nightingale, but with a 

hue. They have a strong aromatic t»dour, and j ruby-throat, which is not rare in tlie v 

flavour resembling sawafras or cnbclw. They i Calcutta during the cold season, arrives 

are used in medicine by the natives, as an surv 

matic adjunct to purgative or bitter remedies ; 

and aUo in curries and pickles. 

NIGER. Awoi/>-i^Twr. The black seeds of 
Swamum oriencaln. 

NIGER. Ur Ulack. 

NIGER, nee Indigo. 

NIGOI, HiM(..,..rKulu, ^.» DBphatcttuuk 
S,- [• K 14 of Bac^iir ; «ad the 8aa- 




alap Pbul goliuda. 

in April, with the snowfleck, tu the 
Kolyma district" in Northern Siberia, aa 
told by Von Wrangcll ; that is to say, 
the last of them have lefl Bengal 
remarkable that this bird has never 
in the ver^* numerous c»llections 
Himalaya examined hitherto ; though 
and non-migratory species of tlio same 
(C pecturalis), peculiar, so far as knowa 
HtuiaJaya, is of oommna nocurrencc 
coUectinns. It is, however, rnumcrateri 

N 106 



MfSt of tKe binis of Nepa! : the C. 

LGQsis dvus Qot ft*eiu to breo'i exten- 

ItvWy on this aiile of tlie snow : although the 

d«i^ binU may not k&ve to Had tlieir waj 

^Wso far as to Northum Liberia to pass l)ie 

fiin.tnvr The nightingale of the Kiigliah 

io Ceylou is the davaJ-biril or dial- 

pyejchufl aaul&rU). Tlie mnre sombre 

of the female which is seldom seen 

luaJd, except during tlie breeding season 

' !ved inanj. The song of lliis sjiecies is 

' •;(, and it fretjuenily imitates the 

r birds. In habits fanulitir, it is a 

tttUAnt of the gardens, where it jjours 

■^ welcome notes in tlie afterno«m or 

', and like its rival redbreast, sin^m 

un waits a short time for anot^ier 

wkodiuLi lo reply. — JSlyih in Indian Field ; 

rr JAK OF CEYLON, Caprimulgus 

;irr SUADE oil, OUof Atropa beJk- 

MGlMHA-SriUNA, Saws. Nigraha sig- 
oifies diifavour, and stliana, place. 
MtiAMAXA, Sank. A sure decision, from 
11., and gum to move. 
• POLYNKSlAiN FAMILY, sec India. 
ilAL. amnngn the Gond, a helot race. 

VNG, the Sikh Kects, and Nihang heUevc 

anak Baba ; but the muiiners and dress of 

latter arc ijuite different I'rom those of the 

fimnrr. The Nihang sect were careless of 

own lives, and oonse:(uently of those of 

, — iVoAuH LoTt JourtieifSj p^ 9. 

A. HiSD. Saccharumserai-clecumbens. 

NI. HuTD. See Injni. 

RAN. sec Kaffir, Nejran. 

Row, llie natives of Nijrow, who have 

:i;inie of Tajik. Imvc become bet- 

Lri« Uian they were in the time of 

!ieir valour and ditHcult country 

. iy been sufficient to preserve their 

Okiqicndence. They are nunieroas and well 

itmed, baring all muskets. I'hc I'ushai fami* 

Dm in the vicinity of Nijrow are a distinct 

(Mnmsnity, but on a good uuderstanding with 

Uicjr neighbours. Tlieir largest village is 

Jb^pi* An<^ ^ey are represented as extremely 

^^■nstilc. Here, as in otiier valleys, are 

VEvlanro of mines and cares. — Masaons Jont' 

^»ey$, rtU. i, p, 222. 

MKjVH, Aji.,HErD.,PRRB. Marriage, amongst 
mahooiedAns, Nikah namali, ilic murriFure ccr- 
ttfia[«. In Arabia. Kgypt, and I'ereia the 
bikah is the pnncipal marriage ceremony. In 
bulia, A noarriage coutiued to tlie nikah, is 
dttstd diffepatable, or it is witli »ome pcx^^n 
<f inlcnsr ntok. In tlie case of a spinster of 
flfpal fftak, the abadi or rejoidngs hiHting for 
^daytput 9U the rtligious ceremonial of the 
107 N 


nikah into the shade. Tlie nikaJi engagement, 
though inferior to marriage, is atill respectable. 
It is common wlicre the condition of the parties 
is too UQe\|uaI to admit of one more public. 
NikuJi and 8hadee arc often in India used 
synonymously, as meaning the marriage or the 
marriage ceremonial of llie mahomedana. 'i'ho 
Nikah, however, is the form of wi^rds used by 
the Kazee in uniting the couple and the shadec 
or rejoicings, are all additional, and may be 
lengthened or curtailed at the will of the rela- 
tivos. About Delhi, tlie ceremony of Nikali 
would appear to he styled •* liurat." The 
Sliadee ceremonial in India is generally used 
only wliere the bride is a spinster and of equal 
rank with the husband. — Mi»UoUn$ Central 
/;k/iV4, Vol, i,7>. 30i?. 

N1K.AIA is identified by Genl. Cnnnin;^ham. 
with Kabul, The town of that name on the 
Ilydaspes, i.-^ identi tied with Mong. 

NIKAKSHA, see liavnna. 

NIKALOO, see Kazzilbash, Kajar. 

NIKAIil, Hnn>. Castanea imiica. 

NI-KEI, Japax. Cinnnmomum loureirii. 

NIKEPHOKUS, see Greeks of Asia. 

NIKILUiNA, IIlvd. Bleaching. 

NIKKI, Hmo. SmaU, 

NIKKI HKKKAU. Hi»». Grewia roiKu, 

NIKKI JAPIIROTI, IlntD. Balio3i>ermum 

NIKKI KANDRU, Hind. Rhamnus i>ersica. 

NIKU, HrNi*. Khod'xlendron campanuiatum. 

NIL, SiNon. Sapphire. 

NIL, Arab., Bknq,, IIinik, Pers., Srxon. 
Indigo, also ladigofera tinctoria, Liim.j also blue 
color. When used in tlie Panjab for indigo, it 
is usually written with the word *' Icabuda" after 
it, to distinguLsh it from tlie word " til," which, 
in vernacular, differs only in ime point. 

Nil ka bij, the sccdd. 

Nil safa or Nil wilayiti, Prussian blue, Ferro- 
cyanadc of iron. 

NIL, or Lil, IIinD. Portax pictns, Jerdon, 

NILA, or Naila jidi, Ti. Semecarpus 
anacardium, Linn, 

NILAB, trom nil * blue,' and ab * water ;' 
hence the name of the Nile in Egypt and in 
India. Siod or Sindbu, appears to be a 
Scythian word. Sin, in the Tatar, tsin in 
Chinese, * river.' Hence the inhabitants of its 
higher cotirsc termed it aba sin, * parent 
stream ;' and thus, very probably, AbysuniA 
was formed by the Arabians ; * the country on 
the Nile,' or aba sin. — Tod*9 Bajastftan^ Voi, 

i. 2'- ^l^- 

NILA BARUDENA or Valoothala, Tkl. 
Solan ummelongena, Brinjal. 

NO-ACHIRA, fiUi.EAi,. Portulaca quadri- 
ilda, Linn. 

NILA GHTRIA, also Nila ghiria kbumc. 
Sans. Clitoria ternatea. 



NIl.AiilKI, M'v Irtfrnptioiofl. 
NlLA-nUMMATU. Datura fastuoaa. 
NIIJV KAl, Pahjad. Trichodesma indicum, 
B. Br. 


tiopin, and Nuhio, rtmch Egypt in t}i 
of June, whon the Nile begin-i to rbn- :< 
The little plains which frmge its \y\- 
the Thehaid to a LTXjater w less wi.i' ■ 

NiLiVJCiVNTAH, a name of Siva, froai his ' overflowed, and, during the monihji of A 

haying a blue tliK»at, in consequence of Itaviiig 
drmnk the poison produced at the churning of 
tho ocean. — Cole, Myth, Bind., p. 3'JO, Sec 
Vidyai Viahnu. 

^fILAKIL, limn. G«ntian5 karroo. Wall. 

NILAKRAI, HiKD. Crozuphora tinctoria, iiJao 
Trichodcsma indica, also Cynogloasum niicr&n- 

NILAM, Hind., Sapphire. 

NILAM, lIcfD. BaUaat. 

NILAM, Tam. Public auction. 

NILAMBAllAM, Tbl. Barleria ccenilea, 
R. iii, p. 39, the blue BarleriA, ftbo aome 
species of £ranthemum. 

Nn.AM-PALA, Maleal.. Tam. Wrightia 
tomentosa, Rom. ct *Seh. A Malabar tree that 
grows to about twelve or flllcen inches in 
diameter : itij not of much consideration ; it pro- 
duces a small fruit which is used by the natives 
medicinally. — Edye, Forests of MaUihtr atul 

NILAN, HcTD. Crozophora tinctoria. 

NTLA NlttGANDA,orNikiurglioondi, Sa»9. 
Justicia gaiidarusaa. 

MLANJANAM,Tel. Sulphuret of antimony. 

NILA PALA. Tam. A small tree of Mala- 
bar, the wood of which is very clfjse-grained ; 
it is used in house-work. Tlie root is aned as 
a medicine, and applied in casts of rheumatism ; 
this tree in Trnvuncore. is sacred. — ii/y^, 
Foregts of Mftlnhir arul Cnnara, 

of Curculi;j(> on-hioitla*, Ottrt. 

NILA TIIAUI, Hind. Cuscuca macranlha. 

NRA TUTIA. also Neelft tutia, Htsd. Blue 
stone : SuiphntA of o^ppor, )Uue vitnul. ThL*« 
is extracted from copjier ore. Tin* stone is 
pulverized and is thrown into earthen reosels 
filled with wator, and allowi'd Xu stand during , 
the nij;ht. afit^r wliioli rlit* lirpud \i peiurotl into 
another vcmi?! and the crystAls nf blue vitriol 
obtained by sfiontaiu'oiw ovap<iration nf the 
liquid in the same way a^ alum. — I^wttts 
J/anJ-hook, Scan. Frod. Fuftjal/^ p. 67. 

NILA IIS.VRIKA or Nila uidiarika. Tki. 
Phvllajitliua niniri. Lam. 

NILA VALUTHANA, of RhLi-dc. 8yn. of 

animi nndon^ena, lAnn. 

NILA-VA\1LI, Tn. Vitex trifolia. 

** ' ^ 'iligDOTchioidos. 


Th* rmins frmo the mnuntaina to 
of Abynmia, (luiriog through Meroe» 

J as 


September and October, the fields in the 
became a sheet of water, leaving tJie 
on the raised mounds standing like m> 
islands in the ocean. Why dbere was 
water in the Nile in the digest scaaoD of 
year, was a aubject of never^eating 
wit}i the ancient travellers and writers on 
sics. Thales said that im waters were held 
at its muutluj by the Etesian winds, which 
irom the north during' the summer moni 
and Democritus of Abdora said that these 
carried heavy rain clouils to Kthiopia ; wh< 
the north winds do not begin to blow till 
Nile haa risen. The Nile begins every 
to rise about the middle of June, and com 
rising 40 or 50 days ; it ttien falls by d( 
tillf in the end of May. next year, it is a 
lowest. The causes of its rise are now 
known. During the hot mouths nf the 
rain falls every day in Hahbeflh W Abj 
and all that rain-water is coUdcted into 
Nile, which, from its entrance into Egypt till 
it reaches the aea, runs through a wide val«. 
It does not rise alike high through all figTpftii 
At Cairo the fiill height is at leait 34 Ml 
above its ordinary level. At Rosetta and Da* 
niieita it is only four feet. At Cairo, the Nil* 
being confined to one channel, betw. - ' 
banks, must necessarily rise to a mud. 
hci^'ht than nciircr tltt* sea, where it is dii 
into two streoiits, oiler running over so 
barren grmind, and forming so mujiy lak«i. The 
branch upon which lioscttu stands, is only 060 
feet bnmd ; and that by Oamictta, not mora 
than UlO. .\s soon as the Nili! begins to ris*. 
all the canals intended to convey the walflS 
through the country, are shut and di 
They are kept idiut, however, till the rivtff, 
to a certain height which is indicated by 
Nilomctcr in the tsle of tlic l^idda. A sha^ 
attends fur this purfKkse, by the niikkian, uul 
gives notice, (roxn time to time, of the ruuzig iif 
the nver, tn a nniuher of poor persons who 
wait at Fostat for tlie informniioit, and ruA 
itistantly to puttlish it in the strceta of Caim. 
They return every liay Ut Forttat, at a certain 
hour, to Icam frtini tlic shaikh, how many 
inches llie river ha^ risen. And its rise is crcry 
day proclainied in pulUic, till it rcAcbc* tho 
dxed height, at which the canals are [•< "■ "^ ^ 
1a be unlocki^ ; tJic usual tax is then ; 
the wat<!ra, to th^ sultan, and a good yi;.ti i x- 
jjcctnl. The canal at Cairo is first ojw^ned, and 
tlien, fluccoasively, all the other great canak 
d(twn to the sea. Between the dyke of tKe 
canal of Cairn, and the Nile, a pillar of earth 



; Iieight to whirh 

i:r» arc eX[»ecteH Ui rise. 'Vhia 

Ancs, or the bride, und serves 

ctcr, for the use of the com- 

When tiie waters enter the canal, 

carried away hy the current. A 

ch prevaileiJ amnngthe ancient 

tefl them to the imputn- 

ry year n virgin to the 

Jpftifie^ in Arabic, both a 

ibe time of the aun*9 entering the 

oer; u wltich season, the great 

n Ab\'ssinia, wtiich (>cca«iim the 

the Nile. — Sharpg'g Histonj of 

. t, pp. 4, 401 ; Nifhuhrn TraveU^ 

8ee Iran, Siam, Vishnu. 
WAR, sec India. 

I, or Nil-yiu», Hlnd. Portax trajjo- 
ooe of the largt:«t and xno^t magni- 
tfiim antclopea being npwards of 4 
the jihoulder; it resides in the 
India, b a vicioiu animal, of 
temper, and even when dome^ 
th violent and changeable. 
IltKD. The raunal pheasant, Lopho- 

and Kurg mountains to tlie north 
valley, risca abruptly to 8,000 
ihe Nilghiri range, and is con- 
as the mouiiLuind of Kurg at 
e elevation. The rain-faJl which 
to thu westward, \a nuich diminished 
Ing the axis of the chain at Doda- 
00 inches ; ami at Utacamund only 

6,166 Ft. 

. fi4*0F 

.<■*•»-•» 6,407 M 

. fi3'4 

Wrain. 7,1^7 ,. 

. fil'O 

L 100.... N420 „ 


dialect hajt !ipeci:U aHlnities with 

juid the HadriL'a of the same hilLs 

1 cculiarities. Fiirtlier 

.iL-ers have their own 

u. The injiular lanfaiages of 

>vincc, or iJiijae of Ceylon, the 

tho Maldives, also belong to the 

uiily. Tho closely connected Tamil 

of the Si-mth, of which Todavaand 

y be considered (is gnb-nlialccts, the 

« east, and the central Kamataka, 

ve exterminated or absorbed the 

ontinental dialect*, of the Ibnner 

icli the physical evidence of a 

ict tribc"* having been scattered 

Tiidia. in its barbarous era, leaves 

That the Dra\idian race did not 

St into India the civilization which 

southern nations |NMsess, as 

idy did iheirj, appears to be 

when we consider the antique 

inea of the dialocta of the i 


Orond, Khond. and Toda, the vrry 
archaic and barbarous character of many of the 
customs of the widely separated tribes which 
speak tliem, and, above all, the nature of the 
relationship of these ilialucts tu those of the 
ciWlized nations, which is inconsistent with the 
hypothe^iis that tlie former originated in the 
metamorphosis of non-Druvidian dialects of 
rude aborigiiuil tribes, through the influence of 
the intrusive and dominant race. The known 
ethnic facta of all kinds lead us directly to the 
conclusion that the uncivilized Dravldiun-speak- 
ing tribes are no utiier Uian geuuini^ Dravidi- 
ans who have, in great measure, escaped the 
culture which the more exposed tribes have 
received, and thas preserve a condition of the 
race certainly not more barbarous than that 
which cliaracterized it when it first entered. — 
Journ, /nd, ArfJi.^ iVo. IV, and Aj>ril and 
Maif, 1853, p. 208. See India, Ncilghorries. 

NtU ClllClTU, Tkl. Indigofern tinotoria, L. 

NILI-K.Vl-MARA, Caw. Nili-kai-maram, 
Tam. Emblica ollicinalis, Qmrin, 

NILINI, Trl. Indigo. 

ML-ISli.\ND, HixD. Clitorea ternatea. 

NILIUM — ? Panicum miliaceum, millet. 

NILJAPA,HiND. Blue. Hibiscus atriatillorus. 

NIL-KALMI, Beso., Hjnp. I^harbitis nU, 
Oioisy. Ipoma?a cacrulea. 

NiLKANTII,IIi5D. Gentianakurroo, Wall., 
also Clitorea teruatca. 

MLKANTH, a name of Siva. See Vishnu. 

NILKANTllI, HiJii). Ajuga bracieata, aleo 
Crozophora tinctoria, also Crozophora plicata. 

NILKATrEl, Hind. Helioteropium brevi- 

NILK.VTTA ROnU. Snioir. Clitorea ter* 
natea, Linn* ; Raxh. ; W. <Si'. A, 

NILLA-PANE, Tam. Curculigo orchioide*, 
QiT.rt. Stie Mfxjsli, Musli. 

NILLA TIliTAVA. Mausal. Ocyraum sanc- 
tum, Linn. 

NII-LE .MAKAKEYA, see Ceylon, Suryn^ 

NILHO, Siscn. A Ceylon plant. When 
the blossoni of tlie nilho tWlcs, tho seed forms ; 
this is a sweet little kernel, with the llavour of 
a nut. The bees now leave the coantry, and 
the jungles sutldenly swarm, as though by 
magic, with pigeons, jungle-fowl and rat. At 
length the seed is shed and the nilho dies. — 
Baker g HifU, p. ;J05. See Golunda rat. 

NILLUR, IliND. Vitis tpiadrangularis or 
Ciaatifl quadrangularis, Wall. Nillur-ka-binj, 
DuK. Its seed. 

NIL NARAY, Tam. Bustard : Otis tarda. 

NILAGURH or Ilindor. The chief ot this, 
belongs to a Rajjwot family. A sunnud wa« 
granted in 1815. The population at the last 
census was 49,678. The revenue amounts to 
Rupees 60,000. 

N 109 



"ll-Ui Ait, Hijfu. Nytnphaja lolua, N. alba, carved temples, &c., yet roiuaio ai 

pli:ua Barw;ini, and oUier places in iVuut Nil 

i\w edilile lutiw is nyti 
btikki, lUo root, nilofar 


N. pubesceiw, 
cdulia, nili^far 
mi. the sec^U. 

NIUiUTCHA, Si^oH. Gutittardaapeciwwv, L. 

NIL J'Ai)MA abo Lila phool, Hwi). Njin- 
phcea cjanea. 

NIL-SAFA or Nil wiUyiti, Hiso. Pruasian 

NIL-TACH the Jav, ii sacred to Rama. 

NILTAVA MEDANOPS, the rerditer tly- 
catcher, appears in spring, and is one of the 
most common fly-catchers. 

NILUM, MikRAL. Indigofera antl. 


MLUVU PEN'DALAM, Tbl. Diuscorea 
alata^ i. f., upright ur standing yam from its 
ohUmg tubers,— X. ; i2. iii, 797 ; W. Ic. 810 ; 

NIMAR is the wcsternmnst district of the 
Central Pn)vincea ofBritish India. On the east it i 
marches with the Uoshan;rihnd district, ihii f 
Cbhota Tawa, and its Irihutiry the Gangapat to 
the north and the Guii to the south, marking its 
boundary alm(»3t from point to jxiint; on the 
north it ^mchcs the territories of the ponwar 
of Dhar and of the maharaja llolkar ; and on 
tlic west it IS hounde*! thn»uj:hout by the domi- 
nions nf Holkar. On the south it meet» the 
Khandesh collectoratc of the Bombay presi- 
dency and the border of West Her:ir. The 

at Khandwa and near Aiandhata in the 
district. Before tlic inva^on of t)ie 
thins, the Chauhan again seem to 
covered A'sirgarh and Uio southern put 
district. In a. u. 12t>5r sultan 
returning from his bold raid in t}ie 
took A'sir, and put all the Chauhaj) 
sword, excepting one, whose descend&als^ 
afterwards the rajas of llarauti. The 
rona of Pijilod in Niniar also clainia 
from the A'sir Chauhan, and his 
are iu great umasure supp^rtotl by his 
logy and family history. Northern Nimft 
this time came into the j^wstawJon af a 
the Bhilala tribe, and his de!*cendants 
to be found in the chief of Bh:iTn.rarh, 
liataand Sihini. The historian Forultta t\ 
a.<itoryofa ahcpherd-i'.hief called A'la, 
over all Southern Nimar at the time of 
vaAion of the mahomcdans, and buiit 
masonry fort which was caJJe^l 
A'sirgurli (from A'sa and aliir, a \x\ 
The tale, however seems doubtful. Ii 
1370, Malak Raja Faruki obtaine«l 
Ximar, tiien uncontjuered, ix^^xn tti« 
emperor, and af^r establishing the 
medan power in tlie Tapti valley, 
cecded by hi,-* son Na-iir khan, who 
independence established the Faruki 

modern district haa an area of about 3,3-k> ' ^^*". Khandesli, in \. i>. 13i)9. He 

nquare miles. Nimar has uhvays been, as it 
•till is, a border land. The aboriginal in- 
habitants even belong to two distinct divisions 
— the BhU and Koli of Western India here 
meeting the Gond and Kurku of the Kast«rn 
Central Pr:>vinccs. HimUio sacred Uterature 
Ktates tliat Mahishmati, Uic modem Maheewar, 
a city of Prant Niraar (nnw Holkars), was tlic 
capital of the Haihaya kings. The Uaihaya 
lAre said to have been cx|H.'lled by tlu' brah- 
kns, who efitablUhed the worship of Siva, in 
te form of the Linga Omkar on the island of 
Iftnilhata, in the river Narbada. We next 
in Hnjput poetry of ihe country being 
led by tlic Chauhan I'Cajputs who held 
A'sirgarh, though their capital was at Mnkavati 
(Garha Manilla.) Tliey were supporters of the 
'gods of the brahmans. and appear tJ> have been 
jftt last overcome by the Pramara Rajputs who 
itablished the great buddlii^st kingdom of 
Malwa. A branch of this family called Tak 
held A^sirgarh from the beginning of the ninth 
the do«e of tlje twelfth century of our era. 
!T«ful timoi during tiiis (leriod the Tak 
A'ljr ar "-d by the poet Chand, as 

[ ixmics battling in Nortliem 

•gauulUiC luii uvuilcr. During 

P pviod thr Jxir. —was paramount 

ta fOmij^r and aumi'iinu reinaioi of fincly- 

no N 

A sirgarh (according to Fcrlslita 
Ahir), and founded the cities of Bur) 
and Zainalmd, in honour of the mah< 
shaikhs liiirhan-ud-din and Zoin-ul 1- 
opjiosile banks of tlie river T.ipti. i 
dynasty held Khandesh, with their 
Burhanpur, during eleven generations, 
A. u. I39y Ui A. 0. 1000. Their indepen^ 
was, however, of a very mrxlified sort, as 
were throughout under the suxerainiy \A 
more powerful kings cither of Gujarat or Mali 
and whenever they ventured to thi 
their vassalage, or attacked their ncig^ 
were quickly brought to tiieir senAcs by 
which t^ey iu no case succeaafiilly resisted. 
the later disputes, between the uizain and 
peshwa, Nimar was often plundered by 
latter, until, by the treaty of Mun^/e 
northern Nimar became the ])eahwaV 
1740. Baji Rao pcshwa, homevir 
same year at Ivaver on the bauks )': 
bada, which he was just about to ci 
second invasion of Hindustan. His 
of variegatorl sand-stone is still to Im.* 
Raver. Eight yean later his great rival A*i 
Jah died at Burhanpur. Tlie Pindhari 
Nimar, had their chief cainpe in tlic 
wilds of Handia, between the Nftrba^da and 
Viudhyan range. Chitu, the m^^ danog' 





usually frti^ufiited llic juni.'le9 of 

Linianpur, duo nurth of Nimur. In 

ritisli tn>Dp« attacked the Pinilhari 

out of tiicsc hauntA. (^liitn 

g to Paohinarlii and A'sir- 

dbiren to the Imunt* he knew 

killed by a tiger in tli« Sim Uan 

limanpur, a place still well known 

en u a aure lind for tigers. 

on of Nimar nnniKcre 1,90,440 

at wham 04,806 are HhU. Kurku, 

JTwTB are scarcely any Gund in Nimar. 

DfoJacion of Nimar abio consists of 

llhaag ami other non-hindoos. 18,446 

^iropcflttu 402 

Bahrain!- 6,»83 

iadvj immigranta 1,18,608 


ilTiralors in Nimar are the Knn- 
■ and Rajjnu races. The lan- 
'ire of Iliadi and Maraihi, with 
• reian words, and it is written 
' ' De^-anagari character- — 
• 'Zftteer. 
. iifiSQ., Hiirn., MATfR., Pers. 
]jca, ami sfH^cies of .Melia. 

Hnsn, Mar;:iifla bark. Bark 
;\dirarhta and Molia. 
phiwJ, Dca. Flnwera of Mclia 

J, Hixn. Oil of Margnaa seeds. 

HLarni. lioundaries of lands, a 

*:f plate onumcrating revennea 

' loriB ( biirar ), taxes, d ue? (la^oii be 

rubs, foumlations and boundaries, 

mivereign can aniy alienate the 

>. and not the soil. The nim- 

jwM'erfuJ an expression as tlie 

Rawdons : — 

ftom Mrtli to hea\'en. 
From heaven to heU, 
Frooi the© and thine, 
Thi^rein \*\ ilwull. 

'"Hi, Vol. i, p. 5C4. 

I . L. 24« 2r 5 

ft, d mite.1 north of Mhow. 
A QUASSIOinKS, namiUon 
Simaruha quassioides, ihm. 

[UllilOrUl, CiLKMAB 

I, Moot „ 

tff. Kati 

11 sTTapjzling plant comnQon in places in 
Himalaya from the Sutlej to 
at fiwm 3.000 to i>,iX»o feet. It is 
gnats and sheep, and in Chumba the 
applied to itch. In some parts the 
eatciL. It was discovered in Nepal by 
and is stated by Dr. Ki*vle to exist 

L. 74 


Tosho, Hirjo, 



near the town called Tlinnkot. It has elipticaj 
oblong leariets, which are acuminated and ser-r 
rated. The corymbs arc trichotomous. It is<' 
as bitter aa the quassia of South America. | 
In general appearance and intense bitterness ' 
this tree ia closely allied to the Simarubea;. > 
The wood is light-i.'oloiured and very bitter, and 
altiiough it haa not as yet been subjected to' 
experiment, wc are led from analo|Ey to eDter-.| 
tain the most confident opinion of its proving a: 
perfect substitute for the West Indian article. 
It rises to near the snow line of the Himalaya 
mountains. The woo<l ha^ long been used for ' 
killing inM*cl3, and latterly recommended in 
fever by M. Macardieu. — i)on, DechlamdfouM 
Plants ; LvtdUy, Flora AUdica : in Eng. CtfC.s 
(ySfiamfhussjf^^pufje 209 ; Ind, Ah,, 106; Dr. 
J. L. SUwart. " 

NIMAK, HixD. Salt. .| 

Niniak-guman, coarse rock salt of the hiU;i 

Nimak-ustifrag, said to mean tartar emetic. •! 

Nimak-kniri, the reh salt, a salt of soda. 'i 

Nimak-mnniyaii, Hind. Salt residue in, 
glass-melting = to Kachlun. 

Nimak-nali, fused salt in long pipes. 

Nimak-»afed, white salt. 

Nimak-sumbar, salt of Sambhur lake. 

Nimak-sliisba, crystal pMt. i 

Nimak-shor, coarse salt educed in the pro-^ 
cess of making saltpetre. 

Nimak-sindfl. salt from Sindh. 

Nimak-aonchal» black salt. Sec Kala nimak.'' 

Nimak ka-iczab, sulphiu-ic acid. f" 

Sec Salt, Reh. Kalr. j 

iMMA PANDU, Tbl. Syn. of Citrus bergaj 
mia, Jiwa. 

N 1 MA \V AT, see Sana kadi sam praday a, 

NIMBA, also Nimbamu, Sa58, A2adiraclit^ 
indica. Ad. Jam. 

NIMIiAI>ITYA, sec Sanakadi sampradayi. 

NIMH.ALKl'K, a [Hjwerful Maiiraita familyi 
whose estates arc in Kolajjore. ! 

NIMliAMU, Saws. Azadirachta indic<4 
Ad. JuM., W.^ A. i 

NIMHAR, Hind. Acacia leucophJoea, alal 

Senecio lacinioeua. 

NIMBAUA, Mabr. Melia superhn. * 

NIM-HHUR or Nimber. Hctd. ZizyphusJ 
NIMBOOKA, Saks. Citrus bcrgamia, Risw{ 

^ Pott,, m>xh., W. 4- A. 

NIMBOKA, Bsyo. loiiidium stiffruiicosum 

NIMHU, Hiwd. Citrus acida, bcrgamia, RU^i 
iinjauri nimbii, ia Citrus uiedica. 
Mitha nimbu, is Citrus Umetta. ' 

The nimbu tree supplies the images « 

on the banks of the Sutl^". in more Vishnu in hia different forms ; al»o ^' • ^^1 
rth latitude. Dr. Kr.yle has also Radha. Lukshmee, Shiva, Guroodu, ChoUm^jj 

in wlleys in Gurhwal, in a valley ( &c. None of the wooden iioftgca arsi kr- - 

111 AT 111 

. K^ 



private hmwM, but in spjKiriito tcmplo.';. They 
are puti*?raily from one to three cubiu in height. 
— Warifs Fww of i)it Hindoos^ ^o^ ii, p. 12. 

NIMBU JAMBIKA, Hiku. Citrus limonum. 

NlMliUKA, Beno. Citrus limomun, Jiisso. 

NIMBU-Win.EE, see Hot-sj)rings. 

NIM-Cl [All, a half-breed race, on the south- 
ern (dope of ihe Indian Cauciuus, between the 
Allghans and the higher peak.-*. They s|>cak ii 
language related to t)ie Indiun timgiiea, but 
pOMMsin^ sonic curious affinity to Latin. In 
iho lower country, the people near the dclwu- 
churc of the Ka»hgar river, t![>eak a mixed 

igTie called Lu>i;hmani. The people in Kaah- 
Hubniit quietly to tlieir rulern. Froui all 
times the Kaahmir valley has been the retreat 
from the heats of India, for the conquering 
races, and it is not improbable that Umda of 
their fitllowcrs may have preferrwl to remain 
in ibe valley. — Campbell, p. 146. 

NTMCHAK. Hind. Well-curb. 

NIMICHAKRA, »ce Kasambi. 

NIM-GILO ? — MeniaiKTmuin. 

NIMI CILVMBELI, Hwd. Bisrnonia subcroMi. 

NIMI LADAGOO.Tkl. See Xauieh;.ldoog.w. 

NIMIUI,Tel. Terminaliapamculata, W,^A. 

NIMI MUKA, Hi5D. Clypea hernandifolia, 
IV. 4- A. 

NIMITT.V, Sass. a cause. 

NIMMA, Tel. Citrus bergamia, Risto and 
PoU., var. o. R. iii, 390 ; W, ^ A. 344. var 3. 
Common or Bergamotle lime. 

NIMMA GADDl, or Chippa gadOi, Tbl. 
AndropojTijn achcRnanthus, L, 

NIMMA TAYl, Tkl. Ceropegia bulboaa, 

ii, 27 ; Cor. 7 ; W. le. 845. The Yanadi 
id Cbenchu eat the roots. 

NIMMA TULASl. Tru Ocimum gralissi- 
mum, L., a Tulasi with the acent of a lemon. 

NIMO, see Indus. 

NIMOOKA, Bkho. Clypea hernandifolia. 

NIMROI) had two sons, one of whom. Yoktan, 
proceeded aoutliwards about b. c. 45v)0 or 5000, 
and formed and foimded there 13 princi|jalitie8. 
Kimroti'a name is connected witl) all the cities 
towDi aa for as the highlands of Kurdistan 
even Phrygia. — Bunsen, Vol. jv, p. 412. 

NIMUOUD, the mound wherein sculptures 
have been dittcnvexed at this ancient pUce is not 
hr from the Tigris, and about four hour* distance 
from Mosul. Xenophon, in his account of the 
retrcftt of the 10,000, makes mention of a pyra^ 
mid in a (own coJIed by hini Larij»a. It is m<«t 
probable thai the mound marks the site of that 
plaoo. which tlie Turks generally believe to have 
been Nimrr^d's own city ; and one or two of the 
h< '■ 1 Kich conversed at 

Jki r AfthtiT. from which 

Ii: The nl- 

-1 iiithrir 
rH have a book 


they call the ** Kis*ch Nimrod,' or 
Nirarod, witli which Uicy entertain the 
on a winter night. Over tlie ruins at Nir 
Mr. Layard discovered ancient tombs, of ftj 
unknown ami ol' which he could not aaugDj 
date. Many of tlie vatk-Sf necklaces, ao4 4( 
ments have a resemblance to those oft 
Egyptian tombs. Two or three purely A| 
rian cylinders were also diacovered in| 
tombs. Mr. Layiird consider that th^ q 
of burial which is tlierc evidenced, mort vd 
resembles that adopted by the early Pkfi^ 
Cyrus and Darius were buried in Sarcopha^ 
trouglts. Darius in one of Egyptian alabi^ 
Tlic alabaster wuAoc or tub, m which IH 
was buried, is mentioned by Theoplm^ 
The Assyrian:*, like tlie early PervaM 1 
have buried their dead entire, and prasc^ 
the i»dies in honey or wax. { Herod, Ub. | 
140, Arian de Bello, Alex. Theoph. <le L^ 
c. XV.) According to M\\a.n, when Xm 
opened the tomb f>( Belus, be found th9 | 
in a coffin filled, nearly to the brim, witli^ 
Mr. Layard infers that tliese tombs bdd 
to an intermediate people or race who oocaj 
Assyria alYer the building of the moat an^ 
palaces and before tlie foundation of tb« \ 
reoent. He (Nimrod) went out into Aa^ 
and built Nineveh and Catah ; the eamm 
great city. (Gen. x. 11, 12.) The rail^ 
Nimroud had been identified with KeM 
which Larissa was believe<l, first, by Boc| 
to be a corruption, arising from the (preauri 
use by the inhabitants of the counl 
common Semitic article " al** 
word. In tlie first phicc, the pi 
grounds are inadequate ; and. if this were 
no room would be left for the site of Ninev^ 
still greater city. A great dam wm I 
by Nimrod, and in the autumn b«fi)r«ii 
winter rains, the huge stones of whiej 
WAS constructed, squared, and unjt«j I 
cramps of iron, are frequently visiblo al| 
the surface of the stream. TMs dani ii o^ 
by the Arabs, either Sukr-el-Nimrvrad, i 
the tra^lition, or £1 Awayeo, from tb« I 
caused by the breaking of the water o?V| 
stones. Large raAs are obliged to onload b| 
cmssing it, and accidents frctjuently happd 
those who neglect this precaution. Diod| 
Siculus states Uiat the stones of the bridga \ 
by SciuiramisacrtMs the Euphrates were nai 
by similar iruu cramps, whilst tho intad 
were filled up with molten lead. Hm q 
greatly impede<l tho Hoets of the r'»' ■"'■■•( 
their navigation of the rivers of ' 
Me«opc>tamia,andhe caused many ui m. m u 
removeil. By Strab*} they were bclievfd 
have been constructed to prercut the a»o«d 
the rivers by hostile titiets. but then- 
evident. Tavcruicr meniious 
N 112 

Uils very Jam, lie says that liw 
A canciulti twenty-six feet high ; 
'■ i' nv matt have greatly exaggerated. 

itkttr, the ruined rity near the mouth of the 
'i; ;■' r Zab, mm usually knoini by the name of 
N innid L4 ealled jVshur by the Arabic geogra^ 
i '. --'. and in Athur wc recoguiae the old mime 
[«' Ai^vria, which Pio Ciissiuji writes Atyria, 
rrn-nrkiriT that the barbiirians chariRed the 
Sipna into Tau. The Bora Niinrud and mound 
sr^ «nppnsed by travcUcre to represent the 

r, r (,f Babel, but others conjecture it to be 
' ■ fpinainsof a temple of the ancient iVn-sippa 
■ :.i ^ if* mentioned aa ha\ing been nenr Baby- 
hn, *i:id where Alexander halted on hie road 
•' r^.rhAtaaa when warned by he Chaldean* not 
Tu t'oier Babylon from the east. — RicJi's Reti- 
intce in KordiMan^ Vol. ii, p. 131 ; LaynnVs 
Suur^ Volt, i, u, pp. 4, 5, 8, 220 ; MtdUi^s 
Lalwts, />. 233; Strabo, p. 1851, Ed, Ox., 
]Sf>7. See Babel, Luristan, Mosul, Tigris. 

XniRUT, Ihso. Mother o' pearl. 

NT3IURA, BsKQ. Clypea hemandifolia, 

I NIMUK DULLA. or Nimuk-ka-daUa, Hixd. 
Ibaiatc of aoda ; Salt. 

NLVDI, HiJO>. Vitex negundo. 

WXEVEH, built by Aaahur, aon of Shem, (see 
Got«u X, 11) w^ho went forth from tlie land 
itf Sluiuir, U not again mentioned in scripture 
as.L] the time of Jonah when its population is 
Mppoeed to have been half a million. Nahum 
IMiU] xt3 destruction, and in b. c. 606, it 
Ul before the combined forces of Cyaxares, king 
rf EVnia and Media, and of Nubopolnjuar who 
tten* to have been the ruler of liabylon, or 
die Aasyriaa govenior of the city. The waLU 
rfNtncreb are described to have been 60 miles 
b crcutuference, and 100 feet high with 1,500 
(^ons each 200 feet in height. Diodorus 
> :-l'ii mentiona that the city waa destroyed 
lardy by water and partly by fire, and ao utter 
vat the destruction that though, in 400 b, c. 
X«nopboD must have passed within a few miles 
nf it« file, he makes no mention of it, and 
Locxan, ft native of Samasata, near tlie £u- 
|bmi«s, living between A.n. 90 and 180, states 
Aat iCB vte could not, then, be pointed out. 
Mr. ECi(^ however, in lb20, detected it, in the 
lanqnda Apposite Mosul, and M. Batta, in 1843 ; 
tod Mr. Layard in 1845 obtaini?d numerous 
mlpturea &i)m it. When visited by Jonas. 
*1m» vaa sent thither by Jerolwam, king of 
lawtA, it waa three days' journey in circumfer- 
nct ; juul Diodorus Siculus, who ha.*« given 
dte diinuruions of Nineveh, says, that it waa 
bat biuulrod and eighty stadia, or forty-eevcn 
nUe^ in circuit : thatit wa^ surroimded by a wall 
AOd hnren ; the former, one hundred feet in 
Iw^t, ftod 80 broad that three chariotj) might 

ns N 

drive on it abreast; and tlie latter two hunJrcJ 
feet high, and amounting in number to fifteen 
hundred. Above thirty generations elapaeil 
between Ninus and Sardanapaliis, Bnt, with 
regard to Ninus and Semiramis, like all heroes 
of primitive history and early tradition, thdi 
name.s appear to have become conventional — 
all great deeds and national events being as- 
signed to them. Originally, historic character;* 
they have been to some extent invested with 
divine attributes. If there be no intcrpr^latior 
in the book of the Genesis, we have mention 0] 
Nineveh at least 1 ,600 years b, c. The down 
fall of the Ninyada, in tlie person of Sardana- 
pala?, occurred b. c 748. Nineveh, B. c. 606 
fell before an alliance of the kings of Babylon 
and Media, Nabopolassar and Kyaxares. Ni- 
niveh, as the metropolis of the Assyrian empire, 
in B. c. 526. governed Babylon and Media, 
Nineveh, the city of Ninua, on the Tigris, 
opposite Mosul, waa the capital of the As- 
syrian empire. The term aaaigned by Hero- 
dotus to tlie A5S)'Tian dominion in Upper Asia, 
is 5£0 years. The Assyrian empire came it 
an end in b. c. 1273. The territorj* of Authui 
(from Asshur, Shem's sun) was originally o\ 
small extent, and formed the second part of the 
kingdom usurped by the giant warrior, Gen, x. 
11, 12, who built, or rather restored, the three 
cities, Rchoboih, Calah, and Resen, besides th( 
capital, Nineveh. The ruins of the latter city 
ai'e known from the descriptions of Rich, Layard 
Ainsworth, and earlier travellers. They are ir 
Assyria proper, on the left bank of the Tigris 
opposite Mosul, and the natives atill coll their 
by the original name. Two remarkable facU 
in Layard'a latest work of Nineveh sliow tliai 
the national records of Assyria were writtet 
on square bricks, in characters iio small a 
scarcely to be legible without a microscope ; ii 
fact, a microsco])e was found in the ruins c 
Nimroud. Nabopolassar, the father of Nebvi 
chadnczzar, became the Assyrian satrap of Bs 
bylon, in the 123rd year ofNabonasMir, Sai 
danapalus, king of Assyria, commanded hii 
to march against the Medcs who had revolted 
but he allied himself with Cyaxares, an 
marched with him against Nineveh, and Hi 
by Ion became independent on the destruction < 
Nineveh in d. 0. 606. The Ninevitea, in a 
their various monuments, have left us no trac 
of their ideas concerning the dead, while the 
neighbours, the Babylonians attached that caj 
to the rites of sepulture which betokens stron 
belief in anoUier life. The sepulchral urns ol 
tained in Babylonia, contain the remain of tl 
dead, with jars and utensils for food and wat« 
made of baked clay, and with remains of da 
stones, the head of the dead reverently Wd , 
a sun-dried brick as a piUo*- 2r^^^* 
tombs, rare in Assyria and «pv^r B»b^V«, 




arc chiefly in Chaltlea [iropor, aiitl iIil* Kev. 
G. flawUnson (i, 107) suggesls thai lliu dead 
may Imvc been etinveyml t<> the sacred land i>f 
Chaldea, ainilarly as the Persians* even now, 
scud tlieir dead to Korbila and Meshid All, 
and ua the hindood from remote India, aoud the 
bones or the entire bodies to the Gauges at 
Benares. Chagda or Clmckrada, near Sook- 
sagur, 10 an abysa said to have been mode by 
the chariot wheel of lihagiruth. Tlie legend 
points to an antiquity which u not borne out 
by any old vestiges or ancient population. But 
the place is a great golgotlia where the dead 
^v^d dying are brought froni a great way oflF to 
^^piie burnt and coniigned to the Ganges. The 
^^ deceased 15 seldom conveyed by any of his rela- 
L tionB, unloBfl from a short distance, and poor 
^^L pGopla generally send forward their dead for 
H^ incremation in charge of bearers who never 
f betray the truet re|X)eed in them. The 
arrow-headed character waa that uAcd on the 
sculptures of Nineveh and is stiU occasion- 
ally used in writing Arabic, as also is tlie 
Cufic or Kofic which had its origin in the town 
of Kufa, but the Naahk and Talik characters 
are now usually employed. — Kinneir^i Oeo*/ra- 
jihieal Memoir, p, 259 ; Layard'^ Ainevth, 
VoU. \ and ii, pp. 18, 225 ; Burtsfn, p. 494 : 

rVol. iii, ;>. 605 ; Euphrates and Tvjritj Col. 
VJuistiey, p. 119 ; CuriosUiif of ScieiiO!, /^ 42; 
Tr.of roll p. 18. 
NING-PO liea in 29° 45' north latitude, and 
in lil*^ 22' cast lonjntudc ; is situated on the 
hanks of the river Tae-hae, and in the province of 
Che-kcang: the town of Ning-po is about twelve 
?uile9 distant from the sea, being in a westward 
direction from the clust42r of the Chilean islands. 
Over tVic river, an o-xtraordinary bridge is con- 
structed, in a most ingenious manner. Ningpo 

waa taken, 13th October 1841, by theBritJsh,- 
Sirr*s China ntui the ChintMj I 0/. i, p. 1U5. 

NINNI, see India. 

NINUS. The first year of his reign was b.c. 
1273, Semiraaus seems to have reigned jointly 
iih Ninus after his tenth year. Ninus estab- 
lished the Assyrian empire in its entire extent 
in hi$ 17th year. Seniiramis aRer him reigned 
as sitlo sj^voreiim. 

Ninud, B.C. 2128. Years, b, c. 

Assyrian monarchy lasted 1,30C 

years before the empire .... 675 
Dtiring the empire. 24 kings . . 526 
Sordanapalus, n.c. 87t). 
ABter the «m^e, 6 kings . . 105 





sufficient grounds for the 

were two. if not more, dis- 

;:<■», the flnst commencing 

I)i« l^trian and Indian cxpc- 

J14 N 

ditions of Ninus, the wonderful works of 
rainis. and the ctfeminacy of Sanlofiaj 
are ixiiiili! in their several reigns. — £ah 
Ninetr^h, Foh. i, ii, pp. 20,217. See Ilei 
Lud. Nineveh, Semiramis. 

NINYAD or Aiwyrian kings. See B«b)rk^J 
Babel, Nineveh, Ninus, Semiramis. 

pentapetala, Poir, DC.t and Niota tetrapetab. 
WalL Syns. of Sumadera indica, OiJtrt$%, 

NIPA, Saks. Eugenia racemosa, Litm, 


Cocos nypa, l/mr. 
Da-ni, Buiis. I Atap, MAiAr 

Water cocoanut, Eko. | 

This lowly steniless pabn grmrs ^^\ 
abundantly in Tenasserim, the Malay Peninsoa] 
and Eastern Archipelago. Thatch ia 
of the fringe of the leaves, doubled down] 
sewed on sticks or lathes of bamboo and 
as thatch for the roofs. The pulpy kemi 
the fruit (called buah atop) are preserved! 
sweetmeat, but are entirely without 
It grows in the tidal waters and bean a 
head of nuts. The nuts of a similar 
abound in the tertiary formations at tlic 
of the Thames, buried deep in the salt an< 
tliat now fonns the island of Sheppy. 
*• nipa" and *' sasa" of the Philippine 
possesses various useful purposes. The 
fruticana has affinities with the screw 
The leaves, besides being used for thatch^ 
and baskets, when burnt they yield salt : 
or pahu wine is ojctracted from the spai 
convertible into syrup, sugar, nnegar, 
and a strong spirit. The nipuh palm in 
nature of its flowers, appnxu:hes tlie scrfV 
pines ; to the Mergui river, it is found in 
fecdon, but only a few specimens occur as &r 
north as Mouhnain. It llouri&hes in brackisb 
water, along with the mangrove. ai»d its lowtf 
|r»arts are inundated when the tide 
Writing of this plant Dr. H(x>kersa)*s, 
ing from tlie Megna the water Itccoincs 
and Ni[ta fruticans appeared, thmwin;^' up {«]s 
yellow-green tufb of fe-athery K'Jiv*^, fr-Ttn b 
tjhort thick creeping stem, aiul beari 
base of the leaves its great lu^Jid or 
which millions were floating on the watt'r^, aail 
veyeUiting in the mud. Marks of tigei^ writ 
very frequent. The trunk never exceeds fc 
man's height. It is the inhabitant of 
marshy situations. Like other palnut it yicldl 
a wine by the usual ]iroce&4, and in ftimc parts 
of the Archipelago, particularly in the Pbifi| 
pines it is cultivated for its wine. Its priuci] 
use. however, is for the leaf, usually 
Atap, the common tenn for thatch among 
Malays, but specially applied to tlit- Icavt-s 
palm, because, among that j>et^ple, it is 
tlie only material used fur that purpose, 
nipa leaf is also uved for the fabricatioQ 




t* Tlio small, insipid p"lpy krrnpN 
jxreservod as sweetmeats. The 
ice, ia extract^ trom the tree whilst 
5ng state, iu the same way a-^ that of 
U tree, and afterwards distilled by 
brocen; but it is more spiritiionsi, 
six and a half jars, bciaggufficient 
|ie of wine. The great ditFerence 
|i Ae prices of the liquor, from the 
|id nipa trees arises out of the great 
txses to which the fniit of the cocoa- 
' applicable, and tlie increase of ex- 
jabour requisite to nbtain the juice, 
ic jrreat height of llie cocoanut plant, 
quent danizers to which the gather- 
posed in i»asain;' fp>ni one tree to 
Sch they do by sliding iilong a simple 
ftdrna Ifi»(. of Stfrnatrn; Honkers 
\ Voh. i, ii, pp. 1, 355 ; SMmun ; 
I PhnU, p. 35 ,- Mftson f* Walton s 
[Id, 120. 
^A of Ptolemy, probably the same 

I see Nepal, Koh-i-safed, Oojein. 
TES, the ancient name of tlie ranfrc 
(ngstion of the Taurus. The Tigris 
iu» rise fn^m its oppcjsite sides. 

Ke four large Japanese islan<l3 are 
iu, Jesso, and Sikoff, which 
ri a group not diasimilar in 
configuration lo Great Britain 
In the first island are situated 
liako the two capitals, the Tycoon, 
^ sovereign, resided in Ycdo, and 
f or spiritual sovcreif»n in Miako. 
|f Nipon popularly called Japan, and 
lie Chinese aa Yan^-hoo, or Jih-pun- 
jlargest, and its name sigiiiiies land 
D son. Kiu-siu or Ximo, the most 
iihia group, in !at. 32° 44' N. and 
62' T' E. has the harbour of Nan- 
Its western side, ia a hundred and 
borth to south by two liundred and 
i lo west. Sikoff is ubttut a himdred 
ferngth by sixty in breadth. The 
if tiie empire is estimated at 205,600 
isa, and its p<3pulation at 40 or 50 
Sogalecn island is a little smaller in 
|k Nipon, and was formerly divided 
b Chinese and Japanese, the fomicr 
I Dortfaem and the latter the south- 
^tB native population are the Kuriles, 
hr, wild and untutored race. The 
in tlie island of Jesso, is Matsmai : 
» Hakododi. Matsmai is an imperial 
Ipon undulating ground, and the hills 
irered with oaks. Rrs, cedare, poplars, 
^ash, cypress, birch, aspen and maple. 
|lUboi« or Niphon, constitutes the 
[•tncngth of thi^ Japanese empire, 
lis Nipon.isabout 40 tnilcs from Si- 

mofli.andwbuilton a plain, eighty miles from The 
iuetn3p*>lis, it coubiins about 8.000 people. The 
t*:iwn ia divided into wanls s*eparated by wotxlen 
gates. It contains nine buddhisi and one sintu 
temple. Since the treaty of Kanagawa, by 
which the port was opened to the Americans, 
Simoda has been raised to the dignity of an] 
imp>erial city. A hot spring Hows from a rock 
at Simoda, stated to be sulphurous. The island 
contains the largest towns, and the manufactured 
articles produced in this island are G(niaideredj 
the best. — MacFarlanf*s Oeo. ^ flis. o/t/a/««»,[ 
p, 147. See India, Japan. 

Ponganiia uliginoaa or Butea superba? The 
word means ** fiery-red colour" and indicates al 
si^ecies with tlauiing bright fiowers ; also jK'rba] 
Wagatca spicata. 

NIK, Bexg., IInn>., Earn., Maxkax. Maoe.,,^ 
Tkl, Water. 

Neratli mooioo oil. 

NIliADHAR, Niratar, Niratari, Hind. Cua- 
cuta reflcxa, supposed to be a corruption of 
nila-tar green threa<J. 

NIUAKAKU, Sans., from Nir prep., and 
akaru, form. 

NIRALLI or Nakkena, Tkl. Canthium 
lidynium, Ooertn. 


Poinciana clata. 
Haidarabad, the ancient 

Eugenia jombolanSf 


NIRARUGA, Tbl. Paspalum scrobicolatam, 
£.— /3 Kora, P. kora, H. i, 279. 

NIRA. or Sainda, Dttk., Gtrz. Toddy. 

NIRBISI, liurrii. Curcmna zedoaria, Jioa^., 
a syn. of C. aromatica, Salisbury ; also Kylling^ 
inonocephala. Bara Nirbisi is the Scirpus 
glomeratus. Nlrbiai, means the antidote, and 
is aoraetimes said to he the root of a species of 
aconite, but is generally supjHwed identical with 
jadwar or zadwar, the zedoaria of old writers. 
In Sirmoor the root of Delphinium pauciflorum 
is also called Nirbisi. 

NIRCHA, Hrxn. Corchorus capstilaris. 

NIR CODUMBA, Tam. Nauclea parviflora. 

NIREIPUTI. Tam. Roetellaria procumbens, 

NIRGAL also Nirgali, Hiin). Arundinaria 
falcata, a hill bamboo. 

NIRGUBI, Tkl. Asteracantha longifoUa. 

NIR GOBI VERU, Trl. Root of Barleria 
longifolia. ' 

NIRGANDA, D0k. Vitex trifolia, Linn., 
also Vitex ncgundo. Leaves of Vitex negundo 
are usefid in acute rheumatism and inter- 
mittent fever and special diseases, also said to 
relieve headache and catarrh alao aftct con&ai^j 






mcnt. The fruit U acid, \\» action U siiniliir to 
that of the Vitex trifulio, but leas jwwerfiiJ. — 
PowelCx Hand-l*ook% Vol. i, p» 3G4. 

NIRGUN, see Satnami. 

NIKGUNA. In Hindu mctaphysictf there are 
lltree Giuia, Satya-guna or property of truth, the 
Murcc of purity and wisdom — the Itajo-guna^ 
or property of foulne:^, the source of paasion 
and error, and the Tanio-guna or property of 
darkness, the source of inertneaa and ignorance. 
Deity, abtitractedly, is Nirguna, or without any 
uf the three properties. — WiUon, 

NIBGUNDI, Bemo. Vilex ncgundo. 

NIRIJA, or liira, Tel. Elceodendron rox- 
hurghii. W.mid A., 492— TT. /«., 71— Nerija 
diclKiioma, jR. i, 646. The name Bira id very 
doubtful, it was only found at Palaiuanair. 
The root of this tree is much prized m a cure 
ior snake-poison, apparci.tly not without some 
reufion.— iJr., 502 ; 0'A*A., 271. 

NIUIKA, ItECD., Saks. Hell. Sec Hindoo. 

NIRIKH. pBRa. A pru-e list. 

MRIXGI-KIRE, T\M. Trihulua tcrrestria. 

NmiT, see Indra, Nairit. 

NIRIZ, see Fars. 

NIRJLM DUMBA, IIixd. Ficus glomerata. 

NHtMAL al*o Nirrnali, Beno., Hi>d., 
Mahr. StryclinoA f>otnti>rum, Linn. 

N'UtMALA, see Hindoo, Sikhs. 

NHi-MULU,TAM. AstcracanLlia longifoUa, 

NIRMUL, a town in the Kumool province 
of t)ie Ceded Districts. Amongst the arts oni] 
manufiicturea of South Eastern Asia, may be 
mentioned the lacquer work of Burmah, China 
and Ja]>an, the ivory work of China, the 
marble work of Burmah, the gold and silver 
work of Trichinopoly anil Cuitack, the horn 
work of Viza^jataui, tlie sandalwood work of 
Canara, the lac work of Kumool, the tutenague 
work nf Beder, the wood work of Nirmul and 
of Hyderabad in Sind, the ahawl and woollen 
work of the N. W, of India and the muslins of 

NIR MULLI, Tam. Asteracantha lungifolia. 
Nir MuUi Veru, Tam. The root of Barleria 

NUINA. Caji. Water dog ; Luira noir. 

NIRNAYA, Sans. Frum ulr, prep** and 
nee, to obtain. 

NIR NOCHI. Tam. Vitex trifolia. 

^aR NOTSJIL, Mjokai.. Clerodendron 
inermc, Or^ri. 

MRO-KANCHA, Tw.. Pootedra vaginalis, 

N'lROOKTA, SAhs. Fwm nir, prep., and 



NIRU, Tki.. Water : hence 

Niru agiii veudra paku, Tel. JuflsieuA' 
losa, Ltim, — W, ami A,^ 1041 — J. exaltaca, 
ii, 401 — JVieeth, ii, 50; Properly Ammanift 
vesicatoria, Pt, i, /;. 12. The word meui 
*• the burning leaf growing in water." 

Niru bachcliali, Tel. Juseieua repens, L» 
—R. ii, 401— }V. and A., Id40. 

Niru boddj, or Boddi, TsL« Rivea hypocA* 
tcrifurmis, Ch, 

Niru budiki, or Antara tan;Lars, Tel. FW| 
stratiotcs, //. 

Niru cbikkudi^ Tet. Lablab, $p, 

Niru chirri, Tel. Centroetachys Aqi 
Wall.— yr. Ic, 1870. Achryanthes aq., JL 
i, 673. The syn. in Sanscrit is Marktliah, 
which according to W., is Anmrantus olemceui. 

Niru gunneru, Tkl. Poly^mxini rivulurr, 
Kon, — H, ii, 2D0, also Polvgonmn gliihnim, 
Willd,~R. ii, 287— W. /c.,'l7»», also H>'ani. 
cera iriflora, ir. and A., 463. — lm|uiti«ns 
natans, II. i, 652. Tlie name is applied to an/ 
narrow-leaved sp. Tlie syn. Nichiilah, accord^ 
ing to W., is Barringtonia acutangula. 

Niru gili gichcha, Tkl. Crota]ari» 
quefolia, L.—R. iii, 279— Jr. and A,, 
SJutde, ix, 28. 

Niru gobbi, Tel. Asteracantha longifi^tUa 
AV«.— W. Ic, 449— Ruellia Ion., i?- iii, 
Bhetdc^ ii, ^6. 

Niru goranta or Nalla [»edda goranta, Tb« 
Barleria cristata, L. — rosea. A light-tinlBd 
Gt>rania of a jiale red coUnir. 

Niru ippa, Tbl. The name implies a 
taceous tree frequenting water. Sk,,Goui 
is, according to W., a sp. of Basaia. 

Niru jiJuga, or Jiluga, Tkl. .^KsohynooiMic 
aspem, L. 

Niru kacha, Tbl. Pontedera vagiiuUis, i»m 
—Ii, ii, 121 ; Cor. liO—Iih^t, xi. 44. A 
duubtful name from Roxburgh. 

Niru kussuvoo, Tkl. Commelyna cimimuni*. 
Br, 502, a plant oJlel 

Niru)>adi, TxL. 

Niru pdvila, Tel. Bergia verticUlata, WtUdm 
—R, ii, 456; B. a^iuatica, Cor, 142— lUmtkt 
ix. 78. 

Niru pippali. Tkl. Pongatium indicuo. 
Lam, — Sphenoclea zeylanica, JL i, 607. 

Niru prubba, or Bettamu, Trl. C-olamui 
rotang, L, The genus delighta in luanb/ 
plains but C. tt'ifatng especially. 

Niru tamara, Tbl. Poutedera haatata, L^ — 
R, ii, 121: Cor,, 111. This name rests on 
Hoxb.'s autliority alone. 

Niru tota kura, Tbl. Amarantos, n 
The common cultivated specie*, requires pl<im> 
I fij watering. 

Niru tumiki, or Niti tumiki and Hni tuniiki. 
I Tkl. Difjspyros, */>. Ebenaceous trw frt- 
I (jucnting water? bk. syn. is Dirgba patniuk. 

N 116 



irapii, Trl. DesnuHlium natatu, 

IK, ftmi A,, 835 — Miruosa nal., H, ii, 

119. Nir tavili mean» tonohing 

j]^eriiig to the floating habit cliamc- 


Trl. Solanum mclongcna, L. 
R. i, h^l,—Wittde, X, 74. This 
varioly is under culture at all sea- 
reqiures much water, heuce the name. 
Teniki, Tel. Ottelia alisnoidcs, iVfs., 
Itmasonium indicuin, R, ii, 216 ; Oor, 
xi, 40. This name does not seem 
\X^ the pUnt is called Gnrrapu dekka. 
.U, Til. Allium cepa, L.~R. ii, 142, 

Croton tigliuDi, aUo 

tHurrola, Ham. 
XUM, Tam. Croton tiplium. Nir- 
inai, Tax. Crotwn oil : Napaulah oil. 
TAXA or Nirvana, or Nigban^ in bud- 
emancipation, a buddhist idea of 
laiion, of the spirit's extinction, but Bun- 
scrts it to mean the absence of desire 
I \kCe ; tnwarrl |>cacc. M. St. Ililaire, 
ig«ne Bumoiif and Prof. Max Mullcr, 
y the Nirvana of Buddha with abso- 

hilation, tlie pure not being, in 
is DO absorption in the higher life 
icreiite<t essence, no cousciousnesd of 
id frcetiora from evil, but the low of 
oonsciouftness at ouce. This doctrine 
forth in the despair of Job and 
; in the deep melancholy of Eccle- 
tho choruses of Sophocles, tlie Apolo- 
ttoaud in tlie solilotpiy o\' Hamlet, yet 
;iiowhexc led to suicide, as tlic path to 
but to fasting, prayer, almsgiving, and 
ice. But the doctrine was offtred to 
who held to tiic belief of a uatiu-al im- 
and metcmpschycosis, to whom death 
9UTC deliverance, but might lead to 
S«Cer than in this world, new forms of 
I or brute life more miserable than what 
mI {MMSied through. The life of self-sacri- 
ifti founder, his voluntary accf'ptancc of 
^(hiJiDroclaatatioD of a universal brother- 
' hia making war on the caste nystcm, 
te features of liis career. But after 
rose triimiphant and drove 
into otiter lands, and the region of 
limits birth and labours became a place 
^e to peoples from distant coonthes. 
rana of Sakya Muni, according to the 

NIIW^INEE, Saws, From Nirvanu, libera-' 

NIKWAR, see Kush. 

NISHA, HxKD. See Rush, 

NIS-E^V, tlic NiiMua of Ptolemy called also 
Nisa and NUiea, a city on tlie upper Oxus, was 
the chief town of the district, in northern Par- 
thia, famous for its breetl of horses, bordertjig 
on Hyrkania and Margiana. The fourth set- 
tlement of the Arians was in Nisaya (Northern 
Parthia.) It (v. verse 8.) says •* the filUi beat 
laud is Nisaya ; titerc Ahriman creatod unbe- 
lief.** This is the Nisaia of Ptolemy, famous 
for itfl breed of horses, commonly culled Nisa, 
the renowned district of Northern Parthia, bor- 
dering on Hyrkania and Margiana. The city 
ofNisSB is situated on the Upper Oxus. The 
term *• unbelier* signifies the apostacy from 
pure fire worship. Here, tliereibre, the first 
schism took place. — Runsm, Vol. iii. See 

less hawk eagle. 

NiBaotuA nii'oufl, 

Kunduli, arotill 



Aquila intorniedia, BoneUi. 

M'liar-iuigt, M 

This eagle is about 27 inches long and is 
found tliroughout India, in the hilly and jung- 
ly districts. It preys on game birds and pea- 
fowl, ducks, herons and wateribwi. 

pulcher, Ilodg,, Syns. of LimnsBtus nipalensis, 

NiSAETUS OVTVORUS, Jerd., Syn. of 
Noopus malaicnsis, Reinwardt, 

Lininaetus nivseus, Tamm. 

NISAHNA, HLiri>. To bloasom, Uie blossom- 
ing of sugar-cane is thought very unlucky. 
NISHAiJA of the Sanscrit writers, a race who 
km and metcmpschycosis, to whom death seem to have been the occupants of India prior 
moo sure deUverance, but might lead to to and opponents of the Aryans and especially 

"to the wild and barbarous forest and mountain- 
ous tribes. It is a term apphed in tlic Vedaa to 
the ancient aborigines of India, and Professor 
Max Mullcr projxMes to apply tlic words 
Nishada languages to all the non-Arian tongues. 
— Wits. See India, Siva. 

NISHAPOUR, at one time tlie greatest and 

richest city of Kiiorasau, is seated in a plain, 

formerly irrigated by about twelve thoiu^nd 

acqueducts, most of which have been sutfcred 

to &11 to decay, and arc now destitute of water. 

This city was founded by Taimuras, antl de- 

(ru o( Assam occurred in the 18th year of | stroyed by Alexander the Great. It was, after 

and 196 years before Chandra- , the laiwe of many years, re-built by Sapor the 

A contempi-trary of Alexander which First ; and the statue of that prince was to be 

Khas^8-fl96sB544. — Baiiiten, Gtjd i Been at Nishapour; until it was overturned^ 

KqI, i, p. o. See Buddha, Chinese, i and broken in pieces, by the AraKs- The town 

and district of Nishapour, are situated about 
IIsnRBW, sigiufying satisfieil or , sixty miles to the aouth-wcst of Mu.slicd. On 

I the death of Nadir Shah, it was seized by Ab- 

117 N 117 



baa Kulj Khan, acluef of the Turkish trihe of a 
Dyat. The name is a coniiiound nf Ni rcrd 
ami Shah|>iwr, and the term Ni, which denotes 
the priMhjce of the plain in whicii it stiin<U, 
wafl ;riven to distinpTiish it from the city of Shali- 
jjtHir in Fars, which waa also foundetl hy Shah- 
p(j«ir tlie First. Tlie firnits of Nishapur ai^ 
uncrnninonly fine, particularly melons ; its 
inoiintains are cultivated ti» the very summit, 
In these mouotaina, the Ferozah, or Tun]noiae 
atone, is found. General Ferrior says he 
sufferc*! many dwappointmenta at N'isha[>our, 
but it was from thence only he could viait 
the turquoise-raines in the neighbourhood. 
The mines are near the villago of Madene, 
about thirty-tTvo EnjL'li.'sh miles from Nishapour ; 
the roiwl to it is for the first five milctj aeross 
a [>Iain of great extent. Salt abounds in this 
locality, and the principal mine, Dooletaiy, U 
nI)ont six miles from Madene. This is an 
enormous rock, covcreil on itjs exterior sur- 
face with a thin layer of red clay. The mines 
are the i)n»perly of the Government, who 
lea^c them to die highest bidder. At pre* 
sent the rent is only loO toiuatnis yearly. 
A fgqod workman can extract about 800 lbs. 
a day. The salt ia beautifully white and of 
a fine grain. The tiu-quoises ore divided into 
two clossofi, according to the positions in which 
they are found. Tlie first, called sangi, or 
stony, arc those which are incrusted in the 
matrix and which mnst he removed by a blow 
of the pick or hammer ; the second arc found 
in washing the alluvial depoaitA, and are 
called khaki, or earthy : the f^irmer are of a 
deep blue ; the latter, though larger from 

being paler and spotted with white, are ofless ' attribute of the deity a certain number of 
value. These are seen as if incrusted or glued i times 

that of the Madan-o-^iah and othen, an 
this mine were obtained the finest and 
jjtonea of any. In this mine iJie tu 
matter did not appear Ut run « mu<'h in 
but this might be accidental, for we were 
tliat the greater part of the gem is 
this manner, — hW^rx Joun^tf into 
pp. 4(r7-4i:3; Kimiei/i Oeo/jt^fthical Mi 
p. 1 H5 ; Afnkohns Histonj of Pt^rsia, Vtl. ii, 
pp. 21S, 220 ; FtrrUr$ Jottrn., pp, U^5, 10ft, 

NISHAN, Hnrn. Sign, flag, or stan*UMi 
.synonymotu witli a company of soldiers. 

mSH4-PATEE, Siwa^from nisha, ni^^i 
and patee, lord. 

NISHASHTA, Pkhs. Starch. Nifthant-i- 
gandam, Gluten of wheat. 

NISI UN DA, or Nisindn, Us.vo. Vitex 
gundo, and Vitex trifolia, Linn. 

NISHKKAM ANA, Sahs. A going forth. Irom 
nir, prep., and krum, to slep 

NISI BIS, a fort situated between the Tigm 
and Euphrates, the jxi8se»ion of which % 
continually contestcfl by the liomans and B 
sians. It was taken al^er Shahpoor had tub* 
dued Armenia. Persian authors term this foft 
Nisibyn and Nisibi. — MaleolnCa HitUny of Pmm 
via^ ra^i,7>. 97. See Mesopotamia. 

NISINDA, also Nisindha, aLw Sedtarv 
IIiND. Vitex negundo and V. trifolia. 

NISOMALl, Sjufa. Polygonum avicularv 
NISO-CIIAKA, Sahs. AUingium dccap^ 
talum, Lam, 
NTSOT, RKNn., Hind. Ipomcea turpechom. 
NISR, Hm. Eagle. 
N18SAB, An. (lit, alms) the rcpcatinjt an 

in the matrix to the n\iral>erof from twenty-five 
to thirty, and more or lens near one another. 
Each ri{ those stones is enveloped in a thin cal- 
careous covering, white on the side adhering 
next tu iJie tunjuoisc, but brown on that next 
!i) the matrix. Mr. Frascr mentions tliat on the 
:i4th of January, about five in the morning, he 
A4^t otf to visit Uie turquoise mines, about nine 
fursungs to the westward of Nishapoor. Part 
of these arc but pits dug in grey earth like 
that of the Khurooch mine, and may poesibly 
be also tlie remains of some former working. 
The gem ia aUo found in small veins variously 
dispersed through the Ixwly of the rock ; a 
man who was working here olTei'od him the 
prmlucQ of his day's labour in an old shoe, 
consisting of pieces of ^-arious sorts and 
Mzcs. He aAcended to a considerable height 
to where, in a cleft of tlie hill, is sitimted tlie 
iiune caih'4l Abdool Rezake«. from having been 

NISUNG. In this town, the Tartar husband- 
men have a custom simitar to thottoof the Sooldk 
fiumera, who plait the Hrat com cut three-lbblt 
and fix it over the chimney-piece till ucsX 
harvest, when it is renewed. The Tartars use 
three cars of barley, which they paste outsiile, 
above the door. At Nisnng there was not a 
house in the village but was ornamented in thb 
way. The Tartars are called by the Kunawar 
inhabitants of the lowest parts, Zbad, Khotpa 
or Bootuntce, and their country is often named 
Bhot and Bootimt ; the Tartars are v«y 
different in ayipearance and manners from the 
inhabitants of the Lower Kunawar ; all thoM 
of Bosihur were formerly under tlio Chinese. 
The Tartars of Kimawar are not 8o9tont a« thctfe 
farther to the eastward, and have less of tko 
Chineae features. The others are muaoalaiv 
woll-made, and tall ; Gerard saw few under 

five feet ten, and many were six feet or more; 

r formerly worked, by a persfin of I their stmn;,' athletic fomw were remarkably 

The chief excavation is under a j contnvited witli tho puny »liminutive figure* « 

Tkianging rock, of the samr nature aa ! hia altenHanM. ii.ivcral of whom were itihabi- 

lis N 118 



j.ilam£t. Thuir countcnanot w 
vy hftVf small oblong eyes, U'ufh 
thin eye brtiwii, and very few have , 
ioe or beards, wliich they admire 
iJoay of them, especially from iwclve 
oJd. are extrouioly hantisome, 
ing flpj>OArance, aiid line 
r youth. — Vapt. Gtrartfg 
MW<iU'Mr, pp. 'S to 102. 

Aliie fibre. 
'ALA, Taji. a Malabar tree that 
t twelve or fifteen leet long and 
in diameter : it is not of much 
: it produces a small fruit which is 
ha p aiivea medicitxally. — ^if^y ^^0, 
^B&LU, Nkpavl. Viverra zibetha, 

ai paas of Kumaon, in lat. 30° 57* N., 
54' £: the crest ia lf^814; \-illa^'e 
1,4W feel- It is open from the end of 

»l>er. Niti is ccjnsidcred the best 
KumaoD and Tibet, and h one of 
channels of trade between Chinese 
Knd Htndoostan. 
|Ap3. Thread. 

^Bcloth used by the wild natives in 

GA>iNERU, or Bagga petti, Tkl. 
11a racemoao, Benth. Any acjiiatic 
h lonR, oajTo*', oleander-like leave*. 
TUMIKI, or >'iru tumiki and Eru 
Didftpyros, «/'. So called by the 

A TRIDENT A. a plant of Tunis. 

of the iotopha^, and Nitrana 

ry of which is the chief luxury 

nf the Caspian desert, inigiit be 

ito India. 

yrASS.15, Nitre. 

DE SOrnE, Fr. Nitrate of soda. 

OF LIME ifl recommended as a 

chcniical antidote for the nalts of 

" It has been known that the best 

sh is the saline efflorescence of old 

lIIx. or which apjiear on ground 

irbonatc of lime and animal mat- 

ih«tnnce, nitrate of lime is found, 

would act by pnKlucing the inso- 

kte of time, and the sparingly 

late of lime, and the deli<|ues- 

»f sttda, iiutte^d of the efflorescent 

cart>t)nnio of Aoda, which arc tlie 

tijtucntfidf ruh. This is prepared 

ling fibora or saltpetre with kahi safed, 

Itjttliang the acid Uquor that passes 

tdianam. Tlie native^!, in some 
long been accustomed to employ 
Jur,"' or earth which looks damp ; 
IbiiDd where auiraal remains are 
id usually contains nitrate of lime. 
u oumpcaed principally of sulphate of 

IH> N 

;tnda and chloride of stoiiium, with, iu some 
places, carbonate of soda : the sulphate and 
carbonate of suthi are very uffli>re»cent sails, and 
melt partly in their water of crystallijtation at a 
temf>erature of alxiiit 9S°, while they are rather 
sparingly soluble when the temperature tiilla 
below iS(f. Keuce, during the hot weather the 
reh meits and percolates the ground to some 
considerable depth ; but as the weatlicr becomos 
cooler, crystaLi form in this s<nl and furm a 
capillary net-work, njMjn which it travels till it 
oriivcs at the surface, where the salt gives off 
its water of crystallization, and falls into a dry 
powder by effloraicence. If to a solution of 
these saltfi, nitrate of lime is added, no change 
is produced by it on the chloride of sixlium, but 
the sulphate and cailxinate of soda sre con- 
verted into nitrate of soda, a deliquescing salt, 
while the lime iaclmnged cither into the inso- 
luble carbonate of lime, or the sparingly solu- 
ble sulphate of lime, neitlicr of which are 
efflorescent, or in any way injurious to vegeta- 
tion. — Poivtlls Hand-book ; JEcon, J'i'Oti,, I*m^^ 
jah.pp, 05, 112. iH 

NITRATE OF SILVER. This salt is nw 
made at Lahore for photographic pur[K)ae3 aiul 
called kastrtk, a corruption of caustic* 


Nitrate de 5>outl, Ko. | Wurfel saUpfitro, 

This salt occurs in Ucllary and Hyderabf^r, 
where it forma a natural efflorescence. Its 
chief use is as a substitute for saltpetre for the 
manufactTU'e of nitric and other acids and che- 
mical substances. It is t<xi deliquescent for 
making gunjmwder, though it answers well for 
senna descriptions of fireworks. It is found in 
immense quantities in deposits in South Ame- 
rica, piirticularly in the districts of Atncama 
and Tarapaca in Peru. See Alknlinc minendk 
and Soda. ^| 



Nttmtc] of potash, 




Nitnit« do potaae> 


Saurcs Knli, 

Nitre, or Saltpetre, must early have been 
known, as both the Indians and Chinese 
have long been acquainted with the making 
<if fireworks, and the former have an easy 
process for making nitric acid, in which they 
have been followed by Geber and other Ara- 
bian authors. The names netcr in the Old, 
Testament, and nitrura in ancient authors, wer© 
applied to carbonate of soda, but they wcr© 
also used in a generic sense. Nitre is found 
effloresced on the soil in many parts of India, 
where there ia no animal matter, and being 
washed out, a fresh crop ia formed after a fe^ 









It., Sp. 





Nilnis potaasw, 

















The soil is sandy, with inu^a inteisporswl, 
wliich will continue to yieUl a supply of [xitasli, 
whilo the nitric acid must b« furnished hy iJit* 
c»»inbination of the oxygen of the aimoHphore 
with itj nitrogen, probably, aa9Ug:ge»ted by Lio- 
hig, by the oxidation of the ammonia which he 
has proved i» always present in the atmoephcre. 
Mr. Stevenson (Prinsep'a Joum., ii, p. 23) has 
detiiled the process, and fihown that the saline 
earth contains salts soluble in water, sulphate 
of soda, muriate of fKHla, nitrates of lime and of 
potash. The nitrate of lime is easily converted 
into that of potafth by lixiviating the saline 
soil over a filter of wooda«hes, which contains 
carbonate of potash (the carbonic acid com- 
bineii with the lime, and the nitric acid with 
the potafih), a carbonate of lime is precipitated, 
and the nitrate of potash in solution ia evapo- 
rated and put aside to crystallize. The srU 
obtained! contains from 45 to 70 per cent, of 
pure nitrate of potash. It is re-dissolved and 
crystallized, but still contains impuriti**, which 
are termed so much per cent, of refraction. 
The ordinary kinds are called rough or crude 
saltpetre, and the purer East India *' refined." 
In Europe nitre is prepared artificially in nitre- 
bedfl or nitre-walls, and in ditches c«:»vered by 
sheds, where iihne is added to different mixtures 
of earth with reliise vegetables, various animal 
substances, and calcareous matter, &.C. The 
whole h cjcposcd to tlic action of the air. The 
trogen, combining with the oxygen, forms 
nitralea, and the foregoing processes being 
adopted, similar result are obtained. Nitre is 
nianufiu'-tured in many districtijof the South and 


East of Asia. — Smith 

Ro]fU, ^ii Saltpetre, 

AHdura nitrtmira 

purum, Lat. 

SpiritusnitrioigUuberi, „ 
Arak-i-flhora, Pflit5. 

Aqua forte, PowT. 

VcKli'hinu-niM, Siifon. 
Fotttuppu (lni\*agTun, Tam. 
ret]uppudra\*a-kjLm, Tku. 

Maulabkcr, Ar. 

Sterk wtitfT, Out- 

AqUA-forlis, Emo. 

Ando nitriquCr Kb. 

8*lpet«r satire, Oma. 

Huhiikhar knteU Hiiro. 
Shnre ka tezAb, „ 

Actdum nitricum, Lat. 
AqUB fortis, n 

Tliia was known to Geber, and probably 
also to the hindoos. In combination with 
potaah, soda, and lime or ammonia, it is 
found, effloresced on the soil in some countries ; 
also in .some minejals ; likewise in some vege- 
tables, OS in the officinal Parcira root, in the 
state of nitrate of potash. When manufac- 
lurers make nitric acid they employ only 
half the quantity of sulphuric acid and use 
nitrate of soda instead of nitrate of potash, 
beruuse it id cheaper. The acid obtained is of 
a brownish colour, fumes, and is called nitric 
acid of commerce. When pure, it is colourless, 
bi" •« met With in commerce, it is yellowish, 
^^ to its containing nitrouA acid in witutioD ; 
wliich it Li often highly diluted, and 
with sulphuric and muriatic acids. It 


exceedingly eorroRive, and its ts 
nnd r«*id. Nitric acid ia employed 
variety i»f chemical pnx'esses ; in 
and fliwiying, for etching on iron 
in dyeing and in medicine. Nil 
ma<le in I^horc, by acting on 
of «Kia with a quantity of sulphtiHi 
This sort is used Ibr the puriftcation oi 
and the formation of the nitrate. A le 
kind i^ mode by the action of Kahi ( 
sulphate of iron) on nitre, hut this is n 
mixture of nitric and hydnxhloric aci< 
will dissolve gold leaf. — KoyU : itii 
NITRO, It. Salitre, Sp. Salt 

Acidum uitr^muriati- Acidum 
cum. chloricum. 

Aqtu re^A. 
Kau regale. Pb. | KouigswuBer, 

Tliis acid w made by mixing nitric oc 
muriatic, and has probably been knowl 
the discover}' of these acids. The Afiil 
have been acqtmintcd with it, as thi 
a solvent for gold. Nitro-hydrochlori 
ifl of a golden yellow colour with th< 
eating odour of chlorine, and the irrita 
rouive properties of the Rtnmg acids, 
manufacturers mix gradually in a cqB 
sel, and where the tumcs con eAsiljl 
Nitric acid 1 part, muriatic acid 2 part 
by measure). They ke^p the mixture in 
closed bottle in a cool, dork place. IH 
ing acid is not a mere mixture of the M 
for both become decomposed. It is distin^ 
by the property of dissolving gold. 
NITRON, Potaase nitras, Salpetre. 
NITUIU or Katou niruri, Phyllant 

NITYAMALLE or AdaTi nitai 
Hibiscus hirtus, L. 

NITYANANDA, Saks., from nityaj 
and ananda, joy. See Chaitunya. 
NIU-JU alsoNiu-nai,Canr. Milk. 
NIU, HmD. Alnus, xp. ^ 

NIUMA, Hcfo. Brassica rapa. ■ 
NIUNKAR, HniD. Brasaica, sp, ■ 
NIUliTSI, IIetd. Artemisia ncron 
NIUSKAK, IIetd. Brossica, «p. : 
nubti, Hum., is Ceratonia siliqua, 
NIVERrn, see Nibutti. 
NIVESAM, Tax. Nivcaauamu, 
ground of 2,400 feet square of groimd. 
NIYAL, Hum., of Kangra. A wentt 
NIYAZBO, HiKD. Ocymum basil 
NIYAMA, Saws. A reiwlution. 
NIZAM, the title of the mabomt 
of the kingdom of Hyderabad in th«| 
a sovereign, with a British reside 
court. The country of the Nij 

N 120 





in ihp middle of the ISlli 

Ilv the trcAty with tho British Gi>- 

759, bo cvdoii Miviuh[>:itAnt and 

.■ ^ ; by the treaty «»f I7*l<», tlie 

[Qftk<m Cirrturs, aniJ by the death o( its jag- 

-"■•- '"-^ *' .--fjunio-vr CMrrar. The au- 

r of thtr Si»tv of Ilydorahad 

' V-»ni the Nerhurhhi to 

it -»uU iiirL'iT — *• ill a Une ncftrly 

^.iifh fr-Mti BfrhanififM^r &» Cnpi* 

Initn thtU Hne to thi' 

•unlry the Nizam now 

lo be y5,:^*^7 ««)uare niiU«. 

the 1.5th mid iMut dt"/ree^ of 

IktHudi*. and the To und 8:i dc^'rcos of 

innl... r.-ntiin^ j» lalerul «*{uureof more than 

wuy. This tract is traverse*! by 

1 1 its feeders, the lieema and Tutn- 

rirda and its tribiitar)eH,and the 

«aij ltd tribuiarv fitreamR of tlie 

ijrra, and iV.Luliri'ta. Tlds coun- 

Ntzaui. tsiUei! Hydemlwid aiVr the 

If**' timc-f hirjrpr tlmn eitlicr Mysotv 

■xt two larje ih'wits wilh 

(vr siilwidiary Iroaties, ten 

-:ir'» countrv, Indoro, 

li .\o[irtl and CtishiiuTc 

IV two imtcpcnrlcnt i»owers in al!i- 

lUe Hriiwh. The mixlern Dckhan 

noKt of Telin^rana, part of Oind- 

ibat lnrp*» portion of" MaltDni.shtra 

-r the w^trrn range of gliaiitji, 

ti^itrnrb from the Nrrlniddn to the 

Hydemhad in llie Dekhan in cnm- 

1 contmdiMinptinn tii Hyderabad 

- cooinlry of tho Nixam coa«*iflts of 

itiand, ocrer Insfi tlian l.8li0 feet 

Uwrr the Irvrl of the *ea, and it h-M alwa^-s 

• 'iUtrd : frir it long formed a large part 


Awiming tJie title of Asoph Jnh, Nizam-id- 

Vij*!: iTiMMil the NerhndiJa at the head of 

I laijo- The fort of Aweerghur wn* 

,.t.„ ^p In him by •lutib Khan for n itum of 

kacy. Soon ofVcr, in the month nf Ortobor 

'T^' V-fnoV»n .'j;— — *v. on pretence of 

a huntifi ii, to depart for 

ii» tirrwfnfslty in ihr i ■. i^.iui ; and that 

itti^ althiMtf h hv> al;vuy« [in>ri'A'>td olH^U«*nee 

ri when wjiyin* yr;\f !ti:j:irHt 

K- hrr-tim*' wh'-Ilv iiidipfiid- 

I • N>rhtldd:l. 

i the Mo;^nil 

III n milnry of wnrs. 

tin t! of I)rllii. 

. Ni?.nm-id- 

I'.'ili:..! -iht- 


desirable for this 

, „■..■. 1 

..... . 

.... i>.-U- 



IiinMcIf had 


d it wa.1 vtry 
pnqKisp li> remove tlje Malianiitu rolloelnn 
from liiat 4uarter on any terms. 

One of the traditions of tl»e Nizrim".-* .incestry 
m tliHt the family it* of Tartar origin, aud 
claims tle^cenl fr»im Raha-nd-Deon — a persou 
mueh ce'lebruted (or lii^j dtvotional zeal as well 
as for the aa^'tcrity of his life. lie took llic 
appellation of Khajeh Nakshbund, and waa 
tJie foumler of the order of Naksihbiindee r>er- 
VLsefl which atill prevail in India, Ttirkey 
(iiid Tartary, His dcsceiuianta tx> this day 
generally prefix the word Kliajeh to their 
name«, and di^lin^uish themselves by ilic ai>- 
pelUitiun of Nak.shbiindee, KJmjeh is a term 
of honour tisnnlly applied to pcraoiw who ai'e 
eminent eitlier for their sanctit)- or learning. 
The literal ineanini^ of Nak-itibaud ia fixing; 
an impreMiiin ; and tlie term wa* ti^ratively 
a^lopted by Ralm-iid-I>een. Nizam-uI-Mulk 
waA the iMiirri bnddul Hh:ie» or * tnrban-ex- 
cbjin^ed brother," of the Ham prince, \\nirn 
A-'^iph Jab, Nizam-ul-Mulk difd in a. n. 174S, 
he was 104 years old. He loft, five sooh; 
filmzi-uil-Deen, Naj-ir Junp, SidabatJung, 
Niitam All and Rxsidal .Tun;;, of whom, the 
second «»n Niizir Jung sueeeeded. For een- 
lurieg an intexmittcmt wnr had ro^^ed be- 
tween tlie great Mo^ridis at DolUi, and the 
nnifwnlmrin princt^ of the Dekbnn. Kvery 
diitatTertpd ehieftain in the court of the Mf>u:ul, 
every rebelliotjH prince and every atale.?man 
under a r.Knid, wnifrht to make Iuh way to the 
Oekhan, where he might at hjwt find a ri?fiigc 
i'rom his enemies if not the me^uw of revenge. 
At last the Mo^iU ejitahlUhed a ;?rand army in 
the iV'khan, which became liirniMia in tJi*) 
riM;ra'» of Shah Jehan and Aiinm;^eh. That 
army became the srli.^il of all \hv great Mogul 
warriors of the time ; of men who not only 
achievrt] iho con'iueHi of tlie o>nntry but who 
were 8ubsn>(|nontly riomiuat».d to high miJitary 
command as a»d>ahd;ii>i and nabolrf) ; and who 
flub»o«|ueMtly e^iobb-lo.'d their real independ- 
eneo in tJieirown pMvincwi, and left the Mogul 
power at DelJu to fall in pieces l>efore the 
de^troyi'tg handn of Muhrati-a-* and AfTghans. 
FiiremoHt nmtingst ihtsie men wa.4 the tmeeHtor 
«if the \i/.am tif (he Pekhan. His fimt title wa>* 
Afloph Jah. hut he is hotter known by hie aceond 
title of Ni^am-nl-Mulk, i.r • lleinlalor of tlie 
Stute/ The life of this man ext-nded over the 
exfraordinnry fteriod of an himdre-l and four 
ye»r«i, and the events with which it vrtiA crowded 
would fill vnhinies. He was born in l<rir», iibijut 
the tinv<' when Shah .Khun wm carrying on 
the eon<|uest of the Dekhan, and whi-n, as wc 
may say. CharliM I. was still waging war 
a^iiut Li* Parliament. Uv was a youth when 
the sons of Sliah Jehun wer<» waging that ter- 
rible war against eaeh mhcr wliJch ended in 

N 121 



the suMeftrirtn of Atirmiji^eh. Up to his ' prnstoncr nf (he* Britwh. t'live ohiainrH 
miiliUti age lie hiniselt" w:w fng;i^c<l in Uk- > liim u gnint of tlic Northern C'irt*ars,wliicli.1 

wnn Txjth ti^uuiiit llic MuhnilC'i.? uml :i^utiist 
ihe niii!<uliiian kings o!*i!ie Dcklmn ; and wlien 
Aurung-/.L'l) fiiuiUy I'longlit l)ie conLjucst ol* llic 
Deklmu to a close about iHf^H^ Aaojih Jah was 
fortr-tliroo-renn* of agt*. Tlic first aubiwJur, or 
vit'cro)' oi' lUe Dokhan, was however Zti-ul-tikar 
Khan» a Mn ol' lUe vizier ot' Aurunjjpieb ; and 
ho was j^uccwc'Ued hy Diu>ud Khiin, llic same 
who bcsuijlfcd Tort St. Georiie iuG<tvernor PittV 
ttmo. After the death of Aurnngxeh in 1707, 
the {KTwer of the Great Mogul l)e>;itn t^iUeeline. 
A«»oph Jah, thouffli fu«t vci'tring on tlirce score 
years and ttin, was deeply enaraiPtMl in oil the 
intrij^ies of the period. This resulted in his 
obtuininj^ the government ot'the Dekhnn iinder 
the nnme of Uic Niziuii-id-Miiik ; aitd in liia 
mukiii;; himself virtniilly independent of the 
Great Moprul, lii* government was not limited 
by Uie Kidtiia, bnt extended southward to the 
frontiers of Tanjore ; and it wonld i»oem that he 
pomlii;itod the nabuU-4 of the Canmtic at will. 
The ftgod warrior and statesmen at laril aunk 
into hi« grave in 1749, aged 104 years. The 
Nizatnb down to our owd time have been! — 

A«or Jiih. ob. 1719 I Tivram Ali, ob. 1S03 

^'a7.i^ JiiHiT, „ 1750 ^Hcundfr Jjb, ^ :h2» 

MosuRlr Jtirtg, „ 1751 [ N'iiiiir-<jo--[>(jwbih „ l8fl7 
f'iiliibnt Junt;, „ 17'i2 | lfM)ol-ou-l>()wIfth,„ 16H6 
Nuzir Jung was I'eehly .-fiippiTted by the 
British ; MozuiGr Jung and Sitiabvit Jung were 
strongly (*upp«.trted by Uie Frencli. On the 
death of Aj*n[ih Jah, 1749, the British were mere 
merchante, who bad only recently regainefl piw- 
flcflsion uf tbetr Hectlenieiit at Madras, afler tivo 
years' occupiition by the Frent h. On the im- 
priw.>nment ami death of Sulabut Jung in 1 702. 
the English had gained the eorapletc aseeiid- 
ancy over the French, hail captured Putiili- 
cherry.aud Gslabliahed their own niiUib Moham- 
xnal Ali on the throne of the Carnatic. All the 
three immediate suceowor* of A»ipb Jah difd a 
violent death. Nazir Jung was -^hot ilirtiugh 
the heart by a rebellious noble. AVifliin a year 
MozulKr Jung hhured hiw fate. Sali;bul «Iung 
ruled the Dekhan f*»r ten year*, during the 
greater |iart of which he hatl u French army 
near his capital, nominally as hU allies : but 
who reiilly were n^giurded with all tlie jealoiwy 
and hatred which were subse^iucutly displayed 
by Native courts towards the Britisli subsi- 
diary forces. The overthrow of liie French in 
Uie C-arnatJe wiw at^eomifauied by the willidruwal 
of all Frriich interest fumv the lloUhan. and laid 
Balubut Jung open to the intriguti.'' of his bn)ther 
■KLuUi) AU, to w)ii«:h h" fell a virtini nbnut 17fi2. 
Ali, in ' \ came 

inflict V rig the 

Circar'*. i Hr ^i-ni Mi»gui nt that 
le wrctchofi fugitive Shub Alum U, 
wtio' lad already become Utile more than a f 

1-22 N 

lormcd part of theiorrituricsof thr Nixa 
return the Nizam invaded the Coirnntic 
a treaty^ the British ajireotl to ^my a 
the po*'(i'rision of the eovclcd territorj* ; 
yenis atlerwards the British occnpatinn n^ 
Northern Circars was a sore point witH 
Nixam. The two grcJit events which h 
Nixiun Ali and the British irrtn ccm 
collision, were the warn again.*it Mj-aore 
wars against tlie Mahrnttas. It was the 
(piis of Weilealey who (Mtablisbed the re; 
between the Niiiun and the British on 
present basis ; and who initiated that 
statiLs of subsidiary alliani^es whirh has 
tinned with but little alteration dr>wn U> 
present day. By this s^'stpm a nativo 
reign was ted h:> agree Ut receive a 
Resident at his Court, and Ut reeeiv4iai^d 
ttiin a British sul>sidiary furce within liii 
minions. This sy:item wa* carried out 
the of the Dekhan in 17!)>i and 
It was also tried on the nultuii i>f My 
Tip|MX> thinied up at the idea of bocoi 
piMiHiotie<l prince, and the resnit watt 
overthrow and the e^iablislimenl uf a d 
rajah in his room. Tlien it was triud 
Peshwa of the Mahratuw; and would al«> 
been tried oii ^jinlliah and Holkar. hft^l 
Wcllcsley been re-oaJled and ComwaH 
in his room. This system was sol- 
extended to tlie whole vl' the Native 
and belongs to the gent^ral hwUiry of I 
this arragemeiit Ni»am Ali was com 
give up his French force, and to beeoro« 
dependent on the British pt»wer. He 
liowever in lb03, very nbortly aller the cha 
~~Ta<Vs RitjaMhnn^ Vol. ii, ;*. 5<»U ; Hfn 
Mrmoir^ /». '22; The JSizttm, his ilwtfnt 
relation with the BritisJi (Jtivfriimrnt, fnf Ufnrf 
George Brifjffs^ Staj., Bom. MttnidjHtUty. 
NIZA.Ml, a celebrated Persian [KictwUu 
in A. H. ■'>7() or A. i\. ll^M), he tHiin 
Sekander Nameh or " History of Ale 
fn>m Jewish, Christian and Pchlavi 
by which we may suppose him to meai 
brew, Greek or l-atin, arnl old Pei^suin mantt*' 
scripts.— f>i*jW!/^y'j» TravrUj Vol. ii, p.'MUi< 
NIZAM UT ADAWLLrr, see Prin»ep. 
NIZAM LT TCAKIKJI, a hii^toricml wort 
by Haizavi on tlie Asian monarchies a genenil 
j History c»f the Ghaznavide riders 
I NIZAM VD DIN AOIA, is a sijotnear W 
, hi where visiton* used to witness 9<mi' 
I feats f>erfonned by a uiunberof swii 
' jump into a large reservoir from a tK>mt 
fifty or sixty feet above the surface of lb# 
wrater, — 7'oMr in India bif Frfwh, p. II 

N'MO-N'MA. a salutation in We»iern Ind^ 
between brahmia^. 



Xulj of the Araljs. See Kmh 

M-VKNG, HuHM. lit Tavu^. ft dodc- 
^^11^, heaty wood ; iiset'al for liUaUlcs. 
kgiAMOMlU:, Exa. AnUtemuno 


iE-SHOE BAT, see Cheirop- 

X, Me Opal. 

kettle rlrum ; the use of tins 
\r Malay*, w onntincii to aiyiiUy, mv\ 
'ilio^ ofr* iimlvJ only on occJiaioiia of 
Iht? rp;^nlati«mi* t'lrlH*:* ;!overnineui of 
'Tftr 1 hli Annal it i^ luirl dijwn Uiat 
for the I-ak-smana to be in 
' Its tnij^ht to Iw jirfs^^nt, the* 
jonier Nobuts," means Ui^ivo ono the 
9 of a country with tbo ripUu of 
The nnbut-khanali or aatooa for the 
b>y^ band U u^unlly placed over un 
^war. Amougst the malmmediin 
ititiA India, tlie ri;>ht to tlit' Nobul 
jto their uobled. — Jour, Itnl. Arch,, 
a. V, An iHol. 
I<)S( ADA. Ir. Nutrap^. 
^hiXIDJ'^. 0, family of luammaU, of 
Jcr Cheiroptera, a* mider : 

pu TaphozoiniJC. 

bzous K>i)t^miinii8. Hard., Blyth. 

bis, i//^*. I T. fulviviujii. ' SItftA. 

^•armod hat of all India. 

II, Tt-mui., Ilorftf. The 
' . lira, MoLiyana. 

Pcrolaiiuus, Temm., BUfiJt, 
Bhth. ; T. jmlclier. ' Fituti. 
m bnt of Madrid, Malayans. 
P" i.:--i,,r, TVwm. K. Indies? 
'■ 'lullDnura, from Jniii. 

L- ...;. ..;lioniuw. 

[BucM^ Biff, 



N. dilatatUB, 

N. tcnnif, „ 

N. pUcatU9, JertUni. 

1« torquatim, of Jav;i. The vrin- 
ofMailra-s, Calcutta. See Mammals. 
NExV LABI ATA, sec Oheirnptera. 

a tribe of b'lrdj na under : 


ilheninac, 2 gjen., 9 pp., viz., i Ni- 
;8 AiUune. 

? c?'n., 3 »p., Ti2., 3 SjT- 
i Xivif^Mum. 

■ j^'en.^ 3 sjf., viz.. 1 Pho- 
; S GUux tUauuea atul Javanica. 

LASIURA, Hoiti/aoii. Syn. 
nit //on., Bl.f also Murina 


rodmdron nutans. 

Alpinia nutan^i, Jiosror. 

NOEUIA-TAin.I-MARM. Tam. Antidi 
ma hnnias, A, alexiteha, Noeha-tali pattaj 
the bark : Noelha tali pallum, ihe fmjt, 

N'OKUVALLl and Panni-Valli, Dalhergi 
scan dens. 

NOEUALA MARA. Ca?f. Syzj'gium jai 

N<:)FR-ATMOO, one of the godfl of anciei 
Egypt ; he bore the lotu.^ on hU head. 

NOliAl, a Tartar race settled in the city 
B«ikhara, who iiii^^rated from KiiA'iia, 

NOGAON, a town in Central India. St 

NOHL.'E-T.VM, Antidfsma alixaterium. 

NOIR UE COKDONXUiR, Fa. Blacking. 

NOIR DE FUMEE, Fr. I^mp black. 

NOISETTES or Aveilenes, Fa. llazel nut' 

NOIX, Fr. Walnuts. 

NOIX D' ACAJOU, Fe. The nut of Ani 
cardiimi oocidentale, Linn,, ca<ihew-nut. 

NOIX DK GAr.LKS, Fr. Gall-*. 

NOIX VOMIQUE, Fa. Nux vomica. 

NOI YAYIKA, SA.N3. A follower of the Ny^ 
aya philosophy. 

NORI, IIjMt. From nok a point, the pointed- 
shaped peach. 

NOKI-TAMAKU, the pciinted-leaved variet 
of tobaccn. 

ma bunia^. *S/>r., ^ijgt. Vttj. 

NOLANACE.E,' Lindi, an order of plants, 
comprisina: 1 genu.H and 4 «pccies of Nolana, 
Nolana grandiflora \a a trailing annual wii 
white, yellow and blue flowers, easily rai»e( 
fnim seed, in any garden soil. — Riddell, 

NOLE-COLE, orkiiol khol, a vegetable, must 
be sown exactly as cabbage, brocoH, &c. It comes 
in early and remains in season until April. 
watered during the hot, weather and taken cm 
of, it AvilU when the rain-j commence, throi 
out sprouts, and form other knolo-colc on tlu 
old stalk, which may either be used or sli] 
pod off and planted : they will not be so ~ 
as those raised from seed, yet are fit for use. 

NOLIICV or Loluga, Tel. Fteroepermur 
bevuianum, HaH. 

'NOLI ME TANGERE, Impatiena balsa- 

deaiua alexiteria, Linn,, A. buniae. — iSpr. St/st, 

NOMADE. a terra by which are designati 
the sliephord tribes of Central and Southci 
A^ia, who migrate i'rom place to place at sei 
sons of the year, to obtain forage for the 
I llocka. The Persian word ' numud', or * felt,' 
N 123 


NONE A R08R\. 

t<»iit* of iKo tvanilorinjf tribes of' 
IraJ Amaluiio nlw.-us I'ccn aiul rtiill mo cmii- 
jk»mhI, liave Rup^iliol ilic root to the wuril 
yofia^tKos, The iiuiiirid tril>c«iof Turkninaii, nre 
the rLpri'^entnlives ut'a family which hm uxi.-'toil 
fruiii limci amoriiir fo liisUirv, aiifl oxiM at the 
jiresfiii (iiuo in ihe iuiuieimo stepfn-i* oj' Tar- 
lary. The Turkoman, out o^'whuin the Turks ol' 
Ihe towiih and cities oi' Smthern and Westoni 
Asia Nj-'ruiig, were, apiiarently, thiwo of the 
I*oisiim frinitici', tlic uiiocsuira of thy fiv^cnt 
Yttumd. Gnklan, Tokke, and Krsan trihoa, wht» 
liv :iloii^^ ihe frontier iif Pcrnia from the CtiAjnan 
lu ihv 5outh-wo<ttcn» ft.'e<lor* of the Oxun. 
Kxcepl on the valley of the Allriik, wiiere 
tJiey have devohipcd an inifrtrfLxt afiriculnirc, 
more ukin (u gardenuij^ than to farmiufr, tlity 
nre noniade*, with no towns, witli mere tents 
ihttn houses, and vith [pre-tiiiiuently pitnbtory 
hnbiL^, wi the Poreiand of Klionisuii und A^tera- 
bml know to thtir cfwt. UnrivaUed riders^ with 
a brew! of horse.** that will endure any han.t- 
shxp they are infanjoua for their forayf* ; and, 
aa tliey have a {.Teat rubbing-ground t*) the 
Boutli where ihu oix-iipant:! ore other UmnTurk, 
they art' more incorrigible plumlerers than even 
the contral KiriiUi?. and Csl>ek. Wicn set- 
tird in more favourible loeuUticfi tiiey are j>!ow 
to lay aside iheir onginiil habit*. So far as they 
»rc mixed iu blood, it is the I'ersian element 
timt hm mixed. Sueh are tlie Turkomans. 
A tnic |jdclure uf Iliyat unmade life b* exjutjifl- 
tnt in Isaiali xl, 11, *' He nhuU feed h'm tlock 
liko n shepherd : lie shall gather the bmbs 
witli his arm, and carry them in ivis bosom, and 
nhail jontly lea*! those that are with young." As 
Oic Iliyat move alon;^, the women are seuu with 
their spinning-whreU on their shoulders, honie 
twistinf? woollen yarn, others bent forward, ai)d 
8d>'uneing sdowly with tlieir children astride on 
their backM, eJik-^ping thfir little ariiw around 
ibeir mothers ueck, and twisting their little 
Irgif round her waist : the smaller onca arc 
utmidly tied up iu a bag l>ehind the bncV, 
whiln infant babie*, together with their cluniHy 
cnulh^, :ire hoi«te<l on tlie heads or »?huiilders 
of t1i<ir fund niothi-rs, sinking und» r the wuight. 
An lliyiit tribe whom Haron do PhkIc iuct» 
briiingi'd to a Lur stem, whiih was traosplant- 
ptl int4) Fan* by Agii-iMuliMiiimed Khan, the 
rmcle of the late Fat'h-Ali-Shah, from Liuiitaii 
Kui-huk. AfltT his dtatli, many rotumt-d to 
their primitive encamjunents in Oir Za^r«8 
chftini but Mime n-mainii] behind. I'he word 
tli«t or Hat, in derived fruni Eel, *' a tribe." 
U is al**"» cxprr^i.-d by Zem or Ziui, which 
th.. II'., i;^l t'Xpijjiri«by the eqiuvalunt Arabic, 
KTany of the nonindrs met with by 
■ •' - "- r.>mpIoxiiin» attributed 
'• (iuality of the water. 
»iiKA!e? I" wtjicii ihcy were inoBt subject 
12* N 




and especially blindness. The Dhaiu-ax m 
•shepherd nice of the peninsula of Uidiu .'im la 
MoIe nomadc" people, but ihi-ir movemtuiji at* 
restrictcil to the forest and opeu irai-ts. ~ 
uomadcs of S. Asia, on the contrary move 
•^nnc hundred miles to the garm sair and 
wiir l:mdd. Ki'sidcnLi of Uritbth India 
have wit nestled a large Haiijara campraij 
will have seen a true picture of the m 
life of Central Asia. Turanian, Nom 
Atlo{)hyUau are names applied by Pril 
all languages not belonging to the Ariaa 
mitic,iind which comprise all Ian. 
ill AMa or Kurope not ineludtMJ 
tlie Arian and fSomitic f:unilio«. with :\t 
coption [>erhapa of the Chijiusv and its 
These are, — 
TunguB. I Turki, | Finn. 

Tiie writers on this class of tongues are. 
Klaprotli, ^Sehott. t'astreii. and MuUer. 
Muller admits that the eliaraeierii«tic 
uiiion, ascertained Ibr this great riirit* ty u^ 
guagcs are as yet very vague and general, if mlfttj 
[tared witli ilie definite liesof relutiotuOiipmhUhj 
severally unite the ^Mrrnitic und Arian. 
Turanian languages occupy by thr the 
porti'iU of tJie earth, viz., all but 
Arabia, A±>ia Minor and Kuro{*4\ but 
iigglutinutioM there is not n - 
princij'le, which can be proved t 
all. It has points of affinity wiili tiic < 
ges of Africa and America and even wrt 
L'hinfi*e.^£jtsrt(/ on tht (Jri^in of Lanrfui 
F.W.tarmr^ A.M., L*^udon, ISfJO ; 
Siiiionaiitirx uf fCHrnjie^ Vol. ii, jk 7M-1 ; 
C A, Df Boiie'» VntvrU in Lu.'utnn twH 
istan, pp, 1 l>t-lt»-255 ; Ouscin/'* TrrittU 
t i, }i, 307; CiV/wiV A pfrttonnl Xarratiwy 

NOMOKCIU, LF-fcn. Decaisnt^^a. 

NOMKI, lijND. A fox, see Lumri, Noomn. 

NOMUKDl, a tribe in the bill tract on 
wontern si'le uf the ludus. In Rein 
were very tnmbl'.-fkime to the vill 1 

velleni. The Aviu Acbaree uamu ti 
strength about tlie year 1500, iis 7*000 ial 
try, and M'K) horsemen. TfiLn Inking n 
of the tract nnmefl Indo-S^ythia by llic 
cuts, a doubt arlscj*. whctlier ihey rnftl 
be tlic descendants of ihe Scythian N( 
if Uic Scytliians, on the Iwrders of i 
Imaus, <lid really coll ihcmsclves by that 
and that it was not a term applied to tbcm 
tlie Circoks alone. — HennelCi Memoir^ p. 

NONA, MiLAT. Anona reticulata, tit 

NOXCILV, IIciD. Portuhicaob 

NONEA KOSEA, one of the 
plant of no great beauty, nmy he 
mou garden soil. — Ei<hUll. 


A.. »'. It'. 
A-l'llOK, BicNO. Folia Dgris, J^»m;i. 
is, hw VavniiH. 
',FAl*^ see <'ai»t'r«. 

IlL, AffOL9-l*AM. Oil or VJtex 

,NKPAr.. Ehrctiasorr»ta,/?o.i-6. 
4;aSS. SlNell.i'ii'iirt Ijucik-ni, /far/*. 
I'UDDA, Tkl. Ht^IiclcrL-ft ih*ira, Linn, 
I, Due. Vulpw bcugtUciwis, SJmw^ 

h lioomri or Looka, all of which 

i sub-diviniMn of the Ilaliu-li race. 

thv Noiuatlie** o\' Uetiucll. — -2W« 

BAfiK,of Moriiii}amnbcllata,yiulds 
I dye Jamoia in Tanjore, where the 
■wn in large quaniiticft, the c^^lour \a 
K to brighl a» l\yM extracted (Vnni the 
vbich li exiM>rttHl to Madura uiul with 
oui Maduni turbandH are dyed. — 

ORA.BiEKO. lonidmm HutTruticoAum. 

)jVB, Jij>'D. From Noon or loon, 

tliTia. t" dip. beapaitvr. or sprinkle, 
I Uajput rac-iTs, of diyipitig 

I : tli<: N<H)iiHliib, i^^ llie uiout. 

1 1 taith. It hik' hatl recourse 

|i - - tJeiuuity ol'anuccaiiionand to 

lu^jcion of irtraclita'y, an well a^ to 
aocie-iit fcu-ls, and rirconcilc chiefs 

Itfvej" met but in hofiUlity. — 'ftMf$ 

Vol. ii,^. 4<VJ. Sw Munwar-piala. 

AiCKE, Looniiiret; or Noonoriea, 
; tree of Ganjarn an<i Gum- 
I _'ht 30 feot, cirfUTufiTcnec 

kuU hc'U^lit rp/iii the |.T>JUnd lo the 
fi <»f thf first Iiraueh 7 foot. Vsed 
: • t'lu^hslian:^. The Imrk is 

; IV. — Vnittuin MnfdonaOl, 

Portulaca ole- 

'i.., . AiMian. 
Mtre Adam. 
^w V .^ .,n tlio borders of the Seistan 

, Nvishki. 
, \.\i,i., see Khyber. 
;E, IId. Emei-ald. The Noj>hck 
rcHtument, Iraiii^lated eiuerald. ^eeuia 
ra a cjirhnnrk' or afOpa^^ hut under 
; ' - inchidod all gems of 

I, rinilw, rubiea, gamers. 

U»e cui buiK le tt( a^^^otn niaiiuJactured 

The I'ttibuMcle, iu Hebrew, 

' lUg ht<»ne, or lightning 

■ Ikl) from llie clouds 

; I ning. C'firi)uncles of su j>e- 

_. , _.u called ** males/' and those 

GotQUTf feniale?. 

125 N 

NOUAY CO<)Nc:iLLIUM, ?ee Danininr, 
Noh'l) CArEK WIIALK, or Nord kapper 
whale, variety of Bahena inyyticctuj*. 

N«JRFOLK ISLAND PINE, Araucaria ex- 
celna, g;row8alao in New Caledonia. liotany Ishuid, 
hie of Fine?*; it is a majestic tree growing to the 
height of from fill to ii^M feet, with a eirovimfer- 
cnee of iJO feet. Its wi»od U useftd for carpcmeni* 
iuMJuor-work but n too heavy fur naval purjmses 
nm spars. 


cinetia bauerianu, belon^rs lo the I'niidanea' or 
Serew pinea. Its stem is marked by ring**, 
like thorte of the eabbft(?e wliere the old 
leaver have fallen offy and it lies on the ground, 
or elunbs like ivy rotmd the trees. Tlie 
branches are crowned with crests of broad 
sedge-like leaves, from tlie centre of whirli llie 
flowers arise, the |>ctaU of which are a bright 
soarlet, and the sepaU green, and, when lliey 
fall i)tr, cluBterp of three or four oblong pulpy 
fruit, four in length, and as niuth in cir- 
cuuil'ereuce, apjjear. — K^fptVi Ind, Arch., VoL 
ii, /'. -.'84. 

NOUIMOX, an oblong box. used in Japan 
as the palanqmud in India, carried by means 
of jKiles ijassed through iron loops on eitlicr 
side. There are many kmd.^^ of ni»rimon. 
Tlie Governor has one kind, the priest* anoi}ier, 
the doctora a thinl, and, with decisive murks 
which di.stinguish the '* norimon" of llic great 
from the "kako" of the humble. The norinion 
in Japan, is what the palkee ia iu India and 
chairs in China. They always Uxik as if one 
side of a i>air of flat stjuare scales (such a* are 
seen near stone (piarries, oron wharfe)hBd been 
run on u |>o!e, and if for a big man, are covered 
with curtains, if a ci>mmon back norimon, it is 
lert in its original naked ugliness and discomfort. 
The occupant must sit crosa-Iegged, nml even 
tiien, can hanily raise his head. — HuiUjnons 
NtujnMkx^ J). 202 ; Ft'frt* Antipodes, p, 431. 

NUUM.VN, Charuw, General, c. a., was 
Acting Adjutiint-GencraJ of the Bengal army: 
when serving before Delhi, both pen and sword 
were ever in his hand, mid to tlioae wbo knew 
him then and tbnght beside him, his name will 
be inseparably connected with Metcalfe's ruined 
home, and that intrenched position on the 
heightji commanding Delhi where Hindu Itao 
once lived, in the amalgamation it \vai> his plan 
uf establisliing a Stafl* Corps that was followed, 
and the immediate pressure was removed, but 
the real dilliciUtiea of the situation were in- 
creased ten-fold, and after six years of, for an 
army, demoralization and anxiety, only in 
1M67 wa* some conclusion come to, but even 
then lea\-ing the whole nf the oflicers utterly 
disassociated. In practically eudeavourlng to 
obliterate all former service, elaiins and regi- 
mental pride, the government ptiraued an lui- 





wwe policy, calculatp<j to ontmngc the army. ' NOnTHKUN RfEDIA, Northern 
— Thufhm^ pp. *Jt'>, 'J7-!i*^. ' SCO Ari.'in*. 


N).)UNK ofTuvoy, Cttslanoii tiiiirmhonica. mmTocfphahw. 

NOSHAPAR, llytlriichlorate of NORTH MALABAR, .^cc- KummaJoi 
Ammonia, Snl-amnioiiiac. NOtt'i'H SKA, sre India. 

NOUTil AUTOT, a rewnue dintrict of the XOR-WKSTEUS, occur in lowor R.-iiira] 
MaJr.ia presidency, emhrucing a portioa (»!' the March unii April, nc.ooni|iaiiying ra*wi rrtresh 
cnnnirv -with peoplrj* spooking ilip Telugu i t'alU of rain. Tiic .*«wnn nf tlir imrih-irwiti 
ami T.iiniL It i.s ri<:h in iron ore and mine- | is, iii>ove all othctv, that whioh re*jiiir«n 
ralfl. Kiirac Mungalum neJir Vellurr hiia a stone most attention and care hy voyiipcrs on 
called Muddy SiUfajioo CulUw, a hrown ateati- j Ganges. Should onf- of tliixe ft^uallsappn* 
tic ean<lfltou^. llaulapilJy uc:ir ;Vrcot lias ' ;ui<l no erepk or inlet ollVr for phelt*>r, w) 
prey Chert for paving |>or(*eIain miJi»*. Cluun- , in the wide rivtr^, there is much danger 
baukutn-^lrot^, ha* a ({imruosc rook suited Tor i iUnneirsMftmnr^p, 3fil, 
]>avin;<X»orccIaininilId. Knnorcgrit, Is a nodu- j XORTH-WKST PUOVlNCrS of INDM 
lar, bluish jn-itty limestone fr-mi the bed ofllie , p^^,.i„,.i^j subordinate g..vernment uf Bril 
ruhcat Murine U?wi. rncluM.rluwa luow-uish ,„^i„^ including the Doab or Me,>mpotn»nui 
sandaionc. Muddoor, Arnc:e, bluwh grey nand- , ^,,^ q^^^^^ and the Jtunna. The province 
stone suited torgrind:itoncs. Inpuity and ^»ir- a,^,j,gi,,^-,„jjj,^j^n,, ^^j^p^^ oour>cofthcG«n| 
kumbady. ycUow red and purplish sandi«tones. | „,^,, ,.^j^^j ^ „,^. ^y^^^ „,- j,,^ Minmlava. Th 

NOUTHCOTE,SirSiAi'FoKr> IL, anenhght- p^ovinc^?*. arc between L. 3(J° T audi^rsr 
eaed statesman, for many yeans Secretary ol , ^^^^ j^ --o 4' j^^^^j ^40 4^' j.^^ i^^jp^ ^^^ |^^,„, 
Stat« for India. He gave every support to tlie ; ,,„ ^^^ „„^ ^ythe snowy range. 'the llimals 
pruRressof radwaya. canalu, chunncUoiirngn-'j^yi^.^^^^^ Oudh and the Xepalese Tcrai : 
lion and sanitauon. ,1,,, ^^^,(h by the S3U;?or district, nf the C«»i 

NOKTII CAN ARA.a Bombay revenue district IV'vinces, and the Native States of Bunt 
in the country on the sea coast ol* the woAtern kund and IJewah ; on the west by the ri 
aide of tlie peninsula of India. With the ex- Tonne, until It^ junction with the Jnt 
eo(ikioQ of the iniasrcr oi' North Canara fn^m by the Jumna till thcU-Sth degree ol I 
Mjulnw to Bombay and the aildition nt'Sindh ' the MUth-we*t by the \ative Stales of Gwili 
to Bombay on tho couque*l of that province, , Dholjxire and Hhurtfwre; and on the eaati 
these presidencies have retained very nearly 1 ^mth-enxt hy the Sanm. Shnhabad, IWliaf 1 
their original Umiu, including the provinces I'alamow districts of liower Bengal. The N(ir 
conquci'cd from the Peehwa and Guikwar , western Provinces eoataio 30 di^trictf^, of wh 
betwet-n ISuO and 1818. 

NORTHERN CIRCARS. This Madras district 
cotnprises a narrow tract of land extending 
(between IG*' ani] 20* N. latitude) tri:.m the 
aea coast on the eastern wide of the poninHula 
to the eaMern ghautn by which it ia Aep:iratnd 
from the great lablt-land. It is a t*ilerubly 
level district, with occasional spunt trom the 
ghauts approaching the sea coa.Ht ; ha^ little or 
no natural wo<»d, except towards the gliauts, 
the sides of whirih are in some places clad with 
thick jungle of bainbo<« and forest trees, and. 
with tbo exception of hirgc groves of jialm 
trees, hns but Uttle wood throughout it. This 
district is perhaps hardly^ separable from the 
Carnatic by its physical features alone, but iht* 
ditTerencr of latitude, causing a chaugt; in 

H.5 arc grouped int*t 7 commission ei^hipn. 1 
'* non-regtdiition" jiortionjj are Kunmon 1 
Gurhwal to the extreme north, Jh: 
south-west, and Ajmere. which i 
from the we;*tern boundary by ^eventi inu^n 
ing Native Stat^^s. This la«t division finnm 
isolated {Kwition, reijuires distinct deraarraSi 
It lies to the west, extending hctween Lw I 
l(r, and 27* -io" N., L. 71'' 4o' hi.d IT ^ 
It is hoimded on tht^ east by the linjpoot Sdl 
<)f Ki.^hengnrh aiid Jey|M»«>r, on tho north I 
west by Jodli^xjre, and on the s«iutii by 
territory of Odeypoor. Tho .Ajmere (^*w 
roniprw's Ajmere ]iroper and ^L1i^wa^ru, T 
Mairwarra tract belongs in unequal portioni 
the British Government, to Mcwnr or Od 

jxx)r. and to Marwar or Jo<]hjHire. TTie I 
I ^renter \*ariatiou of temperature. | war jKwseAMons 4-onsisting of three Pergiifini 
|tei lorisn its i^epnration. It luw a and the Mnrwar of two, were made over lo 

wnalJ Ik*-!;, of mrivo suMier? in the towns of . direct manugement of the British in 182^ 
Wall^iir. IWrlmHijpi.n-, SuinbuI[)orc, Viragapa- Benan^s w the most thickly peopled disUf 
Ian . i'uttack and Siimulcr)ttah. 

N N'DIA, a term by whicli, in 

The density stands at 7i^>7, or, includi^g- 
military and railway, 803, per square id 

1%rir)«H I provinces about Oudh and | Ixioking at its .^U millioao of people acco 

*» ■•'L ing to creed, nearly 26 millions are hind 

'Kh>j LAPLANDERS, ace India. I and 4j mahoinodanfl. Mahomedaiis funu ib 
126 N 126 


m rriigi 

of tlie wholp fKipuIutioti, there bfiiij? | In 1865, :he Nurtli-west Provinces liad 3fJl 

l(M* trt ivrrv fi'H» hiriil(<w. Thfv ure i to tfiu (»qu;iro mile, excluding Kiiuiadii : the 

' rut and Itoliilkund, in.-ws ot'llio ijnpulalion are cultivaton) of the 

< .' -' v a fiilh of the iKipn- ; s^il. B)' tliv revenue setllunient uf iyj3, the 

iliao haifot iliir eniirr nunihrr of government rent was fixed fur 30 yearri. Ira 

laiw in llie N»>rlh-wwit I'rMvinoe^, ^ chief tiiwiw are Ajpra, Cawnpore, Ailahahad, 

4,:i4;i,i;o7» reside in ! Benares and Delhi. 

The nnnibi.ira of the m i .- .■ t- i 

I The ntm-regiiliitton [Kirtions are Kumnon and 

GarUwal to the extreme north, Jliaiisie to the 
soutb-we5t, and Ajnicre, which is scpamtcd 
frnui the western boundHr^- to several inter- 
vening native st^ites. Tiii^ Ifut division frmii 
it« isolated position rci^iiires distinct denmrea- 
tion. It lies to the west, extcndinjL' hetween 
Int. 22^ I;V and 27*45' N. ; I-mir. 7i<^ 45' and 
77° -2" M. It i*i hounded on the enBt hy tlio 
Rajpijot Stntcs of Kinheujihur and Jeypoor: on 
the iitjrth liv Jmlhimr and on the south hy the 
territA>r_v of Oudfvpur, The Ajuiir division 
eoniprisoA Ajmir proper and Mairwarra. The 
Mairwar tract belongs in e^iual portions to the 
ISritiAii Governniout, to Mewar or Oudeypnr 
and to Marwar or Jodhpur. The fiMt attemjit 
to take a eensiw of the N*. W. ProvinccH wjw 
; mii'ie on the night of the 31st Deecinber 1852, 
' and the next attempt waj* made on the lUtli 
January !>>**»•>. Henarwe is the most thickly- 
peopled district, its dea<(ity being 707* to ilie 
sciuaro mUe, or, including the military and tlie 
railway bodies, 803. The most thinly-jMjpu- 
lated districts are in the Kumaon division, 
where the deni*ity averages 58 to the mile. 
Ijir;;e tract* of Gurhwal are thickly populated 
where the situation i* favourable, the cultiva- 
tion may often he Been titretching high up tlie 
hills, terrace after terrace. Of the districts in 
the plaiuH, excluding tlie Terai, LuUutpur in 
lrt,4(«» the JliauMi division ift the most sparsely popti- 
4.Y''iS ^**^^^» *-^® average to the square mile being 
loprietora, | only 127 per«m3. Ajmero with it«i population 

37,017,4^ of ItJO to the mile comes next, and in density 
i apjirouchcs very near to Switzerland, which it 
I slightly exceeds. Of tlie remaining districts, 
I twenty-nine in nuuiher, live an average density 
of between 20t) and 300 jicr^ons to the mile ; 
three between 300 and 400 ; eleven between 
I 400 and 504); iseven between 500 and 600; 
I two het^veen *IOO and 700. and one about 800. 

I The extremes of density in the sub-divLsion* 
into whicli the Jistricla of the N. W. Provinces 
are divided, vary from 6,773 to the square 
\ mile in tlie Dchat Aiuanat of Benares, which 
(romjirise tlic city of that name, to 37 to the 
square mile in Agoree, Roberts-gunj, in the 
^iir/.apur district. The population of the N. W, 
provinces is wjual to that of Great Britain and 
Ireland and etjual to that of tiie Madras presi- 
dency. It^ mahomodan populatimi is a nixth 
part of tlie hindoo. Christiaod are in 1,000 of 
M««il»ocouij . . 22fi'M the j)opulation ; 

N 127 

... SI.VI20 ; 

. 170^48 
^MmumIk ... -ll.T-W I 

. 45*ftSP >/rm/or»— 25,(t71,S10. 

I3»lHr.ihiuuw . :vifil,Wi2 , 

1,425 I K«htttrriui . . 2.t*J7,7*w > 

t Vkttvus . . l.wl.H.'J** I 

.,105,977 'StK»ifrj* , .1^3«>l,:t^l]» I 

nkvAborixincA are returned ns 313,215, and ] 

'\ up with the other sects. Tlic 

I and U>y8 cjtceed tlioee of tiie 

'IT** of all f he hindoos of India, 

is for a son. The lH>y w 
I shown to the girl. The 
uiiances productive (tf greatfr 
It ;. , bt>ihg marrii**! the moment 

»tt;tn'.."» till.' :i'^^ of jiuberiy. bearing children 
,aiid 13, subject to a iw^dentary and list- 
In tbc xcuana« or one of hardship in the 
treated oppr»«<«ively lis u widow. 
of Hie popnUtion are eiijrajred in 
.pttrsuiu. The avocations are : 

S0,4M ' BunU imd »oro- 

... ^733 





<K aclIcT.^. 



:'% ftrul dnws 






" "Mtrt* of Cuate- 

'Ull Uil(.V<'3 












statement of are*. popuUtion and Revenue of the North-Western FMrineob 



the Sikhs untlerRanjit Sinjfh ami the Affj^hans 
under Azim Khun, who however, hiuisclt'. IkM 
!mck tVom t}ie battle nn<l iilrimalely Heil, and 
the AfFi^hans were defealud with great alau;jhter. 

NOSHI. krs. Knives. 

NOSII-I-JAN, Peh9. a Persian oongratti- 
Intory aalutotion, meaning, mny it be a drink 
of life t/» yon. 

NOSHIZAI), see Sonrashtra. 

N(.)SO\V<:)I TARAK, Rrfl. Snnir. 

NOSTOE EDULKis uacd in China ns food ; 
Gelidiuin cornpuin enters^ it is said by some, 
into the furmation of the edible swallows* nesta 
of the Ja|iane^ i^lnnrls. Agar-ugar luosd is 
8hipf>od from Singapore tot)ie extent nf 13,000 
tone a-year. Iriah iii<»iw» Icehind moss, Ceylon 
moas, and .some otlicrs, are alao of some irajxirt- 
anco. ItKline and kelp are prepared to h 
<X)nijitlerabIe extent from sea weeds ; one a]>ecies, 
the Fucns iCTiax, fiimwhes large aupplioa of glue 
to the Canton market, and the orchilla weed a 
of great imjKjrumcc to the dyer. In Siberia, 
Nostoc pnmil'ornie is used. 

NOSTKADAML'S gives the following ex- 
tnici from a MS. |KM^m nn the virtues of gems, 
written by Pierre de ISnniface in the fourteenth 
century : '* The diamond renders a nian in- 
vincible ; the agate of India or Crete, eloi:juent 
and prudent ; the amethpt reswts intoxica- 
tion ; the comehan ap|KfWOfl anpqr ; the hya- 
cintli provokes steeii." — Milners i^ev^n ChurcJut 
of Asuitp. 127: •V*mmonf/«, 

i\OTAC;A.\TII1, » family of fUhea, the genua 
Notaeantliud has live 5|>ecif«. 

wo«id*' of Norfolk Island, is UMrt! in alt wheel- 
wright's work, and is very hard and durable. 
It in also used for cabmet work, and, when 
Freuoh-iKjIished, it U not excrrlle*! by any «•( tin- 
limey woods — KepptVs In*i. ArcH.^ Vol. ii, 
JK 2H3. 

NdTOPTERID/T;, a family of fislie^, rom- 
prisini? fivospeeies of the genus N^topteru*. 

NOTATION. The decimal system of nota- 
tion haa been shown by Woepcke to have en- 
tereil Europe from India, through the Aralis. 
Mr. Humtll supposes the cyjther reiireaents the 
lanW" coury used by ludian astmuomens in tho 
decimal plncrii in the very ancient method of 
caliMilatioji by ctiuric*. 

NOU, or Nagoo niarum, Tam. Ptcrocarpua 

NOliK.V, r.Fwn. Pontedra vaj^inalis, Linn, 

NOUKA-Kft.VND.'V, Sans., from nouka, a 
boat, : 1. a parL 

N( H Amongst the Uajputs, omthe 

Nouratn le?tival. the sword is worahipixyl, and 

with tht-m, thl-* impo«inj? rite is sacred to the 

god of war. The frstival commence* on the 

'^ the month A«itj. It u e«Meutially a 

^te ft&d. c<>nflncd t» tlic Itujput, whn, 

nn the dopariiire of the mon«ioon iiTtmd 
at liberty to indul;?e hU pow^imi whMfai 
rapine or reveuLfe, l>i5th which were 
susi^endftl diu-inj; the rains. Ar>ruii4; friim 
order of the pa*«iona, we may presume 
fii^t objects of emblematic worship wen.' 
ed with war, and wo accordingly find li- 
reverence paid to arms by every i\\ • . ' 
antiquity. The Seythic warrior of r. itI 
A.sin., the intrei»iil Gete, a^lmitted no m 
representative of the god of battle than his 
scimitar. He won*hipped it, he swore hf 
it was hurieil with him, in order that ho 
app«»r iHjIore tlie martial divinity in the o 
Wi»rld as became his wor^liipiier on eart)i, (hr 
the Gete of Tran^^txiana, from the ca/lint 
aaea, not only believed in the stml's iiuuiuP* 
tiility, and in the doctrine of rewords and 
punishments facrealler, hut, according totht 
father of history, he was a luonothciid; of 
which fact he has letl a raetnurable prtxi*, tho 
punishmentof tlie oclehratc:dAnacliai7ns, Thf\«« 
his return from a visit to Tliales and his bDthor 
philoflopiiers of Greece, attempted to intrmluc* 
into the land of the Sacre (Sakataj) the cor- 
rupted polytheism of Athens. 

The Nouratri or festival t)f nine niphtja, oo- 
cupyinjz tlic poritjtl from the first to the nintfc 
of the moonH^hi half of *\soj, is consccratol to 
the family-gotldcss, or to Docjri^ tlic ...M^rt 
of Siva. On the Ist oJ' Asoj amongst 
put chiefs, the rnna of Mewar after faxink-, 
lution, and prayer, on the part of the prince 
his household, the double-crl^cd khandft 
moved from the hall of arnw (awad-6alaX 
having receivetl tlic homage (pteya) rif 
ctmrt, it is carried in pnwcssion to the Kii 
jKil (gate of Kishcn), where it is delivered'! 
ibe Itaj-Jojri, ihr MahanLs, and band of 
a^M'nibli^l itt tn>nt of the temple f^'f l>evi 
goddess/ adjoining' the |»iirtai uf Kishefi. 
these, the monastic milil;)tit adwrrrs of 
the god of battle, the brand emblematic uf 
<Iiviiuty is placed on tlie tUL'ir before the i 
of his divine consort. At three in theaf^: 
the nakarra, or prand kettle-tlrums, \ 
from the triixilia the signal for the 
of tlic chielii with tlieir retainers; and th« 
and his cavaJcade proceed direct tn the si 
when a buffalo is sacriticcd in honotur of 
war-horse. Tlicncc Ibe [ToceHiiion movev 
the temple of Oevi, where tJie Uaja k 
(Godi), has preceded. Upon lliis, the 
scats himself cKise to the Kiij-Jo;;^, 
two jneces of silver and a cix-oa-nut, [^-erft^nnf 
homafi^ to the sword (karga), and retnrri^. f>n 
the 2nd of As»^j, in similar state he pr 
the Chougan, their Champ de M:ir:a. 
buffalo is sacrificed; mid on t.K 
another hufiiUo victim is fcll*jd by _.^ . 
arm uf u Kajput, tiear tho Tortm-finl, or 






In tlio tn-eiiin^ Ibe rana goes to tJic 

of Aniba Mata, ibc umversal mother, 

wvot&l guaia aad bulfiduee bleed to the 

Oft tlie 3nl, they repeat the proc«!wion to the 
heii uijDtlier hiitfiilo ia uITltchI, aud 
m tit* aTinmrwit iWe biitlaloi^ and two rams 
6ood to Uansid Maui. 

tlwt 4tb, as ou every oiw of the nine days, 
wisii is to the ('harnji dc. Mara : the 
vrith the alau^^hter o( a buffalo. The 
to the teiuple of Dovi, when he 
ord and the standard i>f the Rnj 
, t^ w!ionj» as the high-pnt?:*i of Siva, the 
pidof war, h<? jtays hnniii^e and makes offering 
0^ sugar, and a yarlaud of roses. A buffalo huv- 
■a [wrvinualy tlxed to a stake near the 
*, llrtf rana aacriticcs him with his own 
k., , , ...jny Uimfimn his traveJUng throne 
I '3 ahoiildt'Ts and snm>unded by 
^} tvith an arrow. Colonel Tml writ- 
tbe early (Wirt of the 19th century 
I nf hia dny, aays that in the 
fi, ho seldom failed almost 
tli«j jV;itii»ir in tlie ttunk of the victim ; 
Oua hut ocaiaion, hU enfeebled ann 
him excJaim with Pirtbi-Rij, when, 
and bhod, ho wn« bmught forth t»> 
*»n»t i3m! I'ator despot, "I draw not the 
4? in [he days of yore." On the 5lh, 
sacrifice at the Chougan, and an 
L, the procesaion marches to the 
taifile of ^Vaapurna (Hope); a buflfalo and a 
Qtt are otEered v> the goddess adored by all 
^ KsjpuBi, oiul the tuu-lary divinity of the 
Om^tD tribe On this day, the lives of some 
are spared at the int^rcessinn nf the 
Set'h, or chief-magiKtrate, and tliose of 
, the Jaios. Un the (1th, the rana 
0B^Ag Choufftin, but makes no sacrifice. In 
H^P^nK»D. prayer? and victims to Devi, and 
1b ibe encniu^^ ilic rana viaita liikhiari Nat'h, 
ifce ehiof flf the Kanfara Joj(i, or split-ear 
■■Dbci- Tb« 7th — Alter the daily routine at 
ifc» Cboqgaa, and sacTifice« to Devi (the goil- 
^Hif^dotnictioii), the chief etjueiTy is com- 
nuttdAtj to adorn the stccnU with their new 
<afviMns, and lead tliem to be bathed in the 
i^kfc At niglii, the sacred fire (hom) ifl 
fciadlctl, auil a buffalo and a ram are sacrifico'l 
tolVn. ' ' ii are called up and ftiastcd 
*• Iwilt sweetmeats. On the con- 

(Aonoo ol Lilts tlay, the rana and his chieftains 
WBto^ lhi» hermita^f of Suki' ancho- 
H^ -There is the homa, or 

«f'- 1 -C, III the afternoon, 

iJ^prmi' -oi<*ct cavuKade. prf)ceed« to 

*W filta,- - tjna, beyond the city-walls, 

isiia a Ciclcbrated Goe$aen. 9th — There 
iDortuxi;^ proc<:»ion. The homes (rnm the 
Njal ttibtc*, M trell as those of the chieftains, 


are taken to the lake and Imthed by their 
grooms, and on return from piirification they are 
caparisoned in their new housini;^, led forth, 
and receive the homage of their ri<lers, and 
the rana be9tj>wa a larj^ess on the master 
of the hdrae, the p^|uerries and prooms. At 
three in the aft^rnotm, the nakarras having 
thrice sounded, the whole state insignia, under 
a select band, proceed to Mount Matachil, and 
bring home tlic sword, WHirn its arrival iti 
the court of the palace is announced, the rana 
advances and receives it with due homage from 
the haiula of the liaj-jogi, who is presented 
with a kolat ; while Uie mahant, who has per- 
formetl all tlie aust<a'itie8 during the nine days, 
has his patera Blled with gold and silver coin. 
The whole of the Jogia are regaled, and pre- 
sents are made to their chiefs. The elephants 
and horses again receive homage, and the sword, 
the shield, and spear, are woreliipfifil within 
the palace. At three in the morning the 
prince takes repose. The I0tl», or Dussera, is 
a festival universally known in India and res- 
pectud by all classes, although entirely militar)*, 
being commemorative of the day on which the 
dciHofl Rama commenced his expedition to 
Lanka fl>r the redemption of Seeta ; the " tenth 
of Asoj" is conscijuently deemed by the Kaj- 
put a fortunate day for warlike enteqirize. Tlie 
day couimeuccs with a visit from the prince or 
chieftain to his spiritual guide. Tents and 
carpets are prepared at the Chougan or Mata- 
chil moiuit, where the artillery is sent; and in 
the alternoon, the Rana, hi.^ chiefs and their re- 
tainers, rejiair to the fiidd of Mars, worship the 
kaijri tree, liberate tlicniltachor jay, as sacred ta 
Rama, and return atnidst a dLicharge o{ guns, 
On the 11th, in the morning, the rana, witli 
the state insignia, the kettledrums soimding 
tlie rear, proceeds towards the Matachil mount, 
and takes the muster of his troops, amidst dis 
charges of cannon, tilting, and display of horse- 
manship. And while every chief or vajtsal is 
at Uberty to leave his ranks, and " witch tlia: 
world with noble horsraanship," there isnothin; 
tumviltuous, nothing offensive in their mirth 
The steeds purchased since the last festival art 
named, and as the c;iva)c;ide returns, their 
grooms rG[K!at the appellation of each as the 
word u passed by the master of the horse ; a-s 
Baj Raj, ' the royal steed ;' Uymor, * the chief 
of horses ;' Manika, ' the gem ;' Bajra, ' the 
thunderbolt,' &c., &c. <^)n returning to the 
[)alacc, gifts are presented by the rana to his 
cliiefs. The Chohan chief of K<Hario claims 
the apparel which his prince wears un tliis day 
in token of the fidelity of his ancestor to the 
minor Ooily Sing in Akbar's wars. To others, 
a fillet or balabund for tlic turban is presented 
but all such compliments are regulated by pr 
codcnt or immediate merit. Thus Icrrainatcs 
2, 131 





iHirairi fesiiv:il »:icred U» tin* pod of war. 

tVllKIl in i'VLT)' [K)I 

III of view is annJoi 


Ut the 

uutumnal festival ol'tlie .Scylhic warlike nntirma, 
when tlivsc princo« t<iok t!ie muater of their 
armicis, ami jHrtiinupil tlie viinc rit^s to tlic 
great celcittial Imuinary. 11" we lot^k westwanl 
from ihf central Innd of earliest civilization to 
Daciii, Thrncia, Pannonia, the seats nf tlie 
Thysaa^tetae or the wwtcrn Gctes, we fiml the 
name Ibrni of ailoration adilressctl to the em- 
blem of MarA, afl mentioned hj Xennphon in 
l»i» mcmoralile retreat, and practised hy Alaric 
and his Gotlia, centuries afterwards, in the 
Acnu^oliH »if Athena. If we transport oiirselves 
til the shrn-e« of Scandinavia, amongst the 
Cimhri ami Getes of Jutland, to the Ultima 
Thuh', wherever tlie name nf Get<? [trevaiU, 
we shall find the same a<loration was pnicl by the 
Gotic warrior to his sword. — TofVs linjastiuDi^ 
Vol. i, ///». 5S2, 585, 6^^S ; Farhes" Has Mala 
Bituloo Annahi, Pa/, ii, ^. 

NOWREEA, also known by the name of 
*' Marwarec," havi? clan correspmdentij in all 
parts of In<lin. The Marwarce of Jeypoor re- 
gulate tlie exchang^c operations of alnioet all 
luitivcs in India. About A. n. 1750, a few 
enterpri:ttng tradtrs ha\*ing heard of the rising 
importance of Uinritsur, and stimulated with 
the hnpe** of gain, emigrated from Futtehpoor, 
('liix)roo, Ajmerc and Ramghiu, and oj»ened 
a few small shnfis in Umritsur. By a. d. 
1 850. the few trailers expanded into alxmt 70 
large Firms, fonuing the most influential and 
notable of the mercantile classes of tlie city. 
For wealth, for respectability, none can vie with 
them. It also happens that their bazaar is one 
of the most improving, the widest, the best 
drained, ami moat prominently situated. They 
manage their concerns well. Their dealings 
iire entirely whultjaale. They seldom appear in 
law ciiurt^. Fmudulent insolvencies are un- 
known. Fecuniary disjiutes are adjusted befr-re 
llie cldcTs of their i)eopIe, and while the ciders 
do ihrlr imrtwilh much apparent equity, the dis- 
putiintit betray none <»f ihe Utigant spirit eo rife 
among tht retail dcalorrt. An average nf six 
laklis per nionth has l>ecn quoted as the value 
of their monthly invoices. Native and foreign 
rocrchandiic, pnshmecna, piece goods, spices, 
metals, drugs — in these they have nearly the 
»olc mono|w>ly. Tlut dealings of ihe Nowreea 
with the retail dealers are conducted in ready 
money. Crr.r ill extent, is Bomotime* 

given to old ' shoiH. They dubble 

a little in iisur), and aomeliiues get bittuii. — 

NO\V-I!OZ. '!' d of the 

andtnt nnd tmi^Im ■ I iu the 

liiii id. It till y oil the 2lBt 

of >i coeval ^y. ■ iiial ei^uiuox, 

wiUi the Mukhr Saccorant of the hlndooa. 

132 N 

This day is ohservetl by the mixlem 
Arab, Turk, Purree, and several other 
tic nalioa"*, for the computation of the 
year, and fur state puriK«Gs, such as the coila 
tion iif the revenue and the arrangement oft 
agricultural ojteratious of the year, la Feai 
the festival is kept up for several day» wi 
unusual pomp by all the inliabitauts; but 
Imha, among the Farsccs, it is simply a daj 

The Nowroz or New year's day, amangH I 

mahomedans, is the day on which lUr son* 
ters tlte sign Aries. On the Noroza, or iei 
val of the new year, the great Mogul uani 
slay a camel with his own hand, which ii d 
Iributed and eaten by the court fuvtjunl 
The great Akbar hazarded his |»opularity n 
his power, by the intnxluction of a custom I 
pertaining to the Celtic race* 4»f Europe ■ 
the Goths of Asia ; and degraded those whinn I 
chances of war had made his va^sais, by condi 
loathesome to the keenly-cheiL4he<l feelings 
the Hajput. There is no doubt that many 
the noblest of the race were dishnmmredl 
the' Noroza ;' and tlie chivalrous IVithi Kaj w 
only preserved fnmi being of the nimdwr 
thehigh couragcand virtue of his wife, n princ" 
of Mewar, and dauglitcr of the ftjunder oft 
Suktawul. On one of these celohrations of t 
Khooshroz, the monarch of the Mogiil« w 
struck with the beauty of the duughter of U 
war. and he singled her out from amidst t 
united fair. On retiring from the fair, she fool 
herself entangled amidst the lahyriuth ot aifll 
ments by which egress was purposely ordanu 
when Akbar stood before her : but instead ufi 
quiescence, she drew a p^miard fnmi ht-j wtM 
and held it to hia breast, dictating, and makii 
him repeat, the oath of renunciation r-f tho U 
famy to nil her nice. The anecdote is ac«w 
panied in the original description with inu 
dramatic circumstances. The guardian ginWl 
of Mewsr, tlie terrific * Mata,' appean on h 
tiger in the subterranean passage of this \<dm 
ot pollution, to strengthen her mind by a solotf 
denunciation, and her liand with n weapon 
pnHect her honour. Itae Sing, the elder brulb 
of the princely bard, had not been so fortunai 
his wife wanted either eotirage or virtue to mH 
stand the regal tempter, and she returned 
their dwelling in the desert desiioiied of h 
chastity, hut loaded with jewels ; or, as Pirt 
Itiij exjtreiwit: "she returned to her abat 
tramping to the tinkling sound nf tlic nmomci 
of gold and gems on her penK»n ; but whel 
my brother, is tlie moustache on thy Up I" 
Thf I'arsefs', Toid Bajofthan^ Vol i, p^ ' 

NOUSHEK WAN flourishcl about the mi* 
of the sixth century of the christian cm. ] 
waa contemponkry with Uie Komaxi ccnpecv 


1% *i}^enty 

milliotw storliti^, (Dicnl Sic, Hb. i, 41*) uh w;l« 

rm**)r<li?il in the hieroglyphics utider tlie fi)^ur<^ 

of ihft killer in the Miuiii'inimn, wlm in tliun- 

((frrriiii* tht' prothicp to Aniiiii-m. To thesi; 

iiiiiK'jj critiiiiiabf an<I |)ri*»iK'n» taken in witr 

wfre sent in chains, tt> work umlcr a (^tuml tif 

»i>Mi».»r^ ; anil such was their unhaj»py «tati% 

banishcj fmm the liy:l»t of heaven, ami mhheO 

vf evervthin^ tliat niaUes lito va!imhh% that 

tlie E^iyplian pricste ropresenttyl thi.'< as tlie 

pimijihinpnt of the wicked soiUa in the nt?xt 

worhl. Nu other known mines were so rich. 

From the word Noub, g»»I»U the country ro- 

ceiveii tlte name of Nubia, or tbp land of ^n>lrl, 

ami gold waa ship[H>d fr»Mu tliu i»ort aiVTwards 

by the Ptolpniiej*, numc«l the Gfildcn Roronico. 

t^lKI was henceforth ninro abundiint in Egypt 

riian in any other coontry in the world ; and 

every natural product mast have been dearor. 

Untlcr these circumst;inc»», wliil« they may 

have inported iron and copper from Cypnw, 

*iil and silver from Greece, with a fewnther 

Articles, fntm Arabia and Palestine, they could 

have expt>rted very little beyond gold. The 

gold niinos helped the jiuoplc's indiwiry in |ier- 

forming their great work.'t in bniiilinp and in 

war ; but after a time it undermined that 

indiwtry, and made the country aii\iaj*icr and 

richer i>rey iiir its neighlwtirs. — iSfuirpf's /fw- 

4onf of Effijptf Vol, i, p, sy ; Oioii^ JSiciUttt, 

NUBUA, the north-western district of 
Ladak, on the Shayok river, in the north- 
west Flimalaya, is in bit. 35° 30' N., and'long. 
77° 78' E. The Sassar paM is 17,753 feet 
above the sea. The Nubra, Panjiron^ and lio- 
<iok districts, in the baain of the Shayok river, 
nml its affluents, lie on the 8. Hank of the 
Koucnhm from Rilti to Nari, and have Ladak 
lu tlieir flouthcrn Ixmndary. With the cxccik 
tion of Nari, this ifl the most lofty and sterile 
jflirt of Tibet, the axis of U»e Kouonlun being 
pntbably upwanL* of l.S,500 feet, the valleys 
16 or 17,000 feot and numermw peaks rise 
20 or 23,000 feet. The Karakorum paHs 
is 18,300, the «a!t Pangong lakes 13,400 
feet. The viUftj^c* of l4)wcr Nubra nre not 
numerous, but some of lliem pcuscHs very 
extensive cultivation. From Kashmir eaat- 
wariU, all the easily accessible portions of the 
Himalaya are occupied by Aryan tiindoa^ an far 
as the eastern bonier of Kumaon and the Kali 
river seporatinif Kumaon from Nepaul — the 
Tibotfttu bning here cnntifieil to tlie valleys 

ml and ho)'ond the snow. Pt?oplo of Tibo- 

bl.vnl hfivp niiu'rated ial*^ N<i[»uuJ, throufrb- 

!tid havu formed mixe<l 

. e and Ian;^ua|i^e is more 

m thnn Indmn, but wbosi? reli;ri"n and 

aro hindtio. Eu«l of Nepaul, in Sik- 

bhiitan ihc hintlau dement almost 

13* N 

iri]». 1 


• lominaul. Eastward uf Kiushmir, are the 
nu-e in Uulti and Uodak. ISutti int 
Hasfira, lu)n^do, Kon^'-yul, 8ha^r, SI 
Uulti, Parkuta, Toiti, KavL'kksho, KiriiA. 1 
bulu uiid Cborbat. Lailak or th 
includes Spiti, Zun^^skar, Ptirik, Snru< 
ko (l)nw,) Lailuk pruper or Le, Nu 
Uu]Hhu anil llaule. The hin>;ua;9 
Hliotiahs uf Tibet, tlie Bliutiab or Ti 
aI<K» that of Bhutan uml i^ a ottuncctinj 
between tlio p^)lysyllahic and iui>n<w| 
latigungf^. Garhwal is to a large extenti 
— Or, Thomson 9 Travel* in *l'Vw<m» i 
lui/a atul Tiftet, p. XM'J ; Uoukft ttiui < 
AO^ttsFl. /ntlica^ ji. 'J2, See Hot ^; 
Maryul or Uiwbnd, Kailas or G^ 

NL'liUA NIKA, see Uvlak. 

NUUUA-TSIK), see Glacier. 

NUliSlU. a river near Bora B 
Uolkar'* territory 

NUBTEE, Arab. Ccratonia siliijua, 1 

N UCII, HiJO). Fraxinus xaiith 
tlie Crab ash, also Juniperus comtuu: 

NUCHI, Tam. Vitex ne-i^ndu, Lin. 

NUCIFKAGA, the Nutcracker 
birds, comprising N. carycwatactcs am! 
pUa, describetl and fij^ured in Mr. Gvuld g 
tury uf Birds from the Himalayan Monnl 
Nueitraga caryfH'4ita<:tes of tlie pine forw 
EumiH! and Siberia is replaced by N. hem 
in thoAc of the Himalaya generally, aiwi fa 
multimaculata about Kashmir. — En^/ 

NUOKA or Nafcka, Tel. A fox. 

NUCK-CHILIM, HisD. Epicarp 
talis, properly nakcbilni 

NUCK-TEL. alio AUiti-ka-tel, Gra^ h 


NUDDEA, a rich district, to ihe 
Bara*at. Its chief town is Krwlina;rhur. 
of Nuddea's frauir re^Ui U|»<in iu bcrui] 
ancient seat of learning, which has exerd 
preat influence ujnm tJie [xiliticd. lufnih 
manners of the Uengalei^. The ■ 

for the most part ctuujxjsed of bi.i i. . 

devote their lives to study for manv ] 
Th»'re are Vaislmava* who po«o*^ - -,^ 
able body of literature. The verv 
and sweetmeai-vendnr!! arc imbued -nixu 
ture of learning. In pnxif ot the g: 
quity of Nuddea, the brahmins «I 
great tutelary gjnldcAS calle<l Para- 
hllle piece of rnu;:h black stone paini 
red ochre, and placqd beneath the 
aged banian tree. Nuddea town is on 
Bhagarathi river, it has more than firtr 
or seminaries. Cbollunj'a's father r»i(l 
Nudeya ; at the age of -l-l, C 
appears to have had a divine call, an 


aiwi c 




Efi <»f men'lioity. The Gosno*?, hi;* 
jg^ffn.lliti CL-reiuKiiiaU ol' mnrri- 
^^^^biniun;;; thciusitlvcs. They 
PHI^Io the usual custom ol* 
p diBaitlve n marriu^re with as much 
f%n api^Ucution trmn the i>nrtics. 
I obserre lume i»l' thu hinJ'Hi ['&- 
\t Ebo»c uf Krishna ; but the anni- 
^ the deatlu of their r(.)Uiitl«rs are 
I well. They du not, says Mr. 
tt the mythology, or the ceremi>- 
i hind'iQs. but they belicvt* that 
iree (Kruhiia) only, aru nece;«ary. 
hts uf their fcstivnla the initiutin^ 

may bo licnnl resounding tlm>u;^li 
I of tlie night : Muree, Krishna ; 
ihaa; Krishna, Krishna: Hnree, 
tree. Ram; Huree, li:un ; Knni, 
Ic, Xliirec. — CoU. Mi/th. I/imL, /k 
f Hind,, Vol. i, 7y.*38, 39. See 

KA SILMKUA, Dine, CaUxwe. 
it Grii. VonniccUi. 
3, see Siklia. 

i D'ACAJ U, Sp. Ca.-*ho w-nut.-}. 
L^Tam. a TinnuvcIIy wikhI <tf a 

specific gravity 0*717. UtJcd lur 

Ieral. — Col, Fritfi. 
Kofleu), a vuluutary act of <le- 
kTIIA, Cypenia pciteuuis. Very 
neer : the rcxit htus a i>leudUDt 
' In hair luc^alihs : also consiilered 
id U) check diarrhica : one tuhi i^ 
M9d. Top^ p. 147. 

handi, Gos. Silver. 

me division of Mysore 
its {irincipul civil town 
bednore, iJcilnoi*. Cotfee* 

", sec Kabul. 

. or Tutturu benda, Tra.. 
iicum, (r. Dim. ; A. aiiiatioum, W. 
Sda indica, U. iii, 179; S. ijopiUifi,!- 
^'J : Hhtfdt^ vi, (»i>. Tl»cae si>ecieiJ 

flllKKL'nU. Tkt.. p.ilichf»g gluti- 
5,312: \y,awi A. ^f^p^l mean- 
^inr. fiithcsoont: \\\u name is morv 
I to n. tonienti»«i. which however 
Ittl^ frmii the nrhor, 
|m>SA, Of Kuturu budama, Tbl. 

I Nitah, a Hebrew patriarch. Sec 


^KL, ft*»e KMi-i-nnkreh. 

ID. (And on (he ridizesor bank.H 
eoijrftR of a running river. 
BAJI, DuK. iWlopiaj volu- 

mrKEIMJ, Tm.. f^^rdia an^wtifulla. ;?oA-5.' 

NLIKKA. Hind. Silver. 

NUKSiUTKKSHA, Sakb. From nakslm- 
tra, a planet, and c»ha, a lord. 

NL'K.TAi a river of Uudaun, Moradabad and 


NL'L, Tam. Thread. 

NUL, or Nulkhagra, Brnu. Amphidonnx 

NIJU <^'r Nar, Bevq., Hi»n. Gm«a of 
which the mats known x» " Durma'* are made, 
formed of tlie stalks riplit open. See Grainina- 
cea;, Nar, Niil. 

NUL/KU V MAUAM, Tam. Gualteria cc- 
r:»i>idns, JktiHil ; W. ami A. ; ijaok. nwl Thorn, 

NU LAM-PALL AH. T.vm. A Tnivanoore 
w<>xl of a dark-bMwn eohmr, 2 to 4 feet in 
circumference, and liO feet long ; lued for coui- 
moQ bi>uses and carta. — Vol. Frith. 

NULl TADA ClIErrU, Tkl. Grcwia, ap. 
Many species of Gvowia yield a valuable libre. 
The ayn. of thU sp. in Sk. ia Visbanika, which 
in W., 792, is said to be Mesjliasri ngi, tlic fruit 
of which ia compared to a ram's horn. Thi,4 
nuiy indicate a kind of jWlopiad or A}xK'yii:i- 
cettas plant aa Ciyptolepia buchauani wlueh also 
yields a giK>d fibre. Br., 504, h:w Helictcref* 

NULl TALI, MAt^AL. Antidcsma bunias. 

NULITI or Syamali, laora corylifulia, ScA. 
ami Endl. 

NULL.\, Ahglo-Hixw. A bed of a rivu- 
let, or the rivulet itself, tlie ** nala" of the 
Urdu tnn^c. The AvabivSiJanish "arroya,** 
a word ahuiTst imturalize<l by the Anglo-Ame- 
ricana, exactly eorresjionds witli the Ilaiiau 
** fiumara/' and tlie Indian nullali. 

NULLA, Tel. Black, hence, 

Nulla bnloosu/fKi.. Canthium [larvifiorum. 

Nulb yennai, Tam. Oil of Seaamum oiicntaJe. 

Nulla ^henttinn. Trx. Olitoria tematea, Linn. 

Nulla gilli-karra, Tkl. Fennel llower oil, also 
Nigel la seed, 

Nullii kakidum, Tkl. (lountry paper. 

Nulla niuddee, Tjcl. I'enuiptera tomeutoKa. 

Nulla-roolemara kurra, Tkl. Dioapyro* 

Nulla souuitti, Tbl. Coronilla picta. 

NulIa-t4Hiii)n, Thl. Acacia arabica. 

Nulla iiniati, Tkl. Datiira tafttuosa, WUU. 
Thorn a|tplc. 

Nulla a-^ri kai, Tkl. Phyllanthud moderas- 
]>atensis, Lii*.n. 

Nulla viiv:ili, Tkl. Gcndaruaja vulgaris, Nee$, 

Nulla vcUmn, Tam. Jii^Tce, cuarM- su^ax. 

Nulla wood<K)loi>, also Minomolu, Tbl- Pha- 
so"la* radi4itiL'f, Phascdus max. 

NULLEKU TIGK; Nullcru vitulu ; Nul 
luru akoi»,TBL. Twit!», i^eefisiuidkavcd of Cisau*"' 




NnaiuK cnnsiiEE. 


NUfjM, Taw. Uliniu inlc;:'nfuliiu, Kixi'A. 
NULLirOKlD.t; see Coruiliiuw-eai. 
NITIJ,! KUTIOAH, Tkl. VitL* ^luadran- 
giUnris, WrtU, 

NULLI TALI, Maleal. Anddesmaalcxitcria. 
NULL! TITDUA— ? Helica^rfs uf.ra. 
NUL.SHIMA, Nrk Kliretia Kv-rratu, lioxb. 
NULTL'KA, Hindi. ArunJo kurka, UttfU. 
NULU, Tki.. Tlirciul. 
NULL'-ClIAMrCK>, Sanm. From nulu, the 
name of a khip-, and cluunpoo, a purticiilar 
kind ofconifhisititin in whicli thu Hainc subject 
iH iiiaintoined in all thu varieties of jinuo and 

NULU-DANGA, Saits. From nola, a reed, 
and diin^ra, a place. 

NUMJ TKGA, «ir AnUxravalli, Tel. Caasyta 
filiformifl, /*. — /?, ii, IH4 — Wiffdf, vii, 44. 
The syn. in Sk. is Akasa vatic, wIul'Ii name it 
mill niainft in IWni^Jil. — J'oi'jt. 
NL'MAZ, Hind., Peiw. Tniycr. 
Fujiir ki nunm^. mi'minii prayer. 
Ziiiinr ki nuniaz, mid-day prayer. 
Usser ki nuniaz, altermwa jira^cr. 
Mu^brih ki niunnz, sunset prayer. 
Ayiflrn ki nuauu. evening prayer. 
Numaz islirafj, at 7j a^. 
Nnmaz cha^sht, at 1) a.u. 
Nunuoz tuliujjuor, aft^^r 12 p.m. 
Nuniaz tiirawech, aiU-r 8 Aai., a i)articular 
form L>f prayer not of divine conmiand. 
Nuniaz-i-junaza, the funuraJ sen-ice. 
Numas: gah or Eedgah, place of public 

NiiuKU kurna, praying, one of the |)oint£ of 
the uiohomniedun religiun. 

N'UMBKR. This English word \\a» liecn addeil 
tx) all tlio hinjfuagcs of India. Tlio number 
seven is used fret]uenlly in scripture, not to 
dignify a definite, but a large and MifTtcient 
quantity : hence, Daubux states itj$ Hebrew 
ctymnloxy to sipnify fulnt*s and jx-rlection ; 
tuid I*hiIo and Cyprian call it tliu completing 
numlicr. " The barren hath Itornc seven," 
said Itannah in her song, meaning a great 
nunibi^r. The victlrad under the Jewish law, 
bl«d by tcvenj ; the jTolden candlestick had 
svven branches, bearin^^ seven gtddeu lamjis ; 
the mcrcy-Rcat was sprinkled seven times with 
the blotxl of the atonement ; and to sacrifice by 
aerens, was a characteriatic of great solemnity 
in jiatriai'chal times- The key t4> tins rite, sayji 
Horeley^ is tlie institution of the .Sabbatli, the 
obacrrance of the seventh day bein^ the sacra- 
moat of tlie ancient ohiiroh. The numbering 
by 8t*veii was doubilcss uikcn from the phases 
of lilt' moon. TKo number ten is often ased in 
('wlf-n**?*; fro«)uency and abundance : 
, from the ton fingers <»n 
. -t changed my wages ten 
.IL, IJm^ueiktiy changt-d them: Gcu^ 

13"i N 

xxxi,7, 41. "Tliiisu men hav« u>mptal 
these t4;n times :** Num., xiv, 'J2 
times have ye reproached me ;'* Jub, \ix, 
found them ten times better than all tlic m^ 
cians:" Dan., i, 20. The tea days are qi 
interpreted, as Indicating the shortnew <ff 
f)vr^>cuUon. iu the same i^euse as they ar« | 
ployed by Terence : "Decern dicrum vixj 
est faniilia," I have enjoye<i my family w 
sh()rt time. There is inlndiaa verv (.-ivrLa 
use of scventy-funr, in epistolary c*»n 
It isan almoHtunivcrsal practiceiuIiiMUi i" <*i 
this numlter on the outside of letters ; it bi 
intendeil to convey the meaning that iioIkmI] 
to rend tlie latter but tlie persou to whom I 
addressed. The practice was origi;i 
hut haft been adopted by (he r. 
when oi>rrcctly written, it reprc*i»:uL* iUiU 
^ral nmnber of 74, and a fnic t tonal dubI 
t,f 10. — Twrn JinjaAthan ; AV/ioO SnpfK :} 
nri's Sevfn Chiitvhes of -Ism, /»/'• *'^* ^ 
Ihaut. Act. 5, S. Iv. ; ProUijem. ad / 
See Seven; Seventy-four. 

NUMKEKI. ni, Terminalia 
\\\ »J- A, 

NUMENIUS, a genua of binls of the 
Scoliipacida*. Nmncniiw anjuata, the cotni 
curlew of Europe, North Africa, Asia t«j Jm 
Mnl.isia : very mmmon in India. Nume^ 
phtiHJpus, the Whimbrcl of £uro[)C, 
Africa : common in India, along 

NL'MGE.V, sec Kunawer, 


fowl is belicvinl to l>e desc^ndnl from tii« } 
mida ptilorhyna of the hot arid parts c/ 
Africa, but it has become wild in Jam^ca i 
St. Domingo, and liiis become small irith hU 
li^s. The Guinea fowl is the iWili ' 

barn-yard. They arc hanly, ani. 
:ire valuable in gardens, as tliey rarely ikXii 
the gmund, arc eager in their scarcli for 
and, willi a scraping motion of tlieir 
gather the sec*Is of griifiBcs, — JJarwin, 


Shu'tnaj udaee, Ahab. 

Officinal with tlie natives. They 
sliajKid greyish |>ebbleii, of vari«ius «> 
stsling of carlKtnatc of lime and iron wr 
nucleus of calcareous crystals. The 
administer them in cyo-diM:afteft and u\cta4 
ItoifU, Honitjhenfer. \ 

per name joined to stood, t*) kill. i| 

NL'MKI or Lumri, the pe<:)ple of 
dependency of Kelat. The clan can send 
l,l5(Xl fighting men. Tliey are nmhom 

NUMtCHISADANA. see ludra. 

NUMLK CHUSHEK. Hisd. A main 


buJtiliifin, which had a^umed a .clia- 
i in die middle of the third ceatury 
Ibe pitwcrful during the Greek can- 

fli India. Hindoo wtiuien tmibracing 
became prominent. They not only 
freciuimt places of public worship, but 
ttrd to join the clerical body and were 
B nattf. Mfilia Prajafwiti wa-i the Hrst 

ARA, Sans, a revGi'cnliahnotle of ; we see in Grecian sculpture. Fa Hian. who 
Irutu uama8, a bijw^iLnd kri, tuinuke. came here in a. i>. 399 says that ** tlic females 

were kept down and ordered to follow ccTUiiii 
precepts." He cites the instance of lirtilhcrs 
marrying non-uterine ftisterK in the caMC of the 
suua i»f one of the kings of Potahi settled near 
the hemiitttge of Kapila. As to caate, he says, 
that although the principle in the selection of 
the chief of religion waa the moral merit, 
ina.'«miicli as Sakya was a Kshatriya, and his 
Bitted t4> the order. The dau;<hter of | ^ucceaaur a Vaisya, and liis gucceasor a Sudra, 
tinphamttto, also entered the church, | yet the son of tlie king of Kapila by tlic 
I u<ii»l vow of celibacy. She went to dtiughter of a s»lave was not mlmitted into the 
fcrdain theprinccyHe:*incampliniic'ewith I t:iiurch. When he entered, the cry was, 
kiof her brother Mahendnv, wlio liad " The son of a slave dares to enter and be 
liwrc t*> propagate the reliyion,hc being | seated here.'* In (he drawui^rsof the excaval- 
( rhnf f\ male prii\st could not onlain i od Icniple.-* of Ajuntn '* there are groups of 
lu had five hundred women i women in varioua attitudes, i»ttrLii.ularly iu the 
1 rder. The nuns were, how- i one of performing tapaaya or relij,?ioii ou the 

icied m their hlwrty in holdinj; cont- | iUan siddhu ;" and also " of a female wor8hl|>- 
% wiiJi male priealji. AV'omen uf ( per of Buddlia'' surrounded by a j;roup, and 
k ftA Maha ^laya, the mother oi' a braJitnin amuug them wliom slie i^ leaching. 

There are. at present, in buddliisL Tibet, many 
nmw. — Calciiita Review, iVo. lOO, pp. 45, 4(), 
47, 48. 

NUN, Hlmi. Salt. 
NUNA, Hish. 8oda. 
NUNA, Tel. Salt. 

NUNA. MoHt of the traders of the snow 
valleys have some members of tbcir farailie» 
residing at Uaba or Uyani on the Niina-kluir 
lake. The great body of the hillmen arc 
liajputs, Tliere are a few villages of brali- 
mitm, their re^iidencea arc respectable, and 
occupy the more elevated portion of tke village 

NUNAMARAil ELLY, Tam. Leaves of 
Morinda umbcUata. 
NUNDAN SAK, see Kashmir. 
NUNDKK-BKIKHYA, BKxn. Cedrda toona. 
NUNL)L\VI'T11KN, Tabcrmcmoutaua coro- 

ind Mifttika, wta-e moving freely m 

111? other claAHc-t of females not only 

Bi plac^ to place but carried on di*- 

ItH men and took part in sec&ii^ioti;*. 

««T«r3Ll notices of e<lucatcd females. 

% miwt celebrated buddhist huly, 

I Sakita, or Ayodhya. Neverlhe- 

|K<4*a {u*ronal opinion a^i to females 

* -us life was: *' Be carelul ; 

I loalei to enter upou my 

rcome Saniarans." He said, " What if flin,** i. <r., that she is 

bui »in ; acid *' it is better for a 

ntbrace the Hame than Uj approach a 

nwevcr exalted her rank." Meudi- 

wer« not permitted to look at 

a were not allowed t4) visit 

\ip virgiuj*, or women whose 

cro abroad. If a womuu had a fall 

t4» be lifted up by the hand, no 

ixid help her, bet:auae it was con- 

ol t<> touch a wi>nian, whetlier abo 

ed. The raliuii>khat» turbid* not 

euuuct with the i)ers<jnof a woman,"' 

trrc iTTHverHtiiion with a wrmuin,'' 

ur Acnt with her, reclining 

111- place, being alone with 

.H:oini«iuying her on a j< •uniey, and 

tuorv tluin live or aix sentences to a 

t iti the presence of a man who 

what was said. And yet according 

UudtUia accepted tlie invitation of 

the etslebratfd courteajan of Vaisali, 

k bor Heat on one eide of liim." 

i*t woiueij wore clad in robes. The 

presented to each of \i\» five 

re» " a flplendiil robe." The UhiUa 

<»bD^» the buddhist female dra|tery 

flowing vest reflcxiibliDg tliat which 


NL'NDIUUOOG, a fortified hill in Mysore. 
See Tea. 

NUNE, Tel. OU, v^etablc or animal. 

NUNE BIKA, or Neli bira, Tkl. LuflU 
jjentjmdra, Ji. 

NUNK UACHCHA, Tkl. Cwsalpinia digyiia, 
K<,ttl., W.aml A.b7l, 

NUNE I'APATA, or Papata, Tel. Pavelta 
indioa, L. 

NLTNJL', alflo Kmijunda maram, Tam. 
Balanite-i »gyptiaea, also Gardenia lurgida? 

NUNNAKI, Tam. Hemidesmus indicua, li. 
Broirn. Nimnari vayr, Tam., th«" root of 
Hemidc^muij indicua, Sarsapiuilhi. 

NL'NRE, or Nooure, Hini>. Oanes of tlic 
Bbur grasM. 

NLTL'TKl, The lleart^pca. Car- 
di'Wpermum balicacubuia, Linn. 

NUQAltA, Aji., a kettle drum. 






KUQAUrUKK. An., n druimiirr. 
NIH^DAY KA-JOKA. ui Chwrtoni, Wiwi 

NUQI;KIV-i;UVi:(^KA,a M..liurrnm futictT. 
NI'<il.KK SHAH, a Mulmirum lufjeer. 
Nl'g.SlliU:M}l':i!:A, a^hiv^ otimtbuiuMlau 
fn«|ecr«or»lcvotccs. Nii({«hbuiiHce, a Mohurruia 

NUKj Malay. Cficos rtucilV-rn, L. Cocoa-imt- 


Nt'l{AT.AM, lliNO. Kiyiipum )tlanufn. 

NlMiANG KAtUNG. T.oi. Uioacorea 

NUlCilUDbAll. a river of tJie Central 
Pn.vincoA ol* Hriliah India. Sue O*;*!, f ■entruf 
|»n>vinces,lurtcriptioiis, NarlnuMuli. Ncrbudtlah. 

N UKC \ I A ? — 0>rchonw oliUjriiw. 

NUKIUJL, BKNfi. Piiniouiii inicrruptnm. 

NUKKK, \^Ktiii. I'ioca .lUliclm. 

NlUiKlI, Ait.» Tkr-*. Quick-lime, also a tlvpi- 
JaU^ry iimik- of yellow Hrsenio, ( I oz.) i>»uii(le<l 
md inixe«l with niruTlc-linic<4 «>z.)till llie cun- 
]M7Uiitl a-ssunic an utiiti'rm yellowi.^ll linpo. Il is 
applied lit tJie 8kin in a paut^ iimdf witlt warm 

IwdtHr. and tiiiwl lie wa»he<l "ff after a iiiiimte 
or twn, HH it Imnw a« well as staiiw. This 
«*liiiir«WI« iiuvutioii is aw-ribwi by wwtlern 
authnrs to tbe ingeiiivuiH Si»Iimau, who witdd 
I»oi. i-rMlnrc Xo see the state of liilkis uf Sliebu's 
hurv lejis. — BnrUniS SdmU, I'ol. i, ;». 278. 
NrUKH, I'KKB. Quick-lime. 
NUUKNI KALANOU, Malkal. DioBcorca 
jieiitjiphylla., Linn. 
NLMi<;UNIM, Bkno. Vitcx nopmdo. 
NL'UI, Uen«. Cicca dialirliH. Lifn, 
NIIKIALAM, Hi^i.. Anini f}K 
NUK JAHAN, Ittorally li^Ui .•!* the wwld, 
wa-t llie daughter of a Pepsinn 'if wuue rank. 
Slip wiLt lH»rii under circ>iii»htnnt:e.H of ^reat 
privation, whilst her fnther was i«>urncying 
townrds Iinlia. She wa* iiianied to Sher, im 
AHldinn. by whom she had a dtiuj^diler. Her 
hu'thatid wurt killeil in some (puirvtl ; ami ahc 
fas then married by the einiK'ii'V Jebnngir 
fho |2uvc b<*r brother Awif Khan and her 
Iter hijjh en»pK»y. Her liusltand asAociatctl 
icr name with his own on the coins. After 
he death of Khiuni, the enipeioi'i ^on, who 
\k a di§llke to Shnh Jehan, the sccotid son. 
Mid made elTorU lii have .Shaliriar nuMid to tlie 
ltriini>, hex huHhaml was taken primmer by 
fah.thhnf-. and in her eirorts to o'leaav the em- 
-n-i ii»e wiut defi-af*Hl. AlU-r Jcluingir's 
. wuN p«iwion«tl ("H 25 lac.H a year. 
, , <tf Ntir .Ijihan i« known in hiMtory 
ibr u.t - iWf; ami Khaja- 

I :n throughout by 

|>i.i(i*l) IS obviotiily a eor- 
II whirh .lahan^ir i»ertt4iwed | 

-itt hlAi« I'cxtoail ud 1 ^MMltth, '^r tiiti " truat of i 

\:)S N 

c mnmrc.' Hw splendid inaaiiolet 
near A»rm, clone to the railway.— C'l 
liivifw, Jaiituu'tf 1H7I. 

NliKMA. nr t.'huuilerj cotlon. 8cc C 

N L R-M ANJKE, Tam. A Travancore 
of a haiiihoo colour; used for light wt^k,- 
Col, Fitth, 

NI.KMANSHKEU.see Kinoan. 

NLK-MAKITIIY, a Travaucurc woorl ofi 
brown c«»lour, 3ptK.ific p:avity 0*fil5 ; tiseil 
building e*>innjon hutLH<». — Col, Ft'Uh. 

NUK-MINAK, Malat. Uicoiinut oil. 

NL'RMIjDA, Sana., from niiruia, sjwri 
enlerhiinmeut, and da, to giTe. 

NLKML'K, socKelat. 

NUU NUTSJIL. Mauul. <'Ier<M]eiiaii4 

NUR PUNGELION. Tah. Bignonm ifi 

NURPUR : this town derivf^ it* name fr 
tlic cclebnited Nur Jahnn, tl»e wife of I 
emperor Jchangir. It^ origiiiaJ namr \ 
Dahmari, or Dahmala, or as Ahul Fi 
writer, Ihdimahri, although he loriiticuia 
li)rt. The [*etij»ie pronouneo tlie tiaiiie as 
written I>a))meri. Il '\» also called Pat'hamjN 
Nurpur, at the entrance of the 
llimataya, where tiiey rise from the plain oflli 
Pvuijah, contains al>out I5,<>IJ0 (ie»>[»le. priaei 
pally KaAhmiriaus^ enj:a^e<I in the •ihawl tnule 
It is in llic ^eat roa-l through which Kanluuif; 
Chcuab and I^ak are nltjunahlc. — Cuninw/ 
ham^tt Ancient Gtotj. of Inilia^ p. 143. Sm 

tliia trilolinta. 

KUUKUIALA, SiNon. S)iiill. 

NUURI VUNGAYUM. also Nurri vuiyjmm 
Tam. Squill. Soilla indieji, YAmV/. 

NURSEKA, a himl.v. deity. 

NURSOO, aliaa Narainga, fourth 

NURTICJNG. TheNurtiutig StonehFnprW 
the Jyntea hills is no doubt in par; ^ 

as lite ;5Ttive sugj?i.'nti*, and also tit. 
cremation, tho Ixidics Iwing burnt («t tiif 
altars. In the Khomia these upri>;ht 
are generally raised niinply an nirmnrial 
great events, or of men wlmse at^hm arv 
necessarily ihouph freipiently, buried eir dcfo 
sited inholtotv »Ujne»arcopha^'i near than, 
eomciimes in an urn placed iuffule a sstrropk^ 
gus, or under horizon t;tl sliibs. The im 
arrangement is a row of ttvc. seven, or mon« 
nb|iiu>r blocks with nniud hea«is U'" 
being placed in the middle), on which 
wofxlLU dit»c>) and cones: more rarely pvr<tmtill 
arebuili. Uroad slab* for seats arc .-ilso comrool 
by tbe wayside. Mr. (afterwards Oilonel) Yi 
who tirsL drew attention to thi.-stc uiuriunie 
mcuttoofi vac thirty-two feet by liAoeii, ami Mr 





* var 

ij j*ini*** that tlio Aorrrtpnftgi 
, an- rare) Oirtivl »( UmrMlalw, 
le a dnttirinf^ in !'*• IIV I'lrcasaia and 
<7as in Irhy nnJ Mnii^'iL-j*' Travels In 
He mills that many villu;^e^ derive Lheir 
Trom iLese stoma, •' muu" signifying 
thus " inuiutmtii*' is the utune of oath, 
la bi» native informant «iid, ** tlicre 
btilwecn Churm and Maiianiai, and 
iJicy made peace, they swore to il, and 
a stAine aa a witne«s ;** forcibly recaUin^ 
Jaoib set up tor a pitlar, an<l ulhvr 
m the Ohl Testament. ** MhiiiIih)" is 
i o{ i»ait, eating salt fmni a swdnTs 
ing tlie KIl.'uuuu fanu of oath ; ** mau- 
the grassy stone, &c. AnaU>goua cx«n- 
occur in the sonth of Kn^^laud and 
ttany, &c., where similar struclurea 
Thus maen, man, or men is the 
nankc for a stone, wlienw Pen- 
iwr, fi^r the hill of llie bi^ 9t*me. 
vn-huyr, for the r^tanding stones, of Brittany 
d fXilmen, tlie table stone of a cromlech. — 
mhra Him. Jour., VoL ii. pp. 3211-321 ; 
Ha OH tMa Khfusia uunintfiUis nrul peopU^ hy 
fUmant H. T^utr^ Btn^al Etujintet'i, See 

• Cairn. Ktiat»ya. 

Man, from nree, to do right. 
L I ' J 'i.V, a Kurd iribo. 
IU-81NGIIA, Sass, From nara, man, 
i)rha, excellent, 

IWUR. Through the mediation of Ma- 
Stewart, Acting Resident at Sindia's 
m December 1818, the pergunnah of 
and six villages were granted to Madho 
Nurwur under the guarantee of the 
ntiih Gavflrmneat. The rajah had been 
-r- ^ * his hereditary poa«essiona by DowLit 
1. and he took to pUmdering in Sin- 
■ries. The object of the settlement 
' a fltnp to hifl outrages. In 1857, 
the riding rajah, joined the rebels 
•Bntiniea, Iftit surrendered in 1869, 
* a free pardon and a suitable 
*...! . ing granted to him. His former 

were consejuently restored to him 
E-ZYE, an Affghan tribe, a clan of the 

:SA KAMBANGAN, or the floating 
Uhd, ■ aboat twenty miles long, but in the 
EUnnot nioK than tivree broad. The water 
tv«en it and Java being vei-y shallow, there 
Du channel yet known fin' vessels to [kiss out 

'.:\rlK>ur to the eastward. 

-vl, a western sub-division of Balu- 
tiLui. The Ziggcr Minghal and Rask- 
Ai» who iuhabit Nushki, have no proper 
nu nr village*, but reside in tents, though 
) aii^rrat^ry. Their river, the Kaisar, 'v& 
iuff iniifation and L* Igtit amongst the 

139 N 

annds. They culiivaiu wheal at the *ikiil» 
the hill niiiKi-'M siipiMJitiug iUh plaleau of Salin- 
r.ittnii. Sjmw ci'ldoiii frtlU. The Zigger Miii- 
ghat nl one time occupied the Ihinlit-i-Giran 
near Ketiit, but their increiif^ini^ ninulters I'.om- 
|H;lle(J them lo migrate into Nushki, diHiwJsiseHs- 
ing the Kakshani, of whom two tomans or olan.i 
still reside at Niwhki. They have a much 
valued breetl of horses ciiliod Tarji. Their 
tlocka are very iiunierous. The original wmuj 
of the Ea-*ofzye were about Garra and Nuahky, 
the last of which placeK is on the Uirdcra of 
i>ii8lit-i-F»ot, or Great .Salt fVsert, and now- 
held by the Belochcs inulcr Kelat-i-Nusseer. 
The Eusofzye were expelled from Garni and 
NiLihky, about the end of the thirteenth or 
beginning of tlie fourteenth century of the chris- 
tian era, and soon after settled in the neigh- 
Ixmrhood of Kabul. Ulugli Beg, whrjee 
power was, at tliat time, strengtiioncd by the 
accession of many Mi>gul». to rid himself 
of his Lroublesonie allies, began by iomcnting 
dissensions between thfl Eu.^ofzye and Gug- 
gecani (for tlic Rhukkye had now broken 
into independent clans), and he aoon af^er 
attacked them at the head of that tribe and his 
own army, lie was defeated at first ; but 
having cut otf all the chiefs of the tribe at a 
banquet, during an insidious peace whiah he 
had the art to conclude with them, he plundereii 
the Eusofzye of all their possessions and drove 
them out of Kabul. The Kmofzye, reduced to 
extreme distress, took the way ti> the neighKmr- 
b<5nd of Peshawar. That country was then in a 
very ditlerent state from that in which it is at 
present. The tribes who now possess it, were 
then in Kliorasan, and the plain of Peshawai*, 
with several of the neighbouring countries, were 
possesses! by tribes which have since either 
entirely disappeared, or Ivave changed their 
seats, r.ughmaun was in the hands of the 
Turkoolani, who are now in Bajour ; the 
tribes of Khyber and the Bungush had 
already occupied their present Iannis, but all 
the lower part of the valley of Kabul, all 
t)>e plain of Peshawar, with part of Bajoar, 
Chuch, Huzarch, and the countries east of them 
aa far a.'^ the Hydaspea, belonged to the Affghan 
tribe of r)ila2ak,which is nowalmost extirpated. 
The country between the Dilazak and the 
range of tlic Hindoo Coosh, on both sides of the 
Indua, formed the kingdom of Swat, which 
was iiihabitetl by a distinct nation, and ruled 
by sultan Oveiss, whose ancestors had long 
reigned over tliat country, Ou the first 
arrival of the Eusofzye, they threw tlicmselvea 
on the generosity of the Dilazak, who as- 
signed them the Doabch for their residence. 
Living among a conc|uered people, like 
S[>artans among Helots, and enjoying entire 
independence on ail around, every Cuflofsyo i« 





<1 uidi tKo idea uf his own rllgnity 
inijkirtanor. Tlioir pride uppearn in the seclu- 
sion of their wom<*n, in tlic gnivify nl' tlicir 
nmnncrs, and in the hiph tcrmm in which they 
Jipcak of thenwelres and their trihc, not allow- 
ing oven Oie Dtxirani to he their e«^uaU. — 

IWrtKmni eX])loib(. Thcsr ron^ 
on varioiL'i inMinimcnt.*. sinfring. il t 
ling, &c. The two latter i»o»iiiipii»tiM 
are pec-utiar to the wonieu of tliLi sen, 
notion.s of religion and h future pr*fc, 
thin VHgrant race, are prinripally derive*! 
Klphintiione'9 Kiuff'lfim ofCrOttdy pp. lillO, ;W1, | their sonps, which are l>eftutirunv Hinip! 

Pinrbo, prin, 






SU, ;M.'^. vSee Btihu-histan. 

Ikchraeria snlicifolia. 
Ktianii-nla, AFniiijj*. Amrer Mndri 

Siaru, Bkas. Chpnjul 

Satituru : Siiss, Chknah. 
rhainolmr, Uazjvju.. 

CbainjU, r, 

A common shnih penemlly near water at 
many plaoes in the low hilU fhrni l»5r»0 and oc- 
casionally to 6,000 feet, in the Cis and Trans- Gnitpble 
Indus, and the Salt Ran^e. In the eastern ' (rulwppol 
part of the Punjah, as in the N. W. Province.-*, 
itrt bark 13 ui>cd for making rojMsa, but it is not 
penerally employed in this way. It in bro^vftcd 
by shrimp.— /^r. ,/. L.Htmart, P. Plants.p. 215 : 
PoiMtsi Handbook, Vol. i, /). 502. 


VoU. Mifth. I/iiuf,, p. ;n:j. See llimalai 

NCI'A. HRN<i. .'Xmphidnnax karka. 

NUT-CKACKEItS. agenus of birda, 
ing '4 sp. of Nucifraga, viz., N. hemispilU 
two others. 

NUTKKVA, Bkvo. Coronilla pi«ta. 

M^'i'KYA, Hisn. Amnrantwt, itp, 


Ar. Mniitplwl, 

C'MIX. (Jililr, 

I UN. Mjuru, 
I»tT. Gftlhun, 

I^NG- 'Agl 11.15, 

Fn. Mu'opliuJ, 
Gkr. M.Ksiku. 

On. Miu.-b«-kAi, 

The galld of Europe are obuiin«d fmralhci 
Thone of iiritisli India from Ithiw Miccrdi 

A lis. 

Noix do ((nJles, 


K okiflio, 


in the Mymen«ing I '/"'^ ;' , . ,. . , , 
district in Bengal. 281 mile,** from Calcutta. ' f^'^,'' "'^ ''^'" ^'^ '^*"" s^mi-aUia 

NUSLTUlNGIil KE JUR, Hind. Trian- 
thema, sp. 

MTT, or Haacl nut. 

Kolriott^ft, Avelinea. 








The nut of the Corylua coturtm. 

NUT or Nut'li, in India, a wandering tribe, 
who are dancers, actors, athlctai. They rwernble 
the gypsies in Iiabitn. Tlic nut called al:*o Sirki 
bash (dwellers under mat^) met witli in the 
Dekhan arc not distinguishable from Dher. 
The liazeegur and Nut, jugglers aiid tumhien*. _V,^ an^ 11^8801 Senna ^'ijdi!! ^! iL 

NUTHATCH, Sitta (»yriftpa, or 'Rock 
batch* of 8. E. Kui-op*-. and Asin Elinor, 
species of similar habits (most probably 
same), inhal»ii/i AfTghanistan. 

NUTIINEE, Hiwii. A small nrwo ring 
luually bv children. 

NLITlfoo. also Nagi nuUiu. Tam. 
of jewellfn'. 

KUTHRINE I LVRN, Bwo. Axis poi 

NLTI KASINDA, Tel. CaA=oa *.^.hoi 

S. escidenta, ii, 'Mi* 

Jow/ ul teib, 



/h tc phA, 



Vuh kwo. 

may be considered as the gi|)wsej» of Hindu 
Stan ; both are wandering tribes, and have 
each a langiugo understood only by them- 
selves : they live principally by juggling, for- 
tune-t4}lling (by palmistry and other means,) 
and are alike addicted to thieving. The gypsiw 
sue governed by tlieir king, tlic N"at'li by their 
nardnr boutJiah. They appear to be equalJy 

inditferent on the subject of religion, and in no | MuHjtat-n*"*. 

.,.;',. - J *^ .' Miiiikiintnoten 

respect particular in Uicir lood, or the manner 

by which it is ohtaino<L According to a list 

furnishfd by Captain Richanlson, the langttageM 

adopted ))y tlicso people woidd appear to possess 

n very strong affinity to each other. The 

I^eegxur are sub-divided into seven castes, 

viz.. the Cliaree. At'bbyee'a, Bynsa, Purbuttee, 

Kalkoiir, Dorkinee, and Gungwar : biit the 

ditfrreJice seems only in name, for they live 

i'_»/'t)u'r. aud inierimirry as one people : they 

-cended from four brothers of 

They profess the mahomedan 

ci: ; they regard Tan-Sin 

t' , coruuxjuently lliey look 

far sncceas and safety in »1I their 

140 N 

iawtU, ii, 52, 




Nqjx muACudrw, 



Dr. Hiiasall 


It., IMI 



I'illil , RuwnIi palu., VfcL4f. 

HimtimlA, 3JAIUL 

Vax. Jowi IMW*. 
1>CT- Xo* mnfu^da, 

^' L:i, Orj^kb Rnk 

M ti»-kAt, 
Gku. JftdikAi. 

Jttjikikin, 1u> 

says there are tliree specicat rf 
Myristica, which furnish niiltn^. The 
description is from Myristica fragrans B tw 
from twenty to iwpnty-6ve feet high, taau 
what similar in appearance to a pear 
The fruit is smofjth oxtemallv pear-shaped, 
and aliout the sixe of an ordinary pcaA. 
It consists, first of on outer fleshy 
ing, c^\M the pericarp, which, wbftn 
lure separates ioto nearly cr|ual longiuuSiul 



tK rr Tnlvp*. nccnnJIy, r^f l)i*» aril, or mnri?. 
vUcru r»n:c.*nl, i* of n liri^^lit srurlirl 
ami thinlly, »»!' iho srcrl prriiior, or tim- 
rTHi» i« Lmctcwud in a slioll, ^\liu'li »> 
two cnatR, the outer is hartl ainl 
tbc inn^T, thin, clowclv invci*bi the ROPfi 

gemimp qi3;jrity."Th(.' imjiortanro of iliiH«tpic'p, 
retjuinrs thnt the op'miuns (it* varioiH wnlent 
Khiiiild Im» /rivpn. In the Bantlii isJands tliree 
rro|M or har>'Cj*t« of nntiiie;;s are obtained in 
the ynar. the principal pTitherinj^' ia in July or 
Angiist ; the second in Novenihor; and the 

off pmlonpitions wliieh piitpr the sub- i third in March or April. The fruit lh gather- 

ihr »ee(l and which b<;ing cotniircd. 
tlw marblwl or moltlL>d appearance 
Irristir? nt* nntmrjr. Nutinepi arc cnlti- 
tt<d m the Mohiccii wlanil.*. ami ciipecially 
I (ba« csillcil the Himdn» or Niilnu';.^ wlundf. 
WtT'^ionl^^.Tn^^Ti in.Iava, Sinnatra, Ppnanp, 
^p' India, Ben>!a), Bourlwin, 

lint; r. ami certain of the West 

lAl »Unfi»t. The Hmt kind of nutinogn met 
ill in cnnuarrce, railed tho true, ruund, culti- 

cd by nieiin;! ofu barb attached to a lon^' slick 
the niacc i:* separated from the nui and se- 
piiTMtely cured. On account of their liability 
In tbp attacks of un insect known as the nut- 
meg in*iect. considenible care in rcijuired in 
dryinjr them. They shmild he dried in their 
:*holls, a.-* they are then snun; (Wnn thu insect. 
They arc placed on htirdles. and «niOke-<lried 
over li slow wwnl tire tor about two uiontli8. 
In the Hnnda iNlands, they arc lir?t dried in 
leal, or ft-mnle nutme;?. is the prorhict of 1 the sun tiir a few diiyo. "When the operation 
IjfMicji frapran,«. The nutmegs aro char- ' of drying is complete, the nntii rattle in their 
drnami by their tidi and rounded torm and I rthelL* ; these arc cnicked with malletH, anil the 
^t. '.n.^ Mr-imntie Havoiar ; tliey nrc occa- I damiiged, shrivelled, or wom»-cateu nut* re- 
■ d in tile wbell. There in alpo moved. To pn-vent the attacks of the insect, 
.,not lar;^or than a pea, which the nuts are frccpiently limed. The hutch 
Wtir*^ described under the name of the royal I lime them by dipping them into a thicK mix- 

I ture of lime and water, but this pro*-es« it* enn- 
Tarietic* of true mitniep; arc distin- j «idcred to injure their Havour. Others lime 
bv dealers, which are thtw described i them liy nibbing ihem with recently prepared, 

well-i*il^e<l lime. This process Ik iiiLimetiiues 
practi»*ed in Umdou. For the KnglisJi market, 
however, the brown or tmlimed nutmegs arn 
preferre*!. The quantities of nutmegK entered 
for Home consumption in the I nite<l Kiuj;dom, 
and the amount of duty receive<l thereon were 
3:1 under ; 



I IVrti rati ^fate^a Mcdica: — 

IWiNjr nutmfffs are unlimcd or brown 
id fetch the highest price. They 
limed in Britain for ex|¥»rtation, 
Ltinent the limed sort i." preferred, 
bg to NevrboM, the average amount 
raised at Penanp about a.d. KS.S8 was 
iU|of KJ6^ IbM. each ). 

or Hatavinn nutynerjK are limed nm- 
In I^ndon tliey scarcely fetch so high 
•« tlic I'enang itort. 

V nutm^ffs are a rougher, un- 

naJTviw fari^ of somewhat lew value 

ihr T>nich kind. According to Mr. 

'1 nntmiTis were jiroduced at 

■>4S, or about 2*>2 picul.^ (of 

1840.. 11«. 118,064 

1841 1I;M41 

1842 170,064 

1847, t(in« lai 

IMj^ imiKirted. ItU 

1649 l.V) 

I ftft) UK) 

1861 mn 

1852 llw. 2.<(9.2(il) 


tons 101 
connimi^il fi7 
in I'nited 71 
Kiugilum 7f 

jC.25,041 8.U 
14,851 10 


e Sported 





18.VJ „ 308,1 ftfl 
3Si iijA. •ti(?h); but the gruiier number of i In 1842, the duties were fised at 3*?. 0<f. per 
w.' trw5» liad not come intij full bearing, and lb. i>n those from a foreign, and at 2j». fVi. per 
I *m ««ctiiRate4 thnt tJie amount woidd in I lb. on thow from a Britisli p«-w-»esaion. The 
W .VM> picuU. The second kind of nut- dutj' on wild nutmegs in the slicll waj* then 

csitled ibe fitlse, long, wild, or male 

~~ ' ■' the produce chiefly of Mvris- 

I . The seed* of M^TiHtica fatua, 

rtiir as long again a.s the true or 

»et? ; ihev arc juder. and leas aroma- 

•pg obtained from the My- 

aliwi lixed at liri. without regard to origin. The 
duty now is l.s. per lb. : on wild mitmegs in 
the rthell. IVi, per lb., not in the shell, btl. per 
lb. "^liolcsale price. Iff. 9(/. to 4s. It appears 
from I>r. Hassall's infiniries; Ist, That nutmegs, 
as they re^ich the consumer are not in general 

••■AS scnri'ely any flavour it | depriveil of their essentiiJ oil ; a result contra- 
-iViorOiiig tn ItheefJe, it* of the size | ry to the opinion commonly entcrtiiined on 

this point ; 2tid, That, &» met with in the 
English markets, they arc Rehlora Hmetl. 
CVawlhrd says the species of the pena<f Mvrit 
rica are numerous and wide-spread, tor somi 
are found in all the islands of the Archipelagc 
in several parts of Hindastao, ia the In* 

.•» -late. " The Turkish and Jewish 
write?* Rheede, *' mix these nul- 
true long ones, and the mace 
selling them togefher. They 
these inferior articles an oil, 
tlicy adulterate that of a more 

141 N 



nnwe cvmntriw, in ihe Philipiiines, in A««- ' aUi (orwanU'tl iVmii lJ»ii B;kt<»lNt<h)t-i 
tralia, and in trojiical America. As a spice, M_vH*»re, auvl lV(»m Cnnnrn ; tt ij» rnticli 
however, the M. innst^haia or amniiitica, is the i a siih^jtihite for the true spice, but la 
only one of which the nut or uiace is of any , wliolly devoid of aronui ami of no m 
Ineand of this the geographical limiuare com- \ The nutnie^ tree hnj* hoeti found Kjitwing 
rntively narrow, heing comprehende«l between in Assam, hit, 27° !^(>', and proluiblv it w 
the 126th and l'$6th degrees of east lon^liide, ^ succeed in hijjher latitudes in Amrrira. 
and the 3rd degree of north, and tlie 7th ofialre^wly cidtivaied in »everal of the Wi^l 
aouth latitude. It is, or ha.i been, found wild Inlands, but with less fluot'ew. The apf 
in the propoT Moluncaa, in Gilolo, Ccrum, ' 
Ambi^yna, Bocroe, Damnia, the north and 
(*outh aides of the western }>enin»ula of New 
Guinea, and in all its adjacent i^slands. It 

of till! rich brown shtdl of the outmeti 
with tlie red fibres of the mace is very bcanti 
in the fresh fruit. Tlipse Hhrea Iwin i 

the shelUare dried in the •^uit nr b\ % 

certainly does not eKint iu its wild state in any i fire until they split, revealiui^ ilic jjiwu^ 


of the islanils west of these, nor in any of tlie 
PhiUppines. Wherever tlio soil and climate 
are suitable for iti growth the aromatic nut- 
meg U raised with great facility. It is even 
transiKirted to remote part«, and the seed is 
diAieminatcd by two species of pipieon, C^>lumbft 
perspiciilala and aanea, which prey on the nut- 
meg as the wood-pigeons on the acorn, fee<i 
on the mace and dn'}p the nut. 

Tn its native country the nutmeg tree comes 
into fill! bearing in its ninth year, and lives to 
seventy-five. In shape and size, the ripe fruit 
resembles a nectarine. When ripe, the fieshy 
outer sulwtance burstjt, the nutmeg in its black 
shining shell is seen through Uie interstices 
of its reticulated crimson envelope, the mace, 
which amounts to aliout one-fifth f»an of 
the weight of the whole dried fruit. Tliese 
two articles, the nut and mace, constitute 
the S]>icc3 wliich for so many ages have 
been in recjuodt among the nations of Europe 
and Asia, although never a8c<l an a condi- 
ment by the inhabitants of the countries 
that pvxMiuce it. The Britisli after the un- 
succcaaful efforts of two centuries, succeed- 
ed at length in participating in the nutmeg 
trade, in consequence of having occupied ihc 
Spice Islamls in 179*>. In 1708 the nutmeg 
was introduced into Bencoolcn and Penang, am\ 
in 1819 into Singap^trc, and at these pla<'cs it 
was once largely cultivated, but certainly under 
the disadvanCAge of gmwing aa a not already 
acclimated exotic. In c^mntrios native and 
congeoial to it, tlic nutmeg is rcircd with 
great ease, requiring little care beyond shelter 
from the sun and weeding. At the Madras 
Kxhibition of 1855, fine samples of nutmegs 
were sent by General Cullen from his gnrdensn 
Veliey Maky near Oodaghcrr)%»ouUi of Travan- 
<€iTC, 1,800 feet above thi' sea. Two aorta of 
nutmegs were exhibitc^l by C. S. Vernc<le, 
Esq., Commercial Agent to the Cochin goveni- 
inent : first sort, avf-raging 70 Ui the jxmnd, 
nnd ibf second ^'rt, I^O to the yioimd ; the 

kernel or nutmeg. Nutmeg }>Untatioiiii 
lijrmed in alluvial ground, or in virgin i4 
land in level situations. iJocUvities arv 
favourable on account of the flight hold Um 
tree4 take on the soil, and tJie rouMnin 
danger of their being upr<xtte<I during tJir 
rains which occur in tropical countries. Til 
culture in Henccxilen, which repre^nU 
ordinary mode of treatment luis been riiinul 
described by Dr. Lumsdainc, in » | 
originally communicaieil to the AuricuJ 
Society of Sumatra, in 1820, and nft«nm 
republished in Sillinian s American Jouraal 
Science and Arts. 

CaUivation, — In originating a nu^ 1 

tatinn it is necessary to select ripe and i 

and set them at the distance of a foot apart | 
a rich soil, ct^tvcring them lightly witli mou 
They must then be watered every other di 
weeded occasionally, and shielded from nsoore 
ing sun. In from one to two month* the yon 
seedlings may be oxftected to appear : and whi 
about 4 feet high, the heallbiest and 
luxuriant are V> be removed at the cnmmciM 
mcui of the rainy seawm to the plantalii 
previously clenre<l and preftared li^r that purpoi 
and set at the distanco of 80 feet frum 
other, care U^ing taken lo protect them fnttn tk 
heat ami from violent winds. The plants i 
set in rows, and between lhe«e the plough 
employe*! to clear the intermediate spsn^ 
wecnU and grasses. The pljinTa continoc ' 
rc<|uire watering every other day in suli 
weather ; and in nearly all chsoa the i 
re«]uirca to be enricheil with nnnual su; 
of manure, which are laid on during the 
and which are xntule more stimulating ai 4 
tree incrcaacs in age. After the 6fib year U 
trees no longer re<iuirc to he sin. ' ' ' ' i 
the sun ; in the seventh year the . i 

bear fruit; and fr»»m that time to tli i 

year they generally increase in U ^ 

being tlicn iu their highest p(:'HV^.tion . Duiu 
the |>rogressive growth of the planLati4V^ll 
ric. In some instances ' beds of the trees arc regidarly weoleil, 
■ iftted with rhunam to | the ro*:its kept covered with the mo\ild, 
HViid or epurioufl nutmcgt was i tlies« have a constant tendeucy to »eck tl 

i\i N 142 



>wtli of Ixiteral brauclies w 
1, and lUI suokcrs ur dead ami 
branches are rcnmved by tlic 
Ifti, m as to Hun the trees consider- 
lAilniit of the descent of the night- 
»li coatriliutc much to their well- 
pially during dry ftnd sultry weather. 
lion oftlie pnncijtfil harve-^t is the 
i for Lhe&H> pnminfos. As the trees 
^ B^e, the coarafT vegetation and 
p alone removed from the intervaU 
t lr««ft, cuid tlie more luirudess gnoses 
1 to rciniiin» giving the piantilinn 
I itp(M'unince. Thv lueul'the [»luugh 
ir}itUnui.'iK Nain»e;?-tree.s aie of two 
lie AJinie jilantatinu, tlower-heariniG:, 
k^riii^. Thi* jirodutjtive phiiita are 
■Mirtinn of nlNmt twtvthinU lo the 
jtHtiiin. It iii irii[Nis.slldi* to dirtcuvrr 
ivtf in tl)ti Mjxe-s of the plaiut until 
bffli'wriM^'. IWtwevu the apponr- 
jR bloaivitu and tlie ripening i>( the 
^k) of 7 months i:cner»lly elajisos ; 
met* a tree liaa begun bearing, itcon- 
buducc fruit all tlic year round, but 
pullj in some niontlisthan iu other^;. 
fc of Sepleniher, Oclober, November 
|ber, arc the period of the great hur- 
f of Apnl, May and June, of the 

greatly a.s lo fill up the whole cavity utv 
sliell, and tlius jirevcnt them fmm raltlio;,', 
which is the criterion of due preparation. 'J'l 
drying-house is a brick building of suitable sizej 
and tlie stage is placed at an elevation of 10 
fi^et having 3 divisions in it for tlie pnnluce of 
different mtinth?. The nuts are turned every 
second or tbinl day, that they may all partake 
eijually of the heat, and such aa have unde: 
gone the smoking process for the period of Iw 
complete months, and rattle freely in the shell, 
arc cracked witl\ wooden mallets, and tlie worm- 
eaten and ahriTelled ones thrown otit. The 
soiuhI nutmegs are rubbed over with rccentJjL 
pre|Kired well aifteil dry lime, and [jacked tigh 
ly in chests, tlie seams of which have been made 
impen-ious to air and water. AtKJther and a 
more common ruethol is U* dip them iu a mix' 
turc of salt-wattir and !iu»o. and then to spreai 
tbrm out li»r 4 or 5 days in tlie ^hade to dry. 
15ut tlie (]uantity of moisture imbibed durina 
tbw ]iriK:eAS, appears t«» inorcas*? the liability 
I'arly decay and to the attacks of insects. Tb<r^ 
surest way o\' [ireserving the kernel would be 
tit ex{)ort it in the shell ; this is done in send- 
ing nutmegs to Cliina ; but it does not answer 
in iMiropc, on account of the heavy allownmte 
tiir shells, which is one-third of the weight. 
The general ipialities of the nutmeg and mace 


ne*t. In ths Moluccas those trees j are the same : their agreeable aromatic odour 

^lilic for 70 or SO years ; and the 

Iduoe, Inking one tree witli aunLher. 

•liout fire |iounds of nutmegs and a 

1 a ipiorler of miue i»f each tree. 

fniit 1.1 ri|>o, which is indicated by 

e open of the llcshy portion, autl the 

j oi the kernel, it is gathei*ed iu by 

|>ng hix>kod slicks. The first step, 

jving tiic outer integument, is cau- 

mp otr the mace, uud tlaiteti it by 

'Ic layers placed un mats and drie«i 

knin tlic sun. in damp and rainy 

beat of a charcoal tire i-^ employed, 

that no smoke tvr heat blacken 

of the mace. In drying, the red 

toBce ciuiuges to onuige, \\a subsUmce 

rimy luid brittle, and its .-^tmruily 

||i)iir and tjwtc are jireserve*!. When 

1 it is madr up iu tight package.^ in 

Uii*n ; hut is t-xjMj&cil to the sun 

» fortnight tii pr^ftcrve its dryness, 

keep it from iu'^ects which attack it 

r. Tlic ntitif being liberated 

', arc cmveyed t« the 

ft..., , ^d on a raised stage ur I 

which .admits Ute heat from a | 

fire henraih it, to pass freely ' 

. 'n»« hcikt is kept below 140'^ ' 

ktiAfi too great a heal dries up tJie { 

(<(o ltjni( ooDtiniied heat produce:? 

rKich iucrutLics their volume so 

l-W N 

and pungent Caste are weJl-knuwu, the peculiar 
Ilavoiu: of the mace, however, being quite dis- 
tinct from that of the nut. They contain, ac- 
conling to Bonastre, ftit oil '^\-H per cent., vo- 
latile oil (i-0, starch li4, gum 1-2, free acid 0-8, 
lignine 54. Not more tliau 4-5 per cent, 
volatile oil is usually ohtaine<l in the distilla- 
tions at Afwthecaries' Hall. The fixeti oil, 
called nutmeg butter or expressed oil of nut- 
meg, is prepared in Holland : the tiutmegs are 
beaten into a piste, which is enclosed in a bag, 
steamed and preswd between hot plates. Jt is 
impirted in oblong cakea?, wrapped in flag- 
leaves or leaves of the banana, aud weighing 
about tlirce qimrters of a pimnd. It is of an 
orauijc *»r reddish bruwn e«>Iour, and of a fi 
grant odour. It is liable to much lululteratio 
and >4o also is the volatile oil, with which tur 
piMitine is frv*pienlly mixed. The article call- 
ed expressed oil of mace is obtained fiv>m tli 
nutmeg, and should bear its name. Nutm 
butter, according to Phiyfair. cousiaLs of three 
fatty sul>stauces, two of which are soluble 
al'-ohol, aud tbu thinl almust insidubio 
that fluid : tlie tliird substance lias l>ccn 
ed Myristine, and from litis myritic acid is 
prcjiJircd. Nutmegs are sometimes j»assed off 
iuf fresh, after the volatile od has been ah- 
strncteil from them. Such nutmegs are very 
light, and when pierce*! with a hot nee<Ue, do 
not give an ojly txxiting to it. The best uui- 


Mr- ' 

l)lc "l^J 




vy, wciifliin? uii uu i ably. lit^itigftplierii.'ut.obloiig.a[itl rjDrg-«ha| 
Tiiere is a large aiiJ ' tho la-arer ijjey ap[»roa*:h spherirjty 
iiilcnor kind ol nutmeg, lunger and hcavit^r Uic more Highly are lb«y prixpH. There n 
than the alwve, weighing as much as 1 10 a great variety in the Inlinjfe of different 

t'nim eltiplic, ohlong and orate, to olumet 
lanucolate-tdiapcd leaves. This diH'erenoe 
to iiulicate in some measure the chflinc^ 
the pitidnce ; trees with large ohlonj^ 
npI>otiriiij: to have the hirgeat and ina«t 
cal (ruit, uud ihtise with small lanceolate 
being in generid mr>re pmliHe bearera. 

gniius. This i« Uie pMduec of another variety, 
and sometimes of a distinct apociei^ of nutmeg, 
and IS said U^ be more liable to produce 
narcotic aymptnuw than l!»e true nutmeg. 
Nutmegs and muoe are deeidwlly stimulant, 
and ill small i|unntiliL'H whoIe.'HJmc. When mted 
in abundance tJiey pmdtiec^ hy increasing tlie 

eirculafion, nnreotic elfects. According to inferior i]uality. WhiUt ltd congener 
Mr, SimmoufU. the uutujeg tree, Myrifttica ha** Iwcii spread cn-er Aiiia, Africa, 
TUiwMiata, M. otHcinalis, m M. aromutiea, i.i of' VVcst Indiro, the nutmeg refu*es U* tlnuri^ 
a larger gr»>wth ihan thn ciuve, attaining a of the -Malaymi ArcbijM'lng»i, except a* 
height nf thirty leet, and lia* its leaves broader U'Xutie, all attempt.-* it* intnuhiee it largeli 
ill pro|wrtioti l"* their length ; the upper surface other trupieal omntriL's having deridedlV; 
of lhet»e i« of a hriglit green, the under of a "Ihc i.-«l»nd of Ternate, which it* in al 
greyish colour. It is adia*ciouri plant, having I same latitude an Singaixtre. i* naid tf>bai 
uiiile or baiTcu pule yellow rtowers uiM.»n the njxit where it w;tM truly indigeiunLH, 
one tree, and female nr fertile tlower;* it|M)a 
another. The fruit if* druiKu-eoiL-*, and opniji 
liy two valvcji when riiK*, di«phmng the beauti- 
ful ruticnlati'd ."carlet arilla-^, wliicli cuastitute-* 

luacc. Witliin ibis is a hard, dark-hrown, and , who nt an early pericnl removed t)ie ploni 
gliifliiy shell, cnverlng tlie kernel, which Ia the : to the Banda inles tor better surveillance, 
uulmeg of the shop;*. The kernels of M. i they still remain and flourish. Hut all 
toincntosa are also ui(ed as iirotnatic^, under the ' core wiis ft>rmerly t:tken to extirjuvte 
uame of wild or male uulniegrf. I^indley de- 
pcribeii two other rfpecieri, M. fatiia. a native of 
buriitani, with greenl-^h white llowern, and M. 
Hebifura or Virola sebifera, a native of Guiaiui, 
with yellowish green Howers. Hy exprcA-iion, 
nutnirgs are nia»lc to yield a concrete oil, ciilbnl 
Adepa inyriJ^liciL', or sometimes erroneuiwly oil 
of mace, 

doubt the live \n to be I'outtd on unmt 
.MolufV.'tf. At present the |)lace t^i its 
iiiipriHluctive nf the spice, liaving been 
nf its rich heritage by lln^ jiolicy of the 

on the Moluccas, the mace-f*?t:ding pi| 
frustrated the machiimtions of man, aad 
it wdcly through tlie ArchijH'Ijign of 
extending from tlie Moluccas to ,\fw Gi 
Its circle of grt>wth eztentls westward as 
I'inang, or Prince of WaUw' Isliind, 

atlhough on exotic, it has been - 
A volatile oil is aUo procured hy di*- mercantile speculation with ."u 
Xutmegs and mace are iwetl me<li- [ years. Wtwtward of Pinang there arciMj 

einally as aromatic stimulants and condiments. . atioius, looking at the subject itt a m( 
In large d«>sejt they have narcotic effects. The j point of view. The tree is ti> ho fontid, 
fleshy pjirt of the fruit is use<i as a prft^erve, , in Ceylon, and the \\\^i Coast of India, 
Dr. Oxley, iw the result of twenty years' i grow it as a speculation out of ibt iDi 
experience at Singaijore, olwerves that the nut- t limits, is as likely i<5 prove sttccttKful 
meg tree, like many of its class, has a strong ten- | cidtivation of apples and pears in Bengal, 
dcncy to beanne monoecious, and planters in the Banda LhIcs, wliere the tree niav 
genenil arc well [dca^ed at this habit, tliiuking sidcretl as indigenous, no furtliex aiteal 
tliov secure a double a/lvantjigc by having tl»e ' paid U^ its cultivation than setting 
malu and female flowers on the same plant. This ' plants in parks, under tlie ^haile of Urge 
is.howovcr. delusive, ai»d being agaiiixt the order \ trees, with long horiiwmtal hnuiches. 
of nature, the produce of such trees is invari- *' Cnnari" by the natives. 'I'here it atd 
ably inferior, showing itself in tlie pr>.»dnctionof heiglit of oit feet and upwards, wherco* 
I double nuts and other deformities. It is best, ' :iU to '.ii) feet may be taken a^* a tiiir avej 

ffore, to have ordy female trees, with a due | the trees in the Straits' Setllemeiit-*. 

irtioii of m.ilcrt. The t'emalc flowers, whidi nutmeg plantation, well laid out nnd hr.-ir-lu "f' 
are merely composed of a Iripid calyx and no I to perlc>ction, is one of the mo^t ph . 
coruUa* when jinxlucitl by H tree in full vigor | agreeable projH?rties that can be jioKSftft. .;. 
are |jerfecLly urceutato, slightly tinge<l with ing returns^ more or less didly, tJirxmghc 
green at the Ikisc. and welt-flllod by the uvary» year, there is increasing iutercHt, boudi 
l^lithcrpaA the female tbwors of woakly trees are , usual stimulus tn all agriculturists of nc^kpU1 

nd a|*- I when his produce increasw to douhle and 
■ if the ' driijtlc the ordinary routine. Trees haritw 
The &hflj)c of ilio iruit varies couaider- rived at llt^cen years' growth, there b uo it 
H4 N IH 



will recpiTc great benefit if a small quantity of 
liquid tUli iiiamirc be given tbem. lu the 
firot six years they ought to be trenched round 
three times, enlarging the circle each time, 
the trenched being dug cltwe to the extreinilies 
of tlic ronts, which gpnerally correspond to tlie 
end.1 of tlic branches, und each new trench 
commencing where the old one terminated. 
They muHt of course greatly increase in size as 
the circle extends, reqtiiring a propijrtionatc 
quantity of manure, but the depth ought never 
to l>e leaa than two feet. The object of trench- 
ing ifl to lix»en the soil and permit the nxits to 
spread, otherwijie the tree spindles instead of 
becoming broad and umbragcouA. Manure i^ 
beyond all otlier consideratioiw the moHt im- 
jxirtant to the welfare of tlie e»tale : it i» that 
which givort quantity and qnality of pn>duce. 
and without it a plantation cannot be carrie<l 
on. The want of it would limit the cultivation 
in tlie Straits' Settlements, and will arrest 
many a planter, who having g*jt his jilantation 
to look well up U} the cightli year witli very 
little manure, thinks he can go on in the 
some manner. The nutmeg tree likes well all 
sorts of manures, but that which is beat suited 
for it seems to be well-rotted stable and ct>w- 
yard manure, mixed with v^etnhle matter, 
and when the tree is in bearing the outer 
covering of the nut itself is about one of the 
very best things to be thrown into the dung-pit. 
Dead animals buried not too near ibc roots, also 
blood, fish, and oil cakes are beneficial. Guano 
is of no use. All obnoxious graascs imist be 
carefully kei>t from between the trees, and the 
harmless grasses rather encouraged, a.s they 
keep the s*urfacac<Ki!. The trunk of the tree 
ought to be carefiiUy washed with soap and 
water once a year to keep it clear of moss. 
Parasitical plants of the genus I^oranthus are 
very apt to attach tlieuuclvcs to the branches, 
and if not removed do greiit injury. The insect 
enemies of the tree are not very numeroiw, 
liut it has a few white ants among tlie number. 
They seldom attack a vigorous phrnt, it is 
upon the first symptonis iif weakness or decay 
that they commence their operations. Their 
nesla may be dislodged from the roots of the 
plant by n dose of solution of pig dung, to 
which they have a great aversion. There 
are several si>eciea «»f insects which lay their 
eggs on the leaves, and unlcM carefully watch- 
ed and removed, they commit great havoc 
amongst tiie trees. For this purpose it is 
ne<*ea»ary to wash the leaves with a decoction 
of 'IMlm root, and syringe them by means of a 
tboo wiUi lime and water, of the consistcnco 
iffhitrw«»>) ', thij adheres to the leaves, and i 
;i oiler several heavy fthowew. 
j{: i;e is lh« nwt of the large red | 

4uit; ihmc ooUcct and glue the leaver lugethcr, i 
liG N 

forming » cavity for the dofn>*ition of II 
lurvic. The l>c8t mode of destroying tbcnii 
to hang a portion of some animal sub 
such as the entrails of a fowl, !aM\, &c„ 
end of a pole thrust through and pi 
from the branches : the ants will run 
pole and collect in immense quantities 
the bait, when, by a lighted faggot, th< 
l>e biurned by thousands. This rcpralod 
or twice a day for u week or so, will soon 
the tree of the invaders. In general one 
for every one hundred trees will be ibund 
cient to care for the plantation, pn>vi(l»4] 
there be some four or live tliousand 
The nutmeg planter is under the nec< 
keeping up nur^*eries Oiroughout the wl 
his operations for the re-placement of 
plants and redundant males. Of the latter tn 
per cent, seems to be alntut the be«t pmportiottj 
to keep, hut (-ompletely dioHiious tree* are pc 
ferablc. No person can l>oast to get a ptaui 
completely filled up and in perlect order 
.sooner than fifteen years. Of the first 
planted, not more tlmn one-half will tuni< 
IH'riect females, not taking into account 
cioiw trees, already condemned. The tree) 
flower alwut the seventh year, but the loi 
before di>ing so, the better and stronger 
be. The best trees do not show flower 
the ninth year, and one such is wordi a 
of the olhen*. Dr. Oxley has seen several 
yield more than 10,000 nuta each in one 
whereas he does not believe (hut there is m 
tation in the Straits that averages 1,000 
esory tree. Tlie experiment of gratUng the 
which at first view prenenl* so umny adi 
tages, both in securing the finest quality oTJ 
and the certainty of the sex, has still tnj 
tried in this cultivation. The advmol 
gained would be worth any trouble, the qi 
of some nuts being so far above that of 
it would make a dilTercnce beyond prcscztti 
culation : in short, 1,000 such picked trees 
yield something equivalent to X4,0C*0 a 
for £4 per tree would be a low estimate 
such plants. An acre of land »mtains 
average *J2 trees, and it L* calculate^i an o\ 
of UOO dollars is re»iuired u{x>n every 
bring the tree to maturity; but as not 
than one-half of the trees generally turn 
females, and as many others are dwlroyed bj 
accident and diseases to which thU plant is very 
liable, it ntakca the cost of each tree, by ll4 
time it yields fruit, alwut 8 dollars. The nob* 
meg tree begins to bear when about eight y«aa 
old, but it gives no return for several ycdUi 
longer; and therefore to the expense of cultiva- 
tion must he added the interest of tlie capital 
sunk. The plant being imligenous in thi 
Moluccas, the expense of ciUtivation liiere 
greatly tc9^. As the fruit is brought in 


pw, tlie mace is carflruUy removed, 
logetlier and flattened (>n a board, 
> Uu* fiun for three or fotir diiys. it is 
nou^b to be put by in the spice-bouse 
lirrd fur cxjxirtation, when it is to be 
nto boxes, and bcrnmes the maoe of 
I. The averajjo proportion of mace 
I Singapore w one jiound for every 433 
le nutin^ itfielf re<piires more care in 
I it being neee*ary to have it well and 
dried ere the outer black she!! be 
^|^ thi!> purptrse tbu a«ual practice is to 
fnr a couple of montiis to tlic smoke 
e* kept up underneath, whilst the nnU 
I nn a grating about eight or ten feet 
Care should be taken not to dry 
by too great a heat, wi they shrivel 
their full and marketable appear- 
i» tlierefore desirable to keep the 
n firit collected, for eight or ten 
if the drying-house, exposing' them at 
n hour or so to the morning aun, and 
the expn(*ure daily until ihcy shake 
lell. The Dute ought never to be 
ntil refiuired for exportation, or they 
ttacked and destn^ycd by a small 
;e in--«K't, the larvai of which is dep<5sit- 
rrtiJe, and, bectiming the perfect 
iU way nut, leaving the nut bored 
and tlin^ugh, and worthlesss a* a 
c commodity- Umlng the nutj prc- 
tn a certain ejctent, but limed nuts 
best liked in rlie English market, 
hey are preferred in that condition in 
) States, and on the Continent of 
n the nnts iU*e to he limed, it is' 
y to have thcnj well-nibbed 
the hands «*ilh powdered 
llic Dutch tuodt' of preparation, they 
a mixture of lime and water for 
Tht» no doubt will ]^rexerTe 
It miwt aUo have a prejudicial effect 
r of the spice. A!\or die nuts are 
ed, wbi<'h re^piires from six week* 
smoking, they cannot be too 
to market. But it is otherwise with 
; tlmt commodity, when Iresh, not 
m in the Umdon market, seeing 
desire it of a golden coUmr, which it 
K« niioT a fpw montlis, wherejis, at 
ffe«h it is blcwd-red, now red blades 
im with su'^picion, and are highly 
sale of tlie article. The nut- 
ntfrom llencoolen to Singapore, 
"knd of 1 SI 9. Sir Stamford K allies 
th« care ofthe resident commandant, 
ubar, 100 ntitmeg plaat«(, 23 lajger 
1,*^(HJ nutmeg seeds, which werecom- 
tbc cbarj^e of Mr. Hrook-i, a European 
whn wa£i specially engaged by the 
Company to look aflcr their embryo 


spice plantations here. If a plantation be at- 
tended to from the commencement and the Irecs 
be in a good locality, the planter will undoubtedly 
obtain an average of 10 lbs. of apice from each 
tree from the fifteenth year ; this, at an average 
price of 2s. iirf. per lb., is 25^. per annum, and 
he can have about seventy such trees in an acre. 
The total number of nutmeg trees in Singa|iorc 
in 1S4.S was 55,^25, of which 14,914 only 
were in bearing. The produce of tlmt year 
was 4,085,301 nutmegs, or 23,000 lbs. in 
weight. Planw were likewise sent to Ceylon 
and Cape Comorin. It <loe-< not apficar that the 
climates of these two localities suit the nutmeg 
tree, as it requires rain, or at least a very damp 
climate throughout the yejir. The East India 
Company's spice plantations in Pinang were sold 
in 1824, and the trees were dispersed over the 
island. In 1843 there were 3,040 acres culti- 
vated with spice trees in Pinang and Province 
Welieslcy, containing !233,yi)5 nutmeg, and 
80,418 clove trees, besides 77,071 trees iu 
nurseries ready to be plante<l out ; and by a 
similarstatemeut from Singapore, which is how- 
ever not so complete, that 743 acres were cultiva- 
ted, containing 43,544 nutmeg trees. The con- 
sumption of these spices in Great Britain was, on 
i an average of four years ending 1841, nutmegs, 
) l:il,000lbs.; mace, 18,000 lbs.; cloves, 02.000 

Imported and ExjHtried to and from Sintjapore, 


-6 pe . 



t ^-^ 








































Krported from Java* 
1.304 picub... 


• 177 




1830, piculs 
18.35, „ 
1839, „ 
1843, „ 

In the Pinang papers for 1857, the GazttU 
gives tlie following statistics : The subjoined 
t;ible of the PxjK)rts of Nutmegs and Mace 
from Pinang during the last ten otticifd years 
shows a startling rate of increase. The ex- 
ports in 1S55, 1856, 4024 picula of nut- 
megs and 1340 of mace— exceed the total 
produce of the Bandaa in 1855, which Dr, 
Oxley statca at 4,032 picula of natmeg 
1,008 of mace. 
N 147 



Offiolfti ycBn. 





OSte'uil yean 








• ' ' 1 

.j-i;i ,. .. 

. 1 

i»4f-4a .. , 

.l-?4 ,. 


IM4S-W „ .. 

■ 1. .:.7 tii.-J>l-M 



imo-ii ^ .. 



tN5ft.S^ .. .. 



Imjforts into Ou Cnitfd Kiiufdom of jV*'i»«/7^, 
K'i^/ aiifi CHltiiHUcfl. 


ImiwrM 1 




llom« ciiU* 








•0 3«fi 












Uon. . 




MtiJce cxportfd — Actttxil fjroivUi of Sittt/a^tor^. 





.... 401 „ 
.... 16i .. 

X 6ICt 
. 1.616 

IMEk, picttU.. 
lHt« .. .. 
IM7 ., .. 

.. t7» 

Ri'jtortittf9fufiiie'jsu7nlMacttiurirufi(\ifenni,\cn\:iT ant! is libaat 1{ mile* in - 

I Cntnuii^ Api, irs »* named tVum \h- 
viilcaiiii t»r wliicb it coii>*Uts Ijcmliimr 
coiiiio*iu)y calliHl tlic * liigli land/ oUivr 
are KnwingTiin, I'ulo Ayr and Piming. 
itiland of HnAw\r^\n \n\» been little inl 
biuci: tilt) extirpation oi'(*pice trees by the 
fwiny in 1 H3:i, and tho cultivation «f the m 
13 exclimvcly confined ti> Ruulu, 
and I'ulo \yc.. Gunong Api in nntl'rti 
on account of it* fr«i|iicnt cnijuions 
inKuJid>rir\'. It iiei$ unar to Bands nnil l^nl 
Eflrthquuke.<4 arc frt^juont ikinl urdinaril 
c(h1<» or fultow the tTtiptiong, Tho si 
erujilions were in the foilowinp yiian: — ■ 
l*:io, l«32, um, 1711. 174!M7»M, 
That ofKU)! was a tcirildo nuo, Tli« 
\u.U betwixt these pcHixi* of cniiAion 
tlierel<*re consecutively 17. 17, 6W, ^0, 
22, and the general avcmgo of the»G inl 
is 31 yean* and a little more than ft] 
Ttie mi«t liital curthtpiako^ t<xik plm*v in 
16h3, 10M5, 1743 and I81G. The IDI 
therefore are 54, 3, 57, 73 yearn respoci 
Thenoe it appears that thtajt? cunviiUiomJ 
from ihcrc having: been oo vent for lli* 
The lianda soil i^ sliniy. Hy the aUive av< 
of erujitictiw and datin;? back to I. '■20, an 
tioQ wart expHcied wunewhorc aNmt 
Mr. Mun fur 1 7o'> rat*'tl tlie tiiUil priuli 
tlic Islands at 2o0,(»0(» Ihi*. of nutmcK* 
nuice. The [>utch author 8t^voriMii» aot(i 
ua tiiai the arinu;d avcriipc prixluco diini 
early part of iJie iSth century waa 700,0 
(Dutch) of ntitmep*, and lSO,tMJU lbs. (< 
•laare. But he mltU, that in the yi^ar li 
hurricane di'Hiroyed all the trcea ex( 
8,000 which laot number \nelded an 
produoo of 31.>,00U lljfi, of nutmeg wii 
UHUal pn»iM>riion of mace. Allowing li 
Of nt. oi" trcf« for males, which ij* a wsy 
proi)ortion when trees have nni in»m tb 
been rc^'ularly and systematicaJlv |dnntei 
priKluctive on*w will have lliiw yi'ldtil 4j 
(ter tree of nutmeg. Hut (%f thv^^ f*,itiNi 
all iKiirin^i^ or temalo tree."? Uio rjtc |>cr' 
woidil be 3j Ibu. nutmegs. Mr. Mnrlin! 
mated thepHnluce prfvioiMlv to tho iil»nn 
(perhjiiw tlie year immediately prcroiling 
tor KuiojKj 2oO,«M)0 ilw. nutmeg ; (or 
|U(),0(>»> lbs. and 7mice8i),0lU) llw,, which 
admit of a total produce of alxuit 3*^\< 
mita, tlie best sortu only licin;r ?cnt to Et 
Tliis t|mtutily of 7iiO,000 lbs. luw rel« 
the ht^rinnin^ of the ci^'hteenili century, 
Hnkdizih market was not then m particul 
tjuality M it afterward* became »> tliat pi 
Noe, 1, 2 and 3 were sent t*) Europt^ 
periihl. If tJie 8,001) tre«» yielded 30. 
Ibd., ibcn tlicre ircro 168,000 trco in 
early jiarl of the above ceutury. Uut 


lOii picuU of im)>orted mace were also rc-ship- 
pcd in 1l**I7. 40,000 lbs. of miu*<* were import- 
etl into the United Kingdom fit»m India in 
I84!i. The extremely limits ctmsumption ot 
milme^and mace, and of the latter especially, 
over the world, a^ compared with other tn>pical 
pxportable pn>duce. which hai*checkixl and [wr- 
hajK over will continue to cheek any pcrm.'i- 
nrntly lar^'^.' pn^u'rcs^ve increase of tlu«e*. 
The Dutch confine*! Oie cultivatiim of the 
nutmei;^ when they put ponsession of the Mo- 
Inei^ib) from the I'ortu^iiese, in the end of 
l.'j'JK, to three diMlant islanih*. Loiithoir or 
[^ ISanda, Banda Nuira, »»d Polo Are. 
The firat of thc.^n present* a rid;;e of hilU of 
various liei^dits fmm otie extremity tt» the 
oiluT, the nidcd of which ure cut into ravines 
throuj,'h which descend a f*'W stmall streanw, 
the 4tnly once on the ivluiid. The ifilaud is 
irc^'-i-nl-^haprd, 13 milea Ion;? ard 2k milea 
' ' r-'M where widest. Tlie highest hill on Banda- 
N.-in»» in Ui. 4'=' 30' S., and long, 12<^ 16' E. of 
Piu-i* d'H?# not cxceod 800 feet, Hud the aouih Hide 
U perfectly tlat. Uuuontf Api ia a single ifllaud 
or cone of voh'^nic matti^-r rising from n rt^cky 
base aud M*parate from frreat Banda by a 
narrow channel. It haa the appeanmce of a 
hc.i[) of cindon* and two-thinU of it arc per- 
ir.'tly bloc k and bare of all vegetation, wliile 
'^ c^nMcmt ainok(^ ri.^es from the cratt-r. 
iilo A^^. "'Mnting Ut Martin, and the S. 
yield the beat nutmofn*. 

„ _ ,. liBig and about 3j miles* 

wbcrc widest. Pulo Aye u ncinrly cir- 




c'lent conscquencp to attract irailo, ami tlirtt the 
nation wliirh Imlds tlieiu miwl tack on to tlie 
\c*inl of raulag tlie tree that of prutcctin^^ these 

Martin acquaiulfl lu tliat when he vraa Resi- 
dent at Ainkoyna there were 2,UJ0 slaves in 
Uic nutniGg plantation. 

SlatuticA of Nuim^fff. — In the be^nnniiio; of 
the lOlIi century nutnic;;-plaTiting was intm- 
'clucod into Pinanjr, a uunilwr of .spioe plnntj* 
having bren ini]xprtej f^jui Auilwjyna by the 
iKaMi India Coinpjiny. The Government after 
'eoine time, sold tlieir gardens in wliioh tliey had 
■planted the elove and nutmeg tree**, bul tlu^ 
I cultivation would appear to liave made little 
progress at first, as in 1810 we tind that there 
were only about l.*5,(>00 tree=i on the island, a 
few hundrofU being iUl that were in Waring. 
In ISIS the number of beuriug tree.-* had 
iiuTcnfied to 0,900. In 184:} there were 7o,4(.»2 
,trct?» in bearings and 111,2*^1) not in iKraring, 
^bc^tidfw malc.^ and 52,510 nui-series. The num- 
ber of bearing true^ in Province Wellesley in 
1843 w;»8 10,500. not hearing 7,307, bcMtle'i 
^males, and a nimibvr in the nursery. The 
[total number oi* nnls pro<luced by the Pinang 


the gross profit derived from tba»c sold. 
1H14, when in poAWRsion of the Knglbh 
number of nutmeg trees planter! out vren 
mated at 57<',500, of which 4SU,«MH) wen 
bearing including rt5,n00 monsecious 
The pr«>cluee of the Mi'IuccaM ho* beien 
ed at from to 7 hundred thousand llif> 
annum, of whirh one-half gor?t to Kuropa; 
about one-fourth that iiu.intity of tnaoe. 
importH into .lava from the Ejwtern Archi 
in 1S43, coiuisted of nutmegs 7-10'3y pi'*!)'*, 
of mace 21 8*06 picubt, and the exjM»r' 
of nutmegs 2,I33'1*0 piculs, and of m 
picuL*. The aiuount of nutmegs eX]' 
Java during the 10 year^ ending in i ■ 
aged yearly about 352.220 lbs., and during 
eleven years during 1S45 about 6(M,000 Ik 
yearly. The (piantity of mare exported du 
the firntjKfricul averaged 94,304 lbs. yearly, 
during the laat l(i9,4*)0 lbs. yearly. T1h>] 
duce of the Straits' Settlement* in 1642 
reckoned at nutmegs 147,034 lbs., and Q 
44.822 Ibf*.. thiLi being more thane«]ual to 
whole consumption of Cireal Hritain. ThercftJ 
Kuropoithadbcene-qtimated takcsubotil 2^,0C 
lbs. of nutmeg!*, and 33.00i) Ib^. of mrtcc. In 
about 2I6,(H»0 Ilw. of nutmegs ami '•'• 

'IttlS. In lt*43 the total ntimbcr of trc<» were 
.(«timated at 43,544, of which 5,317 were in 

[•nd Province Welleslcy tree* in 1.'H42 wen , 
18.5*K),28l, and 42,8fW'lbs. of mace. Nutmeg 1 ^f mace, and China about 15,(M.M» Ih- 

ftree* were Hwt introilueed into Sinaapore in *^.'V* i**"^"^ -•^^^ "«'• "' "«»^"''- -^ '' 

titie-3, however, wouM leave a )*urpiu? j 

of nutniegH alone, above 250,000 lbs., it is 
|iearriig,'th7pi^hnV being '^^^^^^ 'at'842',32H j bable they are now ^;;^"»^[''^^'^^|>;^7>*^<^^^*'j« 
\tinlA. In 1S4S, according to tlie tjible given by 
►r. Oxiey, tlie total number of tree^ planted 
nil was estimated at 55,025. of which the 
lliumber^ in bearing were 14,1*14 and the 
[produce 4.0S5.3(Jl nut.-* be.tide« mace, which U 
(eilimalcd at alM>ui 1 lb. fnr every 433 nutmegs. 
)uring the m-cupation (»f Heuciwlcn by the 
Euglipii, the nutmeg and clo%*e were intivKluced 
mi the Moluccas, and in IblO the number 
>f nutmeg trees were stated at 109^420, regard- 
ing ilieir present number we have no infbnna- 
ion. The average ipumtity of nutmegs annually 
ild by the Dutch East IndiaCom|wmy in Eiuope 
luring the ISth century hiw been estimated at 
!50.O0o n»., bejiidw aWt 10<i,(iOf» Itw- yold in 
India. 'Of mace the avera;^o quantity iMild in 
:nro|>e w:h reckoned at 1)0,000 Um. p«r annum 
md Jii,oo(» !tw. in India. The trule although 
jen!ou.«ly guarded by the Dutch, wii« never 
}cn a very prt>fitablc one to them, the cx- 
mse* being heavy. In 1779 the ch3rge.4 at 
inila amounted to i\ I40,17it and the re- 
inuts derived from the dutie* on import*, &r., 
f. 9.350, leaving an excutf* on the charge? 

amouniti. In ten years from ls32 to 1H42J, 
exiKjrtii of nutmegs and mace from Pi* 
trebled, juid frtim the very great e\ 
the cultivation which is constantly g"»n^^ na, 
is probable that tlic same result nt 
will take place in the ten year* surrordinj 
the alMive period, viz: from IS42 to tl 
Diiring the^e ten years fn»m 1S32 ti 
price of nutmegs in Piixangfcll from 
dollars per thoudand, to from 4 to 5 doUan 

The nutmeg is a beautiful tree, pretty 
form, foliage, blos«>m and bearing, ri«3ng 
a height of 25 to 30 feet, ucciwionally 50 
Tilt* fruit to within a few day* of rij>eni _ 
had it a pink cheek, be re:ulily uit:»t^ 
peach. \V'hon llie uut inside is ripe, l!h hi 
splits down the ceiUre and remains half- 
ilisclo^ing the bright criruson mace that enwi 
the nut. In a few days, it' not gathered in, 
fruit opens wider and the nut with the 
around it, druprt t«i the gnHin<I leaving the fTt^\ 
huskstill hanging tothe tree, till it wither* 
and failu off. When the nut^ are c<:)llectwl, 
of f. 130,820 to be deducted from the profit . mace is carefully removed and placed in 
on the spices : and tlie large quantities of speciefl | sun to dry. Bcueath the mace is a chin ItM 

r*wTnA*>ily bui*nrd in Holland, ou which heavy 
ht,&r,.mtist have been incurred, 
formed a serious deduction from 


shell containing the nutmeg which is 
broken nntil the nnU are prepared for shipmeiil 
A good tree yields 600 nuts yearly, or abo 

N 150 

xrTMEG on.. 

ht. A v>i\*\ nutiiu'g grows iu DauiraBT'ft volatile oil ; both of which are iwod for inedi- 
C'<'rnn», Ohi, Nvw Guinea, Gillolu, ol* cal pur[iosc.M, Of tlio fnrmr/r tliere are two 
I «ha|)e. An iuch or I j inch iong. M. ! varieties ; the English, wljii.*h is the bcjul, occurs 
Vnrt.^ U nse<l in Brazil. Acrodicli- in |>icct?s of about | lb. iu weight, wnip|>c<l in 
km, Si-Miof:, yields a fruit known a* i lenve.* wf tin- Imnanu, it liaj* a uniform ri<Misli 
u al«i Ackaui nutmeg' of Ciiiiana ; I euloiir inside, and the Dutch imjMjrtcd fron» 
iitmf;{ and the Brazil nutmefi:. The i the MolutTiw chiclly, in larger pif'e<», wnipped 

in leaves or paper, and of a lighter colour. — 
\['ttter)(toH ; FauUnier, 
N'UTMKG HIGEON. see Columhida-. 
NUTMEG TKEE, En«. Myristica tnosrhatiJ. 
NUTMEG, WILD, Eno. " Pyrrluwia hoiu- 
fieldii. BUnnt. 

NUT'NA, also Xut*h, the nose-jewel, even to 

mention this is considered a breach of delicacy, 

i Colonel TihI states that, as a token of tlic full 

utmeg xsi from the Moreodora niyris- 
te Arrdiipelapi a species of myriutica 
li^^au ;ind auoihir M. spuria are sub- 
M. toinentosa. liifoKer and Th/jinito% 
ne^ tree nt' I'enanff, M. malaharira, 
M. atlanuata, IVulK., are indigenous) 
u of the C'oncjji and Malabar. M. 
, fraW., a native of Martaban and 
yiipposed to be identical witii 


It is M. malaburiea that yields cimfiHcnce reposed in him, he wiv* told that, 

" Should you even «end tn the queen s apartment 
and demand her necklace or, uutna, it shall be 
granted.** — T'hFs EttjaMhan, V<il.\^p,4*M, 

NUT OIL, Oilii of Coryhis eoturna or 
Juglans re^a. 

NUT.SA, a tribe, in lat. 21° 20' N., and long. 

lli)° E. with Lawa and Shans on the norili. 

NUTS, ACIIEEX. are the betel nut, boiled, 

11 U alio obtained.— y>r. Or It; if* g \ of very inferior equality, ehietly used by the 

/. Arch,, p. 014 ; Lettrr fn>m H. B. lower cla.'wc:* in the South of India and are in 

V»ulrt}t at Amfniifua, to thf Sitpi-emi I U') demand at Mailra.-* : »»Id iVom :3o to 50 Rfi. 

a candy. 

NUTS, COLUMBO, are raw betel uiits : sold 
everywhere and arc clueHy wed by ihe Kayala 

NLTTSI RAGUM,Tam. Cuminum e^ininiun. 

plant, when in blossom, re«iembting tlie p*3ppy ; 
they should he grown in a lip;ht rich Aiil of 
vegetable mould, tlic colour of (he flowera Is 

Miort; Prrwnt stati of Hatuia, 1813 : j pink, purple, red and purple.— /^"//</^H. 
pSor^; Cttup tfoel gtti- U Ut^<hJava, \ NUITI ('llKia, Tw.Sfiermacocehiaplda, L. 
port Fte€ Prrits, 14/A JJif. 1818 ; , NUITV, Tam. Tlie swim or eoxmd in the 

nutmegs of commerce. 
5Iyrisiica mo?chata, 

Tax. I 
ex[ire!!Mi(>D from the nnlm^, 
lUtic smell from the volatile oil it 
It is a M>Iid oil in cakes, extracted 
utmeg by expression ; a yellow and 

t, thttnl 24th Mutch 1812; Lotvx 
p. 21ti: Cojitttih Dancf \ O'Shautjh,^ 
Trtn. ; Mojitr Tfuim's Jirportit, 1S14 ; 
Java ; M. K. J. li. ; Simnumfts 
htiort, y, 24!( ; Camrmn^ pp. lf5»'>-6 ; 
0<LUite^ yov. \S4ii ; Jonc. Intl, 
L V, So. 8, Am/tist 1851 ; *^immotul8 ; 
Diet., p. ,105 ; Af. E. ; B<uttfiuje^ 
155 ; Food ami iU mlulti^fati^ii^ p 

'port Fte€ Prrits, 14/A JJif. 1818 ; 
f th^ Ea9t Imixfi TnvU^ U'fittcn in 
fiC^rf filf 'Piox. Mtni. 


Kayphul, Gvz . Ilixn. 
e of tl»e Moluccas, and fretpiently to 
tfa in some of the w<kh1k of Southeni 
; U ctn'ered witli a hard .ihcll, pro- 
h a {u^e arillu«. It it* one and a half 
hcfi long, elliptical, the porcnchyrae 
marblinp. Its odour ih weak, and 
bli'- Ite jjfoperties are analo- 
the true nutmeg, but the oil ia 
rc»portion, that it \» hut of little 
Ol*. It is thiiught that, it might, 
tly improved by cultivation, 
able in m«>»t Indian bazaars. — 

Jagikarra Dunn, Trl. 

Lmeg ouQtains a fixed or solid oilt and 
151 K 

bellies of Hsh, the awimming bladder. That of 
Madras is obtained from the Codoovah nun 
and KiwnikatJialay niin. It m sold at 8 Rupees 
per maund of S vins, or 100 Uu]K*es per 
candy. Thin is bought by nieixhanta and 
exjKivled to China where it is used to polish 
silk and crockery ware. 

NUVULL', Tel. Sc-jamum indicum, Li»r}, 

Nl'\'U-PATRIKA, SiJis. From nuvu, nine, 
and patra, leaves. 

NUVU-RATNA, Sans. From nimi, nine, 
and rama, a jewel. See Nau-ratm. 

NU\^U, Tki,. Sesamum indicum, L. ; S. 
oricntale, R. iii, 100. 

NUWA, BchM. GoKtypium arlwremn, Linn, 

NUWAB, Ar,, Hind., 1'kks. The nabob of 
Europeans, a title amongst mahomedana of 

NUW-AITI, a mnhamedan tribe. 

NUWERAELLIA, 7° 3'; SI* 52', asaui:. 
tariumin the interior of Ceylon. 




Tkl. Rryonia 

StrychnoB mix voniirft, 


iBiraki, FnluR Miilii, I'lilt. 
L'uliLkji, KiiUka, Vtu4!iun')*>.s. 
til'M'jitin, S^xH. 

KoiliikiKUUiruHttu, Sinuh. 
Yetti (ijlttty, Tam. 

Muritig liunzu Mii:Mdi viltu 



NrwrM*, Tbi.. G'mgeUy socd. 

m:x vomica. 

Niix TrimicA, tir Kuix^hla 


Viihts Mitliit Kltuniik-itl 

ICitIt), AfUlL 

^»^^^ ul kai, „ 

Ki't'lild. Bhxu. 

M ■ i. Chi>. 

l'<ii.M>n mil, PogbAnOf 
Noi\ vomif|iiL% Kjl 

Thi; Xiix vi>inica is tlic nut of Strv('^nr»«* mix 
vomica, lu w^kkI wa^ supfKiar-d by iJr. ("hri.'*- 
iiAin to hr tiftcii aubsiitutfti for T.igniiiii colu- 
briiium, snnkti wood. Ibt bark is often stUI in 
Calcutta as lliat of tlie ll«>hunatreo, S^iymidu 
fubrifuga. Nux vninica wa» early lutCMl a.H a 
mediciue by tJiohiiubtoa : by whom ixn projjpr- 
tics muiit bave Iwen iiJvo>tti;jatoil long belbro it 
could be known to titrfi^oi nations. It ia tbc 
IzanikeiMif Pi'THian wttrk* on Matrria Modioa, 
but iluri* U doubt rc^jHjcting ht* ruunc in Avi- 
fouuu.^^^-killcr, and Faltxx-t 
mab^fv, fi.tb-*t:do, are inher And»ic nanicR. But 
under ibe name of Jouz-al-Kue <ir Kinetic 
nut, Dr. Roylo obtained llie fniit of a Uubin- 
oeiJUH «brnb. Dr. Pereira tbitik^ tliat l)ie Nux 
nieelid of Serapion L* Nux vomica ; hut in Per- 
sian workj^ tliij^ name is applied to a Datura. 
'J'hc plant is a modcrate-dized tree, with a 
abort crttokcil trunk. Hnincbeji irregulnr, the 
ynuug ones long and llexuoi^c, with smooth 
dJirk-;;Teen bark. Wood while, clofle-grained, 
and bittor. leaves op[MT*itc, with short pe- 
tioles, oval, smootJi and shining, 3 to 5-nerved, 
ditTni'ing in size. Flowers small, greenish- 
wliite, in terminal eorymlw. Calyx 5-t(x>thed. 
Corol ruunel-i*haped ; limB o elefl, valvate. 
StamiMis 5 ; filaments jihort, iiwerted over the 
bottom of the divisions of the ealyx : anthers 
oblonc^, half exscrred. Ovary 2-cellcd, with 
many ovulc« in ej«eb cell, uttucbcd to the 
ihiekened centre of the partition. Style eiiual 
to the cor(d in length. Stigma capitate. Berry 
round, amooth, about the nize of an orange, 
covered with a smooth si»mewl»at hard fraji^ile 
shell, *>f a rich orange colour when ripe, filled 
with 11 sod white j^elatinouA pulp, in which ttfx" 
immersed tlto *ee<l* attached to a central pla- 
centa. S;.'edit jK'ltatc or nhield-like, ttlightly , 
bnllowed on one side, convex on the other, 
about ^ of an i'*eh in diameter, and about 2 
lines in thic'kne*:^, tliiekly covered with "lilky 
atthi'^iloun^l halra attacbrd to a librou» testa, 
which env<lopes the kernel cumportetl oi' horny 
bitter albumen, of the form of the see<l and of 
the Hmbryo imbedded in a hollow in it« cir- 
cumference- Itiaa native of ilie Indian A rchipe- 
ia^and of the forests of the PeniMuIa of India, 

i'w liir invest 
, or " reli^^ 

ar « rc\-ei^| 


' nt well as of the southern pnrtJi of II 
Tre^idencv, as near Midnapore. — fCB6m 
Ehrnn., ^9 ; St, atid CA., xi, 5dH 
f wr«77iJ.. i, t. 4 ^1 

NL'ZUR-O-XYAZ, Ar. Vcws and obi 

NCZZCH. Ar, An ofTeriniir tixim an n 
to a superior. NuKzerana, a i'w llir invest 
a flurceswion fee. Nnzxerana, or 
the ori^nal emanation of 
Mewar wraii fixed at one vear' 
!»tttle. — Ttufit Tntt-fh, //. i*<)J. 


lonvctiou n>xbur;rhii, (V. Don. 

NWAY NKIC, Bt'RM. Argyrci» ca]; 

I inVY-K'm'O. Bciia, Glycyrrid»» g 
]^YA, BmM. ^^Hchynoniene paluckai 
XYAD, IIiNu, A term applicU to od 
to malmmednnlsm. Tin* Nyiul iir proaj 
iTom rajput or other hiud<.« tribes arn 2 
Kiijur ; Oomra ; Soomra ; Mair or Met; 3H 
.Mohor: Balucb ; Luniria or lyvjka: Sand 
ManiBfulia ; Ba;,^eah : Dabya ; Jobya; Kalj 
.langurea: Oondur, Bi^nnuee ; Uawuri 
Chrendea; Khfi^sa, Sudani; I^iham 
converts are fer(»cioiw and intolerant. 

iNYAGAOV HEBAT. Luebuum Sm)|f 
of the banditti leader* of Uundelcuml, 
duced to surrenrler on proniiAo crt' 
Eiujaifrinfntu and tSnnnitAin, 

i\YA-(;YKK, HrttM. Jlorinda. 

NYAI UATU KIDL'L, see Karang 

NYAIN, HuvD, Loamy land a> which 
nure and irri^ration are apphe<l. 

N YAM DAL, Taxa^ baceata. 'ITic Himal 

NYAMDAL. Ilixn. Taxu^ baccatt. 

NVAN, TiBKTAX, OvU ammor> 
Ladak, only in the most inacct - j- 
nviir the tunow limit. ^H 

XYAX, Bt'KV. DMmo(biim, jtvmH 

NYA-PRK or (fna-j>ee, BriiM. Tlie Ba 
anj5 of the Malaya, a compound of several 
of small fish. Putrescent fish, in some Aha 
other w a condiment amonj? all the rac«a 
the mountninfl of Sylhet u* the ia[e» ol 

NYAK, a river near Chandpoor in tlw 
morah district. 

NYAK, a river near the C-iinsyah 

NYASA, a form of ojaculatiou mi 
a short and mystic prayer to Uu* heart 
head, the crown of the bead, and th*» ej 
Om ! Sira.*e Namah I Om ! s;iluiaiion t 
bend, with the addition of the Kavaeha 
armour or sv liable Pbat, and tlie Astn 
wnapon or syllable Hum. Tlic entire mil 
the prayer or incantation, is then, Om t 
Namah, Hum, Hiat. The Nya*a cercnifl 



in uw 







(t tlic time of worship (poojii,) anJ 
h numhf^r ot* cunoiw, minafc, and 
etiiiatilo aiodons nf t)ie Itands and 
\\*' th« prrsrtn rp|>rau prayers.) ancli 
1 the eywa, ear*, slmuIUers, mouth, 
I breast, &r., doubling and twiating 
Kigere, &c. — flim. Th., ToZ. ii,^. 53. 
I Sathi. a dejMMit, from nee, prep. 

I 55aj(b. Justice ; from nee, prep. 

^ the philosnphy of the hindooa, a syi- 
( school oi* philosophy, or lof^ca! sys- 
laiD, corresponds with the dialectic 
lenophanes. It \s one of the bix 
boola of tlie Hindoos, the other two 
Umans of Jeimuni, and the Minians 
\ of Vya-sa. Of the pliilosphical 
Ul be sufficient here to remark, that 
nrUf eeenu analogous to the Peri- 
MBDo*i^« ^sometimefl called Vaiai- 
to the Ionic ; tJie two Mi- 
cTi the second is often dwtin- 
jthe uaiue of Vedanla to tlie Plaio- 
jit Saucbya to the ItaUc, and tlie 
*atanjala, to the Stoic pliilosophy ; 
ntama o-trresponds with Aristotle, 
th 'Hialca, Jaimini with Socratea, 
^ Plato, Kapila with Pythagoros, 
tali with Zeno ; but an accurate 
between the (irecian and Indian 
|ld require a oontuderahle volume. 
i\ works of those philosophers arc 
et ; but Uke all the other shastriis, 

Bed, or ot>ftcured by Upadarsana, 
, witiiout end. It results, from 
r hindixi literature, that the 
, Vetlunga, Purana, DHarma, 
lina, are the six great shacitrn.s, in 
liowledf^e, divine and human, issup- 
icomprehended. Tlie word shastra, 
^ a root si^tiiying to ordain, means 
^(Ordinance, and particularly a 
^Bice, delivered by inspiration : 
pBbre, the word is applied only to 
ntnre. The sudras, or fourth class 
IM^ not permitted to study the six 
jstras before mentioned ; but an 
I reiaains for them in the study of 
nture, c»impri«ed in a multitude of 
poka, which correspond with the 
ptras. All tlie tracts on medicine 
id, be ftudied by the Vaidyas, or 
Iph^iictans, who have of>en more 
Idi Car lesR pride, than any of the 
[tbe y are usually poeu, grannno- 
^HbuSf moralists, and may be 
P^Rieral, the most virtunuf> and 
lie liJadfKta. Sec Veda, Vidya. 
Bran. Morinda exserta. 
IW^EE, BiTBV. Morinda, tp, 


NVAUPOOR, near Cliangaon in Comillah. 

NYAZ, Ar. Molmrrum kee Nyax, the rao- 
hurrum ohlaiions. Nyaz f)*iMah, nlferinga in 
the name nf God. Nyaz nwsool, offerings in tb© 
name of the prophet Mahomed. 

NYCTAGINE.^i;, Ridddl. See Pisonia 
grand is. 

Syn. oi Jasminum angijsdfolium, (WW., WUld. 


Scabrita scabra, I'aA/. 
Soiibrita trifloni»X.,Jtf'drf. 
Kuri, of Bens. 

Sbioti, Sinj^har. Bbno. 
Hseik biilu, BruM. 

llurnir.g, Can. 

Laduri, Chkkaji. 

KoysiiT, PcK. 

Nig]it-floworing ikfiminp. 

Sorrowful nyctrtnthos, „ 
Tree of mourning, „ 

rariliura arbor-tristio, 


Squaro stalked ujctiui' 
tbM, Ewo. 

Vnb&r-butti, Mahk. 

Manjapu-iDaram, Mai-uj.. 

^ftku^^ Eati. 

ScpbHlica; Saks. 

Sppnirt, sUophalica, Smoa. 

PaKl^^iuul i, Tajl 

Piiyhiidmnullay, Tsx. 

Kiiru i^iya, Pari, also 
Parijotiiniu. Tin. 

This is a tall shrub with rough scabrous 
leaves, well-known for tlie delicious though 
evanescent perfume of its dowers. The tubes 
of their corollas, called in Hindooi (Dundee), 
arc of a fine rich yellow colour an<l are em- 
ployed alone or in conjunction with Parasam 
tiowera (Butca trondosa), in preparing a beauti- 
ful though transient bright yellow-dye, much 
sought after by the mahumedans for dyeing 
their turbans, and used for dyeing silks speci- 
ally, it produces a good yellow colour, and 
cumjwunds with reds, into a pleasing series of 
flame salmon and orange colours. The flowers 
called Dunda jkx), Tkl., are use<l for giving a 
acent to clotlis. Buchanan mentions the pro- 
duct as the powder scattered at the Iloli feast. 
In Ajmccr, the tubes of tlie corolla are used, 
under the name of * kesru,' to dye buff or 
orange colour. This plant is very abundant, 
wild, at tlie foot of the Vindhya range, where 
the green tough stalks axe used to make large 
grain baskets of. The tree of mourning, i« 
sometimes called night-blooming flower, nnJ 
is as great a favorite in India as in the South- 
cm States of America. Its delicate orange 
and white blossoms pour the most deUcious 
fragrance on the evening air, and then fall in 
showers, bedewing the carth^s cold bosom with 
sweetness. Its ilower is held sacred tt» laiva. — 
Drs, 0'v?/MXi45^A?i«ay, /». 436 ; J. L. Stewart ; 
Aim, Mat. Meti.^p. 148 ; Inline ; Gen, Med. 
Tojy., p. 172: Mason; Wtodis MSS.; Bed- 
darm and Macdonahl ; PowclV$ Iland'hooh, 
Vol. L,;j. 44S. 

Nyctanthes multillora, Bctrh., and Nyctanlhes 
pubesccns, Uetz.^ also the Jasminiun hirautum, 
Lin»., are syns. of Guett^irda speciosa, lAnn, 

Jasminum sambac, AU, 
N 15S 



NYMrn.«A NELrwBa 

of Jjwminum anjrustifoUiim^ Vahl., W^lhl. 

NYEK. TAM.rXBL. Ghee. 

NTiTi-GHAU, HiSTi. Portax picttis. 

NYCTAGINACE.^^^, LinM. The manel of 
Peni tribe of plants comprising: 2 gen., 5 sp., 
viz., 4 Pisijnia and 1 Oxia. 

IJornf.^ Bly, Syn. of Nycticcbus tartli(rradu8, 
Jenion . 

Scotophihis fuHpnosm, Jfrdon. 

ticojitf hitpiig, Bltf. 


rO'CTICEJUS TICKELU, Jilif. Syn. of 
Mujrina forraosa, J^rdon. 

ron of Europe, Asia; Africa, North America? 
or a apecicji at Itast barely separable, is very 
common in India. Tlic Nycticonix. genua of 
birds, i« of the order Grallatores, as imder: 

Suh-fam. — Ardeinaj, 1 gen., 7 stib-gen,, 19 
sp.. viz ; 4 Ardea, 6 Hcrodiafi, 1 Butoridca, 1 
Anleola, 1 Nycticorax, 1 Tigrisoraa, 1 Botau- 
rus, 4 Ardetta. 

dilatfttiis, Uorff,, and N. tenuis, JIor$f,j are 
fiyu3. of Nyctinnmm plicatiiR, Jerdon, 

NYCTElilBlA, a aingtilar parasitic crea- 
ture which appears to have neither hcsid, anten- 
nro, eyes, nor mouth. It move* by rolling 
it<^elf rapidly along rotating like a wheel on the 
extremities of its spoke?, or like the rlown in a 
pantomime, hurling himself forward on hanils 
and feet alternately. It wna first difwivcred only 
on a few European bats. Joinville figured one 
which he foiuid on the large roiisette or My- 
ing-foK, and says he had seen another on a bat 
of the same family. Dr. Templelon (>bsei*ved 
them in Ceylon in great abundance on the 
fi^piro of the Scotophihis Coromandelifus. — 
Tcfinrat's Skitchfs of Nat, His. of Ceylon, p, 20. 

NYCUT-A, see Pandu, Polyandry. 

NYEE, Tam.,Tei.. Ghee. 

NYMPH^EA, a genus of plants, the type of 
the natural order Nymphace». There are 
upwards of 20 species of this genus described. 
They liave all largo floating leaves, with white, 
red, or blue flowers, which apf»ear at the sur- 
farc of tlie water. GrifBth «a3'S there arc two 
ditferent species of water lily in the Tenaaaerini 

iTince^ The NymphacesB or water-lily tribe, 
fill floating plants and dispersed through 

St warm parts of Xhc world. Their stems 
»jre bitter and astringent and contain a con- 
siderable quantity of fscula, which may be 
ni«il an fiMxI. Nympboja alba, the common 
»i " is a native of ditches, ponds, 

luUl Europe, and is abundant in 
The flmvera are white, and ao- 

134 N 

Cr«fti Britiiiu. 

of !si4^B 

cording to Linnaeus, open themsolT< 

morning at seven oVlook, and dote 

four oVIock in the eveuing. Tl»e roots 

white water-lily contain an antringent | 

ciple, which renders them aseful in dy( 

They al^o contain starch, and on this kqi 

swine feed on them, although other ant] 

reject them. A variety of this plant nccM 

ally mot with calle<] Alba minor, has wi 

lowers and leaved than the species. I 

found in tanks in India, and grown •■ 

rest of the species. The Nymphia neUiail 

considered, on account of its l>eautiful app 

ance, a sacre*] plnnt, and pleasing tn the | 

The images of idoU were often depicted sil 

on it<; largo leaves. The genera and spodttl 

as under : 

Kuryalo ferox, Saiish., North India, BragaL 
Nymphiea pubosL-ftis, L^ UritUb India. 

„ nibm, Hosb, „ 

„ „ vttr. ni»oa. Rath., ben^l. 

„ M .. raajor, the N. cyi 

„ Tewirolor, Bnsft,., B^n^ptL 

„ edulLs DC., 

„ st<UUt:^ H'Md., I'mtiruula of 

— E}yf. Ci/e. ; .Vosom : Rarh. ; Vau/t ; 
Thunhfnf's Tnnrht, ^'.^ lii. /.. 227. 

Nymphiea oAntlenta, Hoxh, \ CAAtulU Mnlis, 
Chota (tundhi, Bkno. I Kulbaramu, 

KQtika, 1'ku | 

The eatable water lily has ptMlnto In 
oval entire leaves, with the under surface 
bei^cent. It is a native of the East Indioi 
wet fenny districta. Iia Howera ore smaD,' 
white or reddish. Like all the spccios Hi 
large pear-shaped rootei, which contain 
abundance of starch, and they areconseqW! 
use<l as arucles of diet, as also an? the seed 
a species nejirly allied to this, the N. rn 
which has deep-red tlowers. Its tlowerv 
are held in veneration by the hindoos. , 
Tukhm-i-nilofar of .Sinvi are the capsnlM^i 
seeds of Nymphaea edulis, which are esSM 
else mixed with flo\ir and ma^lo into edl 
they are also curried. The B^kh-i-^ 
of Srinagar and Kashmir is the roi.n of 
edible lotus. — E»{f, Cv**. ; /ioxd. ; BM 
Vovft : PowtlL See Kaul doda^ &*.*. 

NYMPH/EA (\EKI;LEA, Uie blue «l 
lily, has peltate, neryly entire, leave« will 
dots, glabrous on both surface, and ^lobe 
the base, the lobes free ; the anther with an 
peudage at the apex ; tlie stigmas ll^rt^ 
This plant is a native of Lower Ef^yi^ ^ ' 
grounds and canals about liosetta^ Daill 
and Cairo. The flowers are very fni^rmoV 
from its frequent representation in tlic m:ul|4 
of Egypt, it appears to have boen rc(<tkrddl| 
sacred plant by tlie ancient Egypciana^ -J 

Nelumbium spcciosum, WUU. 



ilPlU^A PLBESCEXS. Willd. 

N. Iutli3, Bl'ru. 

wtafcy Bkkg. 
lyu, Brrfuc 

nnral, Hnni. 

KiWiiJ-glltti, lIlXD. 

KiihUn ; Kumuda, Saks. 
Kiwni, SiKO. 
JmU-tel-olu, Si.wott. 
TclU kiiluvK, Tkl. 
Kiiki-fciluva, „ 
Alti-kalung. „ 

ti-j . 1 rica nf all the E. Indies and 

Ic was venenitrd by the Egyptiaufl and 

I siTTrtl by the hiudooa, being regarded 

eniblcin of tbrtility. It has large white 

H with ^p:ds. Has peltute leaves, sharply 

kl ; the ondcr surface is pilose at the 

«aDd pubescent between thent, red at the 

tt : the root \a hxTge^ tuberotisand eatable; 

bfcof the Tuwuiaray, (Nelunibium spe- 

K tite root can only be found in dry 

Sr, in the beds of the tanks ; it m plea- 

I the taste, and is ma^lo hy ilie natives 

tarries and other diithofl. The seeds were 

)jf the sHfi-^nt Egyptiajw, and nriJe into 

Dr. ' a hij<hly interesting ac- 

oC tht: ' uf the Lotii^, but LotUi» 

mpic applied to various plants by the 

K The Untua of the Lotophagi was the 

lus loiiu : that of Homer and Dioeeorides, 

le* of L/>tu<, or Trifolinm ; the I»tH3 of 

xTMic* b tlie CeUi« auiitralis ; and the 

' ■ "M i« the Dio«pyros lotiLs. The halve<l- 

, conaijiting of numerous yellowish 

trc considered by native writere 

ivd coltl iwtring^ent remedy, u.*tcd in 

•lerx bilious atfecliona and piles, 

;liu*n and cruptioa^ of the ntouth. 

n 'tcii^ifpnous and demulcent, and h 

The fruit caUed Napa bij or 

' iiilarly, is Ci^nsidtred by 

1- an antidote for poi«on3 

!^ and leprosy.^ — Emj. Cijc. : 

'rojy., /). 19;^ ; l^welVit Hand- 

iFol. iv^. d30; AiruUeg Materia Indicat 

ILEA PYGMIA, a diminutive water- 
flower of which is no larger than 
; grows on the Khas^ia hills, in 
libcria, a remarkable fact in the 
I' distribution of plant*. — Hooker^a 
\^ Vol. ii,/). 312. 
.■E.V RUBRA, Htixh. 

ThU has large rose-coloured flowers. It \a 
cultivated in tauk^ but grows wild. — Irvine, 
Om. Med. Top., 2^. 198; Ridddl; Voigt 


Chlioto Nil-piuima, 
Soomdi, „ 

Blue lotuB, Eko. 

Stttr-fiowertMl water-lily ,. 
Kahtara; Inde^nini, Saks. 

Nollik kaluw«, 




iknmbul, B*vo, 



KaJcta nanduka ? 

„ IcAmaU, 
Kmi kaliiwa. 





• wnter-Iily ^uwb in tanks in tlie penin- 
and in Bengal. Its flowers appear 
f" rhr rains, arc of an inten.«e red, 

k. lour. 

' i «# . p. Nympliaoa rowa. 

^fukto kumuli&KHti. | BAkta kARuU, liucn. 

155 N 

Grows common in ponds and tanka, in the 
peniuiiulas of India and in Bengal, it has small 
blue flowers ; 

var. 3. N. cyanea, Rozh. 

Blue watcr-lilv. Emu. \ LiU pbool, „ 

Grows in liengal. Is common in the Ajmir 
and Pat-hkur lake, ha« Inrirish, bluisli flowers ; 
they are used medicinally being considered 
oi>tringent and refrig-erant. — Jnitie, Gen, Med, 
Top., pp. 144 4- 19W : Rt>xt>. 

Bm-o-sundht, Bbxo. 

A native of Bengal, has large rofle-colnart 
or bluisli-white flowere, the var. ft N. alba, a 
native of Ben^^al, has white flowers. 

Cockatoo parrakeet. 

NYNA, BnrtT. Ovisammon. 

NYOAY-SHA, Bcrm. A tree of Moul- 
mein, wood used for building material. — CaL 
Cat. Ex., 1862. 

NYOLBA or Nyalba. Tib. The Naraka, 
Saks., or hell of the hindoos. 

KYOUNG Bu-Dee, Bckm. Ficus ben- 

Towns three miles apart, are both embrace<l in 
the space thickly spotted with the ruined 
temples of the ancient Burmese capital Pagan. 
Tlicy arc the chief seat in Burmah proper, of 
the manufacture of the boxes and cups made 
of the varnLshed baflket work, comnwnly called 
bckered ware. See Papiu. 

NY-OUNG-GYAT, Burm. Ficus ordifolia. 

NYOUNG OUNG, Buhm. Ficus benjarai- 
noidcs, M/uton. 

NYOUNG-L.AN, BtrRM. A tree of Moub 
mein, wood used for building material. — Cat. 
Cat. Ex., 1802. 


NYOUNG-THA, Buhm. A tree of Moul- 
niein. A strong wood for any ordinary pur- 
poae.— Cfl/. Cat Ex., \m'2. 

NYSA, see Bactria, Greeks of Asia, Kafir. 

NYU, Kind, of Kanawar, Ainus nepalensia, 
llimal.iyan aider. ^ 

NYUL, HiKD. Herpestcs fFfisens, Qf^ff-^ 
Blif. Hcrpestes malaccensia, FUur., Bly. 

NY-UNG-BIM)I, BuBM. Ficus indica, tibre. 

NYUNG-YUWE. see Shan. 


i) IS the tlfVccnth letter ami fourth \fmc\ of 
tlio Gnglitfh tikTigtiagc. iti wliicli it has several 
ecnincb ; — long «.< in /o»^, ijrowii^ oUl : sliorl as 
in lot^ ntit^ lodiff, rot : a !k.iund' afi ol' the Italian 
or German w, or the French o«, a« in »*otr, 
ffo, hiiottf ; a stniilnr but shorter sound as in vo//, 
bftot^foot^ and a longer sound as in /jnn^ mor- 
tal In Sanskrit m, Uke <r, is always long, but 
in the Southern diulecid, there is a atill mitrc 
prolateil quantity of it. 

OADHAL* AsflAH. Storculia rillosn, a native 
of the mountainous countriea to the cast- 
ward of Bengal. Trunk straight, the bark is 
dmooth, but fihmus bags are made of it. Ita 
fibrca are madu into cords by the natives of the 
eaatern frontier of Bengal, to bind wild ele- 
pbanlft with. The rope is made most readily ; 
the bark, or rather all the layers, can be stripped 
off from the iK^ttotn to the lop of the tree with 
the greatest facility, and fine pliable roi)e» may 
be made from the inner layers of Ijark, whilst 
the outer yield coarse rojves. The ro|>e is very 
strong and very lasting — wtit doing it little iu- 



in KcmaoD, 

vitb fine 

Atrong fibres. 

OAK, Eyo. 





























In the tract of country from Asia Minor, 
along the north of Pcr>*ia to China and Japan, 
also in the Tenasserim provinces, several 
ogIu occur, but, in the presence of otlier valu- 
able timber trees, their woods do not attract 
the same attention as that of Knglish oak. An 
o$k is mentioned in the Holy Scriptui'es, but 
it is not idencicaJ with the British oak, being 
cither the evergreen oak (Quercus ilex,) or a 
species nmrly resembling it. Near Sbcchem 
there stood also a tree of the same genus which 
probably was remarkable for ita sixe, being 
called iu Genesis, xxxv, 4, " The oak which 
was by Sbcchem." In tlie war of 1812-13 and 
14, Hip n«fives of the peninsula and the French 

t ly fed on the acttrns in the woods 

lu! S|'jiin. In Morocco and Algiers 

ballota arc sold in the 

■ acorns ** balut** of gome 

of uio oaks «re mtji with in all tlie Indian 

Th« genua ft Quercus embraces about 

IM. SeVfTftl npecics are indigenous 

rim provinces, and on the moun- 

tains of South-Eastern Asia. Wallicb found 
diriV-rrnt species of oak Quercus fenentnita, 
binata. velutina, AuduTstiamifl.Tirbb'" s'-' 
in Burmah and nn the Tena«wrini j 

all affording useful litnber, tJiongh iniVn.i ;»■ u 
Knglish oak. No oak nor chestnut airca 
above U,(H>0 feet in the interior n( Sikkla 
where they are replaced by a H|>ecies of fail 
(Cor}'lus) ; iu the North llr n xl 

other hand, an oak (Quercus (»(i ». • 

vol. i, p. 187) is amongst the tii -: 4 

and the nut is a dillcreut sp#H:u-., i. J 

blitig the Eumpcnn. On the <>utt>r Stkki 
ranges oaks (Q. anmdatJi?) ascend Ui lO.W 
feet, and there is no hazel. It is not genml 
known that oaks are often vcTy tropical pbal 
not only abounding at low elevations in i 
mountaiiL*', but detK-eudin^in abundance to 4 
level ol" the «ea. Though little known io Cq 
Ion, the Peninsula of India, tropical Afnc«,i 
South America, they abound in the hot raO^ 
of the Kastcrn Himalaya, Kast Rerr. ' *' 
Peninsula, and Indian islands ; wh 
more species grow than in any oiht- r pan ol 
n-orld. Such facts as this disturb our [ 
ceiveil notions of the geoj.7rapl»ic:al ■ 
of the most faniihor trilies of plant-. 
great doubt <>n the conclusions v 
plants are supposed to indicate. In I- 
trees which are abundant, and produce 
lent timber, amount to upwards of sixty 
many of the other kinds not useful as 
trees, are, or might be valuable, *"" 
charooa], pot-Ash, pearl-ash, &c. S. 
of oaks are found in Uie forest^, hm i.>«iiui 
qtiick growth and sort wood, tlieir timber is I 
esteemed. Ebony is abundant in mamy (fl| 
uf the island, particularly on the westcxias^V 
it is said to be itir*rior t*j thai from the 
tius, although it has l»eca found a v*»rv 
able ox]K)rt to China. In the nei.' 
of the Lundu river, in the Sarawa. 
are large forests of it. ITicre are three a\ircv 
oak in the Sutlej valley, Quercus incana, 
CVimmon hoary oak, Q. semicarpifolia, 
su," Q. dilatta, "morbu,'' wliich are 
importance to the pines. Vast forests 
occur in various places, as on the east 
Ilattu, on the upper track between 
and Nagkanda, in Mandi, Sukhet, &c 
trees are of great size, SO to lUO feel in h 
they prefer dry situatious, and are not 
cttnvcnient to tlte river. I'he kigs do DOt 
the first and second years being in this 
like the black wood of Malabar. Oak 




reported of hy Uenerai Caut-j viz., a valley, a deaert, a cliatmel of a river, 

f^atMsrri. — Ht. Johtia Forest 'frr.rn of Uri-\ ^ river; waiii-ul-kalnr, * t!i« ^reat river/ 

i, p. 51 ; MtCullvdt'f t'uT/t/«f/'C(«r corrupted into Guadalquiver, which exiim- 

■ p. tfr*4 ; />/•#. FtiHli'iisr ; Mitgon ; ^ p\c is ako given in d'llerbekit and by Thomp- 

. , /fim. Jotir,^ yol. ii, p 336 

,/y. 5y-Gl. bee Acorns, Japan. 
i)KK G M r*^ *""p T.r<H|i4ced on different spe- 

•f the Cynips, or Dip- 

'.i.Ln t)f Q. unl'ectoria and 

l>r. Falconer, wtien tra- 

iiii-ali, wa« infurmed that galU 

on the Bailout oak, Q. halluta. 

:' coniiuerce are BiictHCirah 

• m Btunltay. Mecca GalU 

dt UaJl8, The tliimdavan oak 

i), rhiU (Plua-i iun-rifolia), and 

, cohfintw). are employed for ' Wadi guhennem. 

horn a I'anjah JUportj pp. 41, OATH. 

Kajfni, Ab 

BrKH. A tree of Moulmein. 

son, wlio traces the word water through alJ 
the hmguages of Eunipe, The Saxon wceter, 
the Greek hudor, the Islandio udr ; the Slavonic 
wod, ( whence woder and oder, * a river') : all 
appear derivable from tiie Arabic wad, ' a river' 
— or tlie Sanscrit wait ; the word ba« (classi- 
cally vaA) i« applied to one of tlie«e habitable 
itpota. The word buatee, a hamlet, ia from 
vasna, to inhabit ; rasi, an inhabitant ; or vas, 
n habitation, perha{iH derivable from wah, indi»- 
poivsablc tn an na^iit. — fiurton'g kHljrimtige to 

Mfcca^ Vol. i, />. 2!9 ; ArtUitic Journal^ Sdmf 
IH3»I : ToiCs Hajasifiun, I'oi, n, p. 294. Sec 


liiAde into canoes.- 

KAVKD POLYPOD, Poli podium 

'tIkMlf Mamt. I r»rnukal, Malay. 

' OM bemp^n r^»\x^ pullfd h»ose. nnd used in 
kr caolki 'lit^i? veA4<*lH. Onkum in 

%im w ii • bArti. a gossamer-like sub- 

Inot fioQQd at the base t>f the petioles of the 
Ir^;!:! riw'charifom. — FauUrfirr. 

'Ain, BiTUM. A tree of Moulmein, 
iiouae-building purpoaca. — CaL Vat. 

Hind., Pkbb. 
a religious afHnnntion, an appeal to 

Ctd, Cat. Ex,, witneiM of the .Supreme God. The British 
nation bave« in England and Ireland, the custom 
nf kisi^ing the book, pronouncing tlie worda "so 
help uie God.** The French custom raises the 
hand oa in Gen., xiv, 22; Dcut. xxxii, 40; 
Jeremiah, v, 7, flirbids sweiiring by idols, anri 
in II Kingm xi, 2, and 1 Sam. i. 2t{, the soul 
(or life) of the exalted mim is invoked. The 
Greeks and Romans swore by their tutelary 
^.'ods and the media-vai christians by their 
guardian saints. The oatli administeri^l to ilie 
person who erects the boundary pillars, if a 
hindoo, is the gunga-jul, or the chour or raw 
hide of tiie cow, or swearing by his son. The 
leaves of the tuUi and water are swallowed 
after an oath. If a musulmnn the Koran, or 
the placing his hands on his son's bead. To a 
hindoo tlic chour, and swearing by his own rhild, 
are the most binding. In Uie '* Book of the 
Oath," which a Burmese witness places on his 
head in swearing, one of the numerous and tre- 
mendous imprecations which it contains is, "All 

such fiA do not speak truth if Uiey tntvcl 

by water whether in sliips or boats, may they 
sink, or may they be bitten or devoured by 
crocodiles. —//wrfory of the Punjab^ Vol. i, p. 
151 : YuU, p. 24. 8ee Jam-i oaths. 


. Hun>. In Central India, accommodn- 
Ua. Tlie«e are termed, on tlie faces of 
" ciielaun** or current, in opptv*iiion to 
*Eokr»,*' Off ready money bilL-i. The person 
iHb areoepis tlieee from the drawers, enters the 
KMQfit Against him in his books at interest. — 
ir«Mm*« Ctfitml hulit, Vol. ii, p. 90. 

OARACTA, see Kishm iahind. 
I OASIS, a fertile portion of land in tlio 
IttetlB of AfricM find Arabia. Hugh Murray 
IntvCB tliia *• ' ■- Egyptian, and quot- 

n; ^TTtitH"* fin ! L makes it nyiionymous 

• i llyiwis, but it is believed to be 

.: .J lion of the Arabic word wady. 

ric " wady^' im, generally speaking, a rocky 

r»Urt bij(^tc«) by the bed of a mountain torrent, 

lirT aoring llie hot season. In such places the 

W" '- ' to encamp, because tliey find for- 

\gt ,— water being always procurable 

'ydig^rig, M. Langlcs su^'^gMted the deriva- The oat (fipvfjioi of Dioscordcs) was known 

fm of OmUM frvTu the Ariihic, and Dr. Wait, to the Greeks. The oat is distinguished among . 

I » aetia'of interesting etymologies s<iggests cereal grains hy its loose panicle. A native pru-'^H 

M from va», to inhabit. Vasi and o-tsIm or j bably of the Pemian region. Several varieties ^^ 

MM arc aJm<i*t identical. Sir W. Ouselcy | are cultivated in Euroj)e. 'I'hc grains ofoat when 

hn nearljiF the same signification of Wadi | deprived of their inte/nimenta form groate, when 

l^ppfAti in Juhnsoa's edition of Kichardson, ; these ore crttshed, embdenand prepared groats, 

U7 157 



I 'AH. 

ATfuia ntivs, L, 






Common oftt. 






Ovjosa : owes, 






ittouiiuu- broiDOji, 




Venii, avena. 




lien the ;»Tain ia kiln-4lrietl, stripped uf it« I race, househuld or fomily-gixl ; and 

luisk and delicJite aatcr rfkiii, and then coarMjIy 
ground, it conatitutca tlie (Jfttmeal o( Scotland. 
The hiuk, with some adhering starch Iruin 
the seed, it* sold under the inconsifitent niuncof 
seeds. Oata according to Vogel, comdst of iJ4 
of husk and 6<i |»er cent, of meal, and oatmeal, 
ID 100 partif, 5U of etarch, 4ii of alhuniinous 
matter. Bitter extractive imd sugar, «*25, g\im, 
2-5 with 231»5 of lii^fnin and tnoisture. Dr. 
Chrwtiflon finds oa much aa 72 per cent, of 
starch, and that it conaiHt* therefore of neaily 
five-sixths of real nutriment. Groats and oat- 
meal are uutrient and demuleent. When boiled 
with water (3 oz. to 1 pint, boiled down to 
j a pint), grnel is forniod, which in s<3 
useful as diet n>r the sick. Oatmeal, when 
of tliicker ctawLstence, fiirina jx»iTid^, and may 
be employed for making |)i»ultices. Oats are 
in demand for horses. The following is a fair 
wtimate of the comparaUve production :^ 
England, Acrea 2,5<K),O0U Produce 12.500,000 
reland. „ 2,300,000 „ 1 l.oOW.OoO 
Scotland, „ 1 ,aoO,000 „ C,5OO,0O0 
It iff the hardiest of all the cereal grains culti- 
vated in Britain, of which there arc about 4*) 
species known to Initanijits. Oau were intm- 
duced inlo Patua and Mon>;hyr, but the culti- 
vation is not carried on to any great extent. — 
liotfU : Ilassell; Cat. £>., 1862, A>«9 von 
i?., p. 28. 

OB, a serpent: for Obi-women, Obion, 
Oboth, and Oub, see Serpent. 
OB.\L,HiMD. Fa^tipyrum emarginatum,.V>Mn, 
OBAN, the principal gold coin of Japan, 
worth about £4 2s.—Simmoiufs Diet. 

OBAR, Hnrn. Kotaha, land dependant on 
rain for irrigation same a.** Barani. 

OBARA. Hisu. Houbara macqueenii, one 
of the bustards. 

OBAIRIA, hard, rather fine, generally 
close-grained, heavy Ceylon wood, presenting, 
however, many opoji cells. 
OBEII, see Kalinurk, Jews, 
OBELISKS. *ee Maha deva. 
OBIUA, or Kake^ and Telia pidusa, Tel. 
Strcptium asponim, R. iii, 00 ; Otr. 140. 
Perhaps Oberm or Obhera would be a mure 
correct orthi^aphy. 

OBLATIONS. Jeremiah, iliv, 17, says, 'To 
pouroutdrittk-ofrenngsto the queeu of heaven.' 
The hindoo« pour out water to the sua three 
times a day ; and tlie moon at tlie time of wor- 
sliippitig this planet. Amongst hindooo, kula 
means a family, a race, a tribe. Projwrly the 
got of a hindoi) is his tribe, and kula is the race. 
Hut V !)g the Rajputs meani a tribe ; 

and (-' to the AtfghanJched. Amongst 

the hi in' three kinds of devata or 

dcitic- \\r-thip is given, the Gnunma 

DevBtn or vula^i:-^>t ; th« Kula Devata, the 


' l>erata, the piitron or personal deity ■ 
duals. Adlii-devata is the primitiv« d 
Sthana-dtivata, local deity. The Aryan h 
does not recognize the village gods of SouUieft 
In(ha, but the non-hiudoo Turauian 
largely worship ihcm, and even many of 
Turanian races who have been quo 
to hinduism, worship them. They are 
shapeless pieces of wood or stone smeared 
vermilion, and mostly represent evil spi 
devils. These are Oie Amma, .\mraixii 
Amoor of the eastern and southern parts 
j.)enin»u!ii. and the Sutwai, Bbairo, 
Chamanda, Asra, Ai and Marryai of the 
em and western parrs of the peninsula, 
whom are reeo;^'niKed as caufting harm in 
duals. In liealth, they are neglecteil, but 
sickneiw occurs, either to individuals, or 
epidemic, these spirits of evil are worn 
with mncli solemnity and blo-jdy 
are made to them of goals and sheep 
bullocks and buffaloes. Cwiira or Kula mi 
family and existed amongst Kshatryaand V 
OS well as Bmhmans. The Ontra depend 
real or imaginary community o( blood and 
correspond to what we aill families. No hi 
house is suiJiweed to be witlioul il« tu 
divinity, but the notion attached to 
character u now very fiir from preciac. 
deity who is the object of hereditiiry or 
worship, the Kuta-dcvata, is always Si 
Vishnu, or Durga, or other principal 
of the hiudoo mythology, but the Gnha d 
or housfhold god mrely heara any di)!ttin''t sp- 
pellabon. In Ikngal, the domestic gud \n eoap- 
times the Saligram, sometimes the tulaiti plaoK, 
sometimes a basket with a little rice in it. anil 
sometimes a water jar, to any of which • 
brief adoration is daily addressed, most iL'«uaOy 
by the females of the lamily : oceiL-^imudljf, 
small images of Lakshmi or Cluiudi fulfil i^ 
office, or should a snake appear, it is nvirshippflf 
as the guardian ol' the dwelling. In g<*nenl. 
in former times, the houseJiol<l dciiie.t wtn 
regarded as the unseen spirits of ill ; the ghxMBi 
and goblins who hovered about every speCi 
and claimed some particular sites as their own* 
At the cKise uf all ceremonies, otVerings wen 
made to them in the open air, to keep them it 
good humour, by scattering a httJc rice wtlh 
a short formula. Tliua at the end of tha 
daily ceremony, the house-holder in cnjoiiwd 
by M«nu — 3.90 " to throw up hU ohlatiott 
(ball) in the open air to all the gods, to 
who walk by day and tliose who walk hf 
night.** In this light the household gnds oof^ 
respond better with the genii loconun thfll 
with the lares or penates of antiquity. — HIS* 
mna lliiuL Th. 

OBLON, Sr, ilopa, 

O 158 



k«ft, h found llic coW ciirrenl of Olrot*k a AhIi, tl»^re a* ahunOant as tlaK' uf Newfoijtitt 
8tu»ak or layer, or current of cold wat«r an?w«r- ' latnl. Hurrouuding the ctiOAte of SLUiUwri 
ing lo tliAi bptwcen tlie Gulf Srrpam and llit* A/^ia, |>al^lie»i nf the water* be^-onip 'VtitwioitiUy 

American cinb<t. This currt^nt, like \i» fellnw 

in the AtJantic, i» not Ptron^ enough at all ihncs 

frenaibly lo affect the course of navigation ; but, as far as the eye can reaclu The«e 

like thai in the Atlantic, it is the nursery of by organic matter, but whether il is 

most valuable fisheries. The tfsheriefi of Japan 
are nearly a£ extensive as those of Newfound- 
land, and the people of each nouniry arc in- 
debted for their valuable KuppJies of oxceUent ^ animalcule*. The Red Sea is suppijMed to U 

criiumui, brown, bhick or white, whi'li .-•t' 
;ially in the [ndiim L>cenn, occaaiotiMl 


animal or wholly ve^feiable, or both hm 
been satiBJactorily ascertained. The w»U.f froM 
pink-fltained putcheiA has been found (o c 

fishes to the cold waters which currents of the 
sea bring down to their sborcfi. There are also 
about the e<]uator in tliia ocean some curioun 
currenta, which Maury called the"J)nldnimcur- 
renta^ofthc Pacific, but which he wiys, he does 
not understand, and asiowhich ob^ervalinns are 
not sufficient yet lo afford the pwper explana- 
tion or description. There are many of them, 
some of which at tinu« run with great ibrce. 
On a voyage from the Society to tlie Sanrlwirh 
islands Maury encDuuteredunt running al the rate 
of ninety-iiix miles a day. These cxirrenla arc 
generally found setting to the west. They are 
often, but not always, encouniere*! in the equa- 
torial Doldrums on the xoyivge between the 
Society and the Sandwich Islands. The Pacific 
Ocean and the Indian Ocean may, in the view 
we are about to take, be considered aa one 
sheet of water. This sheet of water trovers on 
area ijuite equal in extent to one-half of that 
embraced by the whole surface of the earth, and, 
accordingly Profeswnr Alexander Keith John- 
itoQ BO states it in the now edition of his 
splendid Physical AtJaa. There is, also, at times 
another warm current running to the south 
midway between Africa and Australia, of 
which tlie whales give indications. Thcac con- 
vey iinniense quantities of highly saline water 
^bidi has to be ro|ilaced by colderwater. The 
Aleutian Islands are in the tractof the current 
from the Straite of Malacca. They are as 
subject to fogs and mists \a Uie banks of New- 
foundland. No trees grovrs on them, and for 
all household purfHwes llifi natives depend on 
the drift wood, amongst which camphor wood 
and woods of Japan and China are often seen. 
The Japan stream known a« the Kuro Sinn 
sweeps along the outer or eastern shores of the 
Japanese islands. This stream carries with it 
the Gulf weed or SargoMJi with many animaJ 
>rms such as Clio, Cavolina, Ptcropoda, Spiria- 
Atlanta and the Pelagian skeleton abrinipfi. 
lima and Erichth^'s ; ubio the Carapaces of 
IP sailrrf-crab called Planes. Near .lajian a 
rreni runs in a tliin layer in shore similar 
that between the gidf sltVAm and the Ameri- 
ooasl, and likn it is tJie nursery of many 
t^ ■ •«. It 19 in t}io cold waters which 

the ocean Imnglo ilsshoro lliat 
inl« of Japan obtain their supplies of 

named from the quantities ol' slimy red cokiuriof 

matter which it, ut certain tinier ihmwn up 

it« shores and which consists of a delicate • 

weed. Along the coasts of China, yellowish^ 

are said not to be uncominou, and red saA 

white patches occuron the waters of the 

which, when seen at night by navigaton, 

alarm, as they are taken for «hoaiU. U 

46' S.. and long. 1 05° :iu' E., Captain 

man enti*red a white patch at dusk, he 

a tub with the water and found it tilled w 

lumino'is jartieles, insects and worms, 

Uke a hair ami about two inches long. 

patch wa;i 2^ uiileD in length, north and 

with a strip uf dark water dividing its 

The whole appeanvnce was tliat of a 

covered with snow. There was scarcely a 

but the sky waa as black as if a FtA>rni 

raging. \Vhale8 are principally about Ceii*ln* 

and the Sulu and Bamla Soa, nortli of tie 

Hiloio ]M48stige. few English t)hi}«t now visit tbcfl 

from want of sucress. The Ketl Sea is ia S 

rirerleMi^ and rainless region, and its wttM 

are heavier limn any other mere arm of tW 

ocean. The Kiltest part is in the imlf <f 

Suejs, the saJtuetui diminishes dtmlh lu 

and again increases eastwanU lo ^ 

the temperature of its waters for thr»e or Mr 

hundred miles from tlie Straits, has bsM 

found as high as 95°. This is pritbably canMi 

by the slight evaporation, att tlie ur^ 

a Huid is tlie slower isitiievap*>raiion, 

have heeu treated of by C^donel C i 

Quarter Muster General of M 

of America, Reid in Engbiud, luut 

Mauriliua, and Peddingtou of Culcuttai. TtuM 

writen* regard cyclones Q» rotatory jtlonsl^ 

which revolve against tlie stm in Ute no^ 

litem and with the sun witli the haad]# 

of a watch in the southern hemisphrre ; aliA 

that the nearer the centre or vtirtcx. the omN 

violent the storm, while the centra itself it 

calm, which travels sometimes a mile of t«0 

in on hour and sometimes 40 or 50 mile* ; tbil 

in the centre, titc borumetoT is low, ritf>| 

as you approach the pcnphery of Uie wbifl { 

that the diameter of the^te storms is 8om«tiaMI 

a tliousand miles, and sonieiimes not more iHm 

a few lengu«a: that they arise somewhat 

between tlie parallels of 10** and 20*^ N. aod S. 

O 160 

tTi l]if> wt-sf^'nni In i*it.hcr licniisphfTP. 
[U«iti^' l)ir\r ilist.-inrp tVom tlio pfpirHiir. 
t r.^:h the ixirallel of 'J5= or 30°, 
j; turn townriU ihc east nr rccun-nie, 
hm* tf» incre.'we Uifiir distance tVom tJic 
I. r., thf)' first travel weHtwardiy in- 
owaM4 the nojirctit pule ; they then 

ikI travel castwanUy still intliniii),' 
|]u> [xih>tf aiitl tJiat i^xn^h is their 
mill hemi!«]>hoix*. hU known that 
ivf e%'erv wiml, ifl a hm;^ our\eti 
I(*«tg1i thi> wind bf hlnwin^^ amund in 
aiatl ihi- hands of a watrh, yet, fmm 
lt;it th- rcntif al>oiit whirh it is hlnw- 
i trnvfOHnB: alonir tho chanjrt?* ol* the 
oln^nrrd hy ft vtywol over which t)io 
]aK&iu;r will nnt under all circuni- 
K* i^niinst thc! sun in the northern or 
«un in the southern hemwi>here. 
krptmtinn lias prevailetl in resjK'ct to 
idr of orpjin waves. Kvcn learned 
ntil vcrj- rerrntly, "mtinned to speak 
ninj? 40 or .V) frethiRh. In November 
iter during a voyage frnm New York 

doc!», In a Aumll hap«jMe» eneoun- 
v of the Ki'vexest humeancs of tii*- 
cBtury. It wac *mc of tho-M' Kro:it 

rtornw, repirted cm by the latp 
Irid, which ?wept down the whole 
llie Carrihtian Scm, and, iiirninj^ with 
fttrejim, foUtiwcd the c*«i?*t of North 
n Xewlounrlland, anti finally crossed 
tic to the shores nf Knplnnd. When 
icd the middle of tlie Gulf stream, 
f otirront wjw three knots on hour, 
|»w of Carolina, the wind was at iti* 
iTce fn>n» the north, almost in an 
ir<-vtion to the current, thus raising the | Huniphrt^ys „ 
rlwil jHMph' (Iciifiht to wdl in iH-ulie I >'"vi«at..r8' „ 
mountains high." When lie mount- 1 ,t;ftviu»(i 

M'ell-<liifined jjeoj^raphic and ethnic ^'roup. Ifc 
woulil llieroliin- c:ill it Aino-ja|t(irie^ia, und it 
will include all the Japanese and Ainu i.-*lands 
Cnmi Formosa to KamUchatka. The FormnHU 
pe<iplc are calleil by the ChintSK Tai-htkok. 
their hair is short and frin;^Mid on tlie forehead, 
behind it han^ U«we. The language of Form€>4a 
or Tai-wan, according U) .M. de U(»sner, api>ear-i 
to hv a braricli of the Oceanii:. Thr* i^'real work 
of I Ij iron William vnn llumh*>ldt, on the Kavi 
Hpecch, li:is nrti'rdod the ini[K)rtant result that 
tlie rescmblaucp known to exist between 
the nations of the islands in the jwicifio Ocean 
termed Polynesian, and the tribes of the Indian 
Arehip*'lago, Malacca and Madii^iscar, are not 
the etfect of casual intercnursc, but are essential 
affinities, dee[>ly- routed in tlic construction of 
those languire«. The Papua hinguagoa, or those 
spoken hy tiio black and W(x*!ly-haired nations, 
are tor the most part as yet imexploreil. One 
observation to be made respecting them is, lliat 
the dialiM'Ls of the I'apuan races ot\en jtartako 
nioi*e or h-sa of llie Polynesian. Whether thw 
arl'ies from the ailopLion hy the Pa[>ua of the 
Polyn<;sian vocalnilary has not been determined, 
th<ni;rh most pers^ms incline to this Inst opinion. 
It is however now well known tliat some black 
natiorw have Polynesian dialects. The idiom 
of the Fijian lilandi'r*, lor example, is properly 
a dialect of the Polynesian langua^^c. Infanti- 
eiile long |)rcvailx^ in Eastern Polynesia and 
till n^cently in New Hebrides. The principal 
grouiis of < )eeanica arc — 
Mnr.iiicsaUds..L. I3S>' to Hl'W..L. 

Society „ .. w t.j ir^r ,. „ 
154* ,. iwr .. „ 

^ **'!;*■ " " 

108- to 173* „ .. 


JO feet, he wiis on a level with the 
J wav<fti wlien the ship was at tiie 
ihe •' t^MjgJis/' Thoy never ri^c 
>r 18 fwt ab«)ve tlie oi'can s love! wln'ti 
-(1, H7), y»lf Cftthui/, I'al. i, j>. 
B'tijfi's /tfju^rt of thf. Hoinhay Gfi>~ 
Socifi'n froui' Mtiif 1^-19 to A*fjttst 
. ixj Jifit* J*hann„ p. tibo ; Mftunfx 
9t4Hfmj4ty, pp. I»l, Jy7-19H, im». 
, :2tM, :i:iO-31 ; A'inms, p. 318 ; 
,e. M.F., L.LJK Vnilr't Staltn sall- 
ioM«, Wnshiiujit^n^ I H5S ; Wxhon* 
^ iihif>Jm%hlinq : Ailftovt^ />. 240. 
iU'A inrlud^-^ nil the. Indti-Pacifie 
rr I im[Kised t/) use the word 

f . j,'reatsoutli-e4ist insular 

vh hod* jnUinaleciUinexions, gcograjjlii- 
inie, Willi A^ta. It wnnhl include In- 
lelancsia, Micronesia and Polynesia, 
tio nnrOi-i'ast chain tlmt lies along 
It, bncxusu it ft>rms a cti&tiact aud 

101 o 

Bowditch „ 

Krieadly „ 
Kiji .1 

l?/iiiinmh „ 
New Xfftlnnd 
,, Ilohrideji 
Ilritaimift IsUU.. 




m%. 18°., 


l.V3rr ti. 

14" 30 S. 





6- N. 

MtirNlmll or Rjdirk Isbls. I'V^' 
— Tni'nrf\t Poftftuxia, p. 1 7o ; Tiffrman ^ 
B^wct'x Traich : (fills Gems from tht Corttl 
hlamh ; fir. Pritfhiinl in Ji/fi. Brit. j4m., 
1X47, pp^ *J4 1-250, 

OCKANUS, see Osiris. 

OCIIIC, Hixn. Kubus lasiocnrpus. 

OCllNACE/E, DO. An order of plants com- 
prising 8 species of Oclina, 3 spocies of Gom- 
phia and 3 species of Enthcnua. 


U*!wn-wtty, ,, I i^iinuri Taiunii-chettii, Tki. 

A small but handsome U*ce, growing io 
south ei'n India, B» Br» 


TfcHNA ZKYLANICA, Lam, Syn. of Gi>m- 

OCIIUA, or okro, AlK-Inioschiw c^culonttis, 

l)ic« HibUicm eaculcniU3 of nutliors, a [iliint of 

'liicli tlie fruit isKmnl aa a vegetable in rho Kast 

id Weet Indies, thcUnilc'il States, and in S«mt|j 

lAmcrica, und wluch is remarkahlr for tiip »i- 

nilarity of its name lo the vegetable called 

Mira by the Greeks, hut which has not been 

Uvertaintxl by iKiranistM. .'Hie names by -which 

iiK piwlucc of the Ni'W World I** di.stingul-*hed 

in ilio workri of Mnrcgmvc and I'iso are Quin- 

inibfj and Quipoiubo, and in the later 

Livorkn by tliat of (Joiiiho and Goiid)aut or 

Mimbeau. It is pusyibh', tlierfloro, tliat a claj*- 

sieal name wliich was \\o\. t^therwise engaged 


of the* Bengal army, who was Ue^idont at Di'llii 
and nllerwards I'nnimandotl in the Ne[<iiil hjt. 
(X:iMrM ,M)8C.KN1>ENS, WitMf. 

O. cri8tatum, Kun. I rieetnuiUiU8indicu5,iSfrRi9. 
U. indictnn. Roth. \ Unn-tuisi, Beng. 

Grow:!) in the ponta^tda of India and in Bmi^ 
gal. It has HinaU pule rose-coloured scentlH 
tlowera. — Voif/t, 

OCIMUMBASIUCLM. Buiiai. Comwaft 
Bfuil, haa many varieties, differing in ihor 
size, in the form and colour of their leaves, kwI 
in minor particulars : in their qtialiti*- 
ncarly alike. The «mall seeds an 
ctKiling and mucilaginous, and wm 
^iven in p>nojTbtva, aHor urime, an<l 
of the kidneys. Common sweet ba*il is nut nu* 

Tenasserim : the varieties are — 

may have been applied to a now vepiitable, and, I in gardcoB, but not met with indigemiiM in 

bus })een the case in many inf*i»nce^, with- 

Frut any attempt being made to identify the 

dant namefl with that wbicli had been do- 

^•rib*.'d by clu«sical authors. The okra plant 

abounds all over tliel-^t and West Indie»*, and 

OiC TenaMerim Provinces. — Kty^ish Ctfcio- 

.Ji(i» p, VA^ ; Moson. 

OCU(K>Yiyr, Hkno. Monnda tinctoria. 

OCHIiE, Ucd. 

:jrih-t'u, CmK. 


led fMJuv, KXG. 



yel!t»w ochre. 

U»iwig-t'u. <•-'""• 


ewdiH', Gtnf..,lIiKD. 



tv*r. (a) O. pilosum, Stmth., 

O. minimum, liurm. not/.. 
0. hi^piduni, Lam. 

Hnbuk, Au. 

Biibui-tulsi, llixu. 

Growji throuifhout India 

O. liiRpiilulnni^&AMi 
0. cilmlujii; /Toni 
Bn^ilicuui imhruflL 

Riban, IhuK. 

Niu-bu, ,, 

It han ftmall vliile 

flower^, the whole plant \a oromatic and fnijiran^ 
the Boeds steeped in water hwcII inU} a jtlcasuil 
jolly, which i:^ donmlceiit and nouri>ihin>!, luij il 
utied by tlio nuliveM in case? uf oktarrh, dionbu* 
I and chn>nic dy.ientcry. It \9. common in I'ffpet 
I India, and very common as a wood over afi 
' Kajwarra. The green leavi-s have a deiiouvi 
An earthy mixtiu-oof alumina, whca oxide | j^^^^.j,^ ^.^actly like verbena, the seeds a« d- 
fof iron, and oUier Bubstanco-s, found in beda tn ; ceedingly mucibginous and sometimes u«a m 
ous partH of England, India on the Con- j ^ aemtilccnt. The dried plant prcnnts hm 
ncnt, &c. It ifl pcnerally of a yellow or , ^pp^^^^i^j^g >,^^ ^^^ The -wL. ar^ ominatti, 
rown colour, but is sometime* reddened by. j„,j ^^ ^ y^xnneix to relieve altor-]«un». 

Mir.^. O. antMtnm, Smth. Bosdlicum ritrstuB, 
U. bAailicum,£.noti/w/vi. RtaiifL 

Sw*eflt BAfiU. 

A native of Persia, with amuU while floirfliii 
aromatic and fragrant 

vnr.y.O. ^\&hn\X\m\^ lienth. 

dcinalion. It isprcpan-d for u^ by gi-inding 

iid eJutrialion ; and is employed as an ingrc- 
mt in painter'.-* colour.s i» tlie polishing of 

lotaia and stone--*, and for other purposes. 

rhre sometimes ccmtaiiu* a Ultle calcaroous 

latter and magnesia. The oxide of iron may 

•cur in so large a proportion that the oclire I O. rwitpiivlloium. liaib. 

Peonies an ore of tliat uietal. In England, { O. int^-Kemmum. WiUde 
^brc ifi fomidin beds i*ome feet thick, generally i A native of Guinea, Bengal, and Penaug 
ibove ibe oolite, and co^ereil by sandstone and has smallish white flowers. The whole 

lartzotfc sands more or Icse ferruginous, and | is very aromatic and fragrant. 

•conipjinicd by grey plastic clays of a yellowish 
reddish colour. All Uicse substances enter 

O. lancrolatuiii.Airitfsi 
(iulal-tulfli. Bjexo. 

var. t. 0. thyrsiflorum, Benq. X^ i2ari., Jiwf. 
A plant of the peninsula ai India, with smftlt 

to the com[K»ition oi the ochres. The ochry ^^^ ^-^^j^ (iowci's, the whole plant very an^roilio 
irtlis arc ground under e*lge millstones and jind fragrant. The following arc synonym* 0( 
hUriated for use : lh«t yellow ochres may he ^ ^y^^ ^i^^^^.^ varieties. 
.auged intD re<l or rwldish brown by calcina- | ^^ ^^ 

>u, whereby iho iron is raised to a higher | yn,^. 'sij^hSsferum, „ 
Tee of oxidation. Native rc<l ochre is also i Ik0«.lc, „ 

IW red chalk and rcddlo or bole. ■y^^A'::':!:^:::^:^^.... Z 

ires arc used iw pigments, and m Linna, as i |j,jt,uj ^^j^,^ ■ v.ti»*\. 

Icr to burns, scald?, itchy and .s<ib«i, l>Pit. 

,pty,„ .S™.VA', W.,. Mat. M^l.. I «;-';-»■»- '^-'j,'^-; 
rltif. Tot. 1, p,ld\K Ni.u-bu, 

tjijY, Sir OaVIPv a pmenU officor I Kiu-lni: I»«ban Blittli, PKk». 

102 O 1C2 

Angtinlit lotnt'UkkanJ'nL 





Tumut putchi, 
rftitliitmh f'hixldt, 
Rudm jmlii : Vi>|iuUu 

Bhu tuljuf. 



t ui uut puctAJbte to (Imtiii^ui^h tlio 
tnriicuteH by Hif^m. — Drg, (/Hfuiutjh- 

p. 4!J2-y3 ; Mason ; 2nnnf„ (Jen, Mtd, 
JIMI ; J^-^K Fl. ftul. ; r-rtiV/r. 

I'M CANUM, Sivu., linl».? 

O. arapficitnuni. Lrttn. 
O. incanei»reufl, Mttrt, 

Viic- '■■':■■. Sax*. 

keoia. B., L. 

i>] ; Wild mint, KuU^ Tvj, 


hroaf llicHnuitft, Madugaacar, E. Indies 
.-» ; in Iniliu, itsHnil) tilxmt a foot high, 
T«wn in mUJvi' frarik-n:*. Flowers wliitt, 
w* n mrtit plc'isiini nnnnatic tante uiid 
ic juJi'c i« ^nven to children in cfyUU 
PXtoiit of a teu-spooniul twice chiily. 
id IcarrH are a-ncd a^ a Kub.-*iitutc Jijr 
igfutit^hiifXff, p, 593 ; HuttleU, 
VM CILIATUM, //or«. Syn. of O. 
, Pttrtit., Linn. 
UM FKinE.SCEN3, Burm, Syu, of 

Um. Linn, 

VM GLABKATUM. lientJi. Syn. of 

Mlilicuin. Hnrm,, Liitn, 


iro, Lattt., IVif^fi. \ O. xoylaiiicuni, BrilM 

Hnfn. I Ram tnUi, lltxn. 

RpeciM i« ciiltiviitoil n«kr templca. It 
k' ur jKile yellow Hower^ with u very 
msrnHici.'.— ^rVit. J/i-i^ Top., p. 2<M). 
131 msPmUM. /.dm., and O. htmu- 
IwtA., are sva«. r»f (). s:incltuu, Linn. 

Stfh, j o. tiHjntnnitin, Jlnok. 

nmi phuir nfN. Aniirieii. 
UM MINIMUM, B»rm. Biish basU. 
IK'ininni h:i.silicuni. Ltntt. 

and 19 f;rrown in tlio court yard oi almost 
ftvwy vaishnaTxi hntiso, however small. It* 
i*oot Ls made into hcrnU and worn round t)ie necka 
and aniw of the Vi-^hnii brahmini*. Tho vaat of 
the [ilant is given in deco(!tion in fevois, half a 
tea-cm>rid twice daily. The hriihiniamwe it in 
their Jxineral ceremonies. TheMalaysaUistrew 
it over the graves of their dead. lu the Dekkan 
it is grown in almost every native garden, and 
is uaed for varioiu purpoeies by Europeans for 
rtavouring sauce^t, wine or vinegar. It is seen 
about the temples of hind<>o«, where it 

*' wnvea 

lis fla^ant hlustionifl u'er their praves." 
In Pejju, it is steeped in water ami drunk as a 
idierbct. 'Die leaves have a pleasant nmniatic 
4niell and tu^te, and are used a^ ^t'Otnaeliics. 
and in the caturrlw of children. The Kcefls are 
mucilac^inous and are used in gonorrh(!ea. — Dri. 
Ii<xvf>uiffh\% /v. Intl. ; O'^iuttu/hnifMStf^ p. 40S ; 
Ainit. Mat. Mr^L, p. 14^^; /M^-^*//; RiJtUU ; 
Mason; Cat. M. Kv,, IS^T : I't^fflCs Hdnrl- 
book\ Vol. i. p. 30G ; GenL Mfti. Tup.^ p. 2()0. 

of vur. O'imum bjisilicmn, UuEU., Linn, 

Syn. of Ocimum Kinctuin, Linn, 


Its root ifl used for food in Java, Sco ConVoI- 
vuln» batatas. 

OCIMUM VILLOSUM» Ro^x^*. WfN.lly basil. 

ren-wing-ttlunn, hriuc. 
"i'ubisi. Tab., Tbi„ 

Ariikkarm. Trl, 

Ttlla ffiiggoro chottu, ., 

ni, Hmth. 
Xiw^vjxi. Lam. 
ItmiU), Lmn. 
rww. Uunn. 

i. A a. 


Biuilicum ii^^ate, 
nectnmlhiis mono- 
chi»rmu, Spr. 

NaiU t[rla^1x, Malkai-. 
Bkxo. Kritthtift tulsi, Maijui. 
I'urnA.-^ SrjraAai Sk^m. 
RtnoL. Arj>ikii« „ 

iHjtL Kull-uiitAnrtulsi, Tam., 
Esu. Tku 

lia^il, t. Kri'ihmt tuliu>ii Tri» 
niKii. Nnllii Kig^rii, „ 

pinnt «U;.'htIy art)iiiiiiit.*, prescribed by 
HI* in deciH'lioti in the bowel eoin- 
iTtr^'hinj; chiJdren. Every vaishnnva 
J liuil in its parterre, which is 
■ Ity the fiiinily, and \a encir- 
ly in ihe morning and worshipped. 

Tfw [(not. 
Jar. Drx. | Tuliuwe vajT. Tax. 

The liratif. 
DrK. I Tulat>«e va>T niaiini. Tam. 
pbuit ii «UTed (o ViAiinUi held 
vcacratiou by all Im I'ullowera, 


Cultivated in gardens and near tcraplca. 
; An aromatic herb, leaves used for seascnings, 
I of easy cultivation. In all Omrti* of Justice, 
llie hindoos are sworn by these leaver, which 
arc pUiced on the palm of the hand by a 
Brahmin, who repeati? the prescribed oath, and 
at tlic teiTuiiiatitin they are miieticated and 
tswallowed. A good number of tlic ftpecies of 
thid geniw are used in cof»kcr)'. — Ci<,il. Med, 
Top., p. Ufi>; Joffiffj. Sec Vegetablea of 
Southern India. 

OCUDOMA, a genu,-* of anta. See Anla. 
OCOTEA. Species of Ocotea extend Irom 
SyUict to Deyra Dlioon, and ascend to 7,000 
feet. The fruit, ^watithw nut<«, or Pichurim 
I beans, would be wortli examination. The Massoy 
barkof commerce w of doubtful origin. It is 
light, soft to the touch, in long, convex frag- 
ments, covered with an epidermic of a whitish 
grey colour, with numerous liclieus, internally 
reddish, tl-wue rather gpongy, brittle, fracture 
irregular, thickntAs not sur|ja*«ing two lines. 
Taste pungent, bitter, and jteppory, odour 
strongly that of sassafras, with a trace of nutmeg. 
The natives of India attribute tonic projKirties 
to this bark; ii is rich in csdeutial oil, and 
proceeds from a lolly luid robust tree, vcr^ 




mmion hi Svvt Guinea and in .Inva. M. lunl. hulHirig it benr, it can n.» Imi;,'.' 

(jIuilBiurt }\m 'lotvutol in llii." hark llic vnhiiii- 
dubsUiucf piX'vioasly nhscrvotl in iln- |iiclmi'iiji 

tlir titiiiT nf a ruwiii}; 
the animal as :i wiif 

inn, but if* (-*ni| 
Thene sails nw 

boan, I'V- :uUU N> the iirocedin^Tttrtirlw I.rid; that, when turneil W-kwards and 

notices (il'two inoro !«|K'ci«g of (M^te.i, ami tlirei' 
r Litwoa, liul their iirMpertics are not of niatt-^ 
d ienporLinco. — O'ShnwjhnviMff^ jtji. 540-547. 
OCK-SKIJ, i.r Wu-Kin, rhrce iinltintlH on ihe 
east ctxwt til" Cliina, tin- wtstom and larirwl of 
which id in Ui. 24'" 51^' N., 1 U»" 27^' E. 
(xn'OPODII).!-; a faniilv ..f CVphaloixMlous 
nihisca which may be tliiw Hhown ; 
Clabb I. — CephaIop<-»fla, (V|ilial(>j)ocl*. 
Ordkh I. — liibranohiata. 
Sectklv a. Oct«ij)ii(hi. 
FvMiLir I. Arjronautidie. 

^/atttf.~Ar(conautA. Arp:*innut tn jmner fuiilor ; 
rwrm/, 4 9[h,/tMtit^ L gp. Ayw. uCthiiH 
Kamilv il. Octnpodidrc. 
frVrtz-zvi-^tk^topus, !"(■*'. +1 sp. .Vf/rt. oisltipus. 
Suh-1/matA. 'rri'iurfcUtpUfi, r<v*. 2 sp. 

Vinni-M^iMiw-", rituivd ocUjpus, rec. 1 ep. 
I*. Ciirdifnrtnttt. 
KIHune. rw., J H[M.«eiv«>. 
iMmitotithiti, rrv. I spucifO. C. Miilleri. 
r]uh)nuxl8, rec. tt hih^cios. 

rn>i"ca*>r Owt-n ^li^^dc3 tliL' Octopodf* into 
two {7i*ou|rt nr tamilit'^, the Tcslaoea and tliu 
Ninla. The 'IVvUicva coiwwt o! Uio ^^tMuTa 
\ oautik and Ilfllemphon. 0( Ar;;<>naiitji, 
^ ' id aperies '>ccur in the [*ca8 uii ihe wnith 
nnd faat ul' Atia, viz., A. aryo ; n»rnu ; rvm- 
biiim ; gondola ; hian.s ; tliaiLstruin ; tubcr- 
culata : and vitrca. A. ar;^ ha.s been from the 
t'Uriie;*t peHrxls an object ol' inttrc^t tn zooli rf(iAL\ 
in conscf^nencf of the account^t of itji Kiuhn-Iike 
lufcbit4 haiidLrd duwn to lu Ironi xVri^totle, 
IMiuy, /!Clian, Oppian and others — and in oon- 
iienoe of the diirercncG of nj*inion cnter- 
ncd with repird to the inhabit;int of tho 
Shell by nuturaltHts ; i<onn; hi»ldin;i that thr 
ccplialojHKl tound in it was a mere parasito or, 
even worse, a jtinito that had dc^troyetl Oiq 
li^dtiniaU; tm^^^^ and ixwsewod hiiiuHdl' ol' tiie 
nhell ; and others, that iho animal wiw the law- 
ful jKwwj-air and ordinal onnjitructor of it. In 
ISSfi Madftimt Jeannctti' Tower laid before the 
Aoademy at Catania hrr ' Oworvaziimc Fwiche 
«opra il I'ulpo de I'Aj-pjnauta Ar;;;^i/ Lii which, 
after a long and careful course of in'pury, she 
mentioned that it constnicta iU own shell. 
The Arvonaui ia ftimif>hed with eight nrra*, hav- 
ing on each two rows of snr.ktrs ; the. first tn'o 
are more nibust tlian tJic others, and 
t]d be BO lK*caiwc they *ervc la niastd Ut 
^'iila, which, .■•pread out, act betfore 
mich. At the hum they have on 
ioi AidfJi till! doubly row of Ruekera, 
other f\x ; but from the inferior row, 
I an inch fnni; (Im b;iac in adult«i, u 
'^irrviwi'd i!i'''iil'ranr 1m _'iiw to develop it- 
CJLten*!- ;h i'lXT oa the lip uf the arm, 

Jti o 


a;:,niin,-it the slioll, they c^in otitjrejy 
pnjttM't it. The true »»ffiee of tUe^ 
that of keeping thenwelve* apjilied to thr 
at all tinu'H, in rc3er>v for the moment wh< 
animal, eominjjr to the i*urfa<reof the w»t«Trf 
moved theui.and, spreading them, nuju-:* 
«aiJ«. In i'a<!t, the scries of Muckers of the nil^l 
ttrnw, wlun the memlrninv of the sailsi^ 
about the shell, in placed exactly »»ver th 
of it in auch a manner that eiu-h sucker e*> 
jnmda to each jwint in which the rilw of 
i*heU terminate, until they n-Jvch tlie tw* 
girw of the Mpind. Captain IMiilip 
Kin^', K.N., durin;; \m well-known v<m 
met witli sjtecimen.s uf Arj/itriania. < 
patsaye from SantiiH u* St. ratlierine\ 
rih"" »mth, he cauffht. a Dolphin ^0»ryi 
the maw of which wiw found filltvl with sIm 
Arjr\»iiautu tuberculosa, (^Arula of OwrtiJ 
all containing the(Jctopiw fwyilnK; tlukt ha« i 
alwayi^ ibund ha its inlmbitant. M*vA 
specimens were crmihed by tlic mirr*iw 
into the j<t*Mnach, but the smaller ones 
ijuite jM.'rfcct, and to itome of them wasi 
nidu* of tyvv, which wujs de|>o«iuiI lietwitciit 
animal and the spire. The ahelb 
-^ize fruni two-tliirds »'f an inch to twoajid 
inchcjj iu lenjrth ; e^tch euntjiincil JUi tict 
the bulk and ehajie of which wrre so c^iui)ii 
adapted to that of the .-diell, Uial it 
an if the shell iiicrease<l wiili the itniiuaTi' 
gn»wth. In no specimen did there iippear tf* U 
any connection bt'tween the animal and ibd 
ithell. Several siRreiu-* arc already knowa 
inhabitants of tlie seas of worm latitudes, 
littoral and [Hdiij^ic : 

Elotlonc (AruU'itlc ; Uiwh), — Armflprovi^ 
with a sin^jle series of sHTwilf ucoUibula. 
K. ventriu^i (Octiipus veutrir>»HiiH, 
Body short, ntund, tlie I'ijrht ornut co 
at their Iwv«k- by a membrane. 

Oct*»pas, L'lm, XXoXvirtiVS, fstnch. [ts 
ar*» piMvidc'i with a double alteraale 
of jioftiile ncetabula. 

O. vulgaris (Se])ia octop™lia, Littn. ; 
oeU>piLH, Gtfwl. Body short nnd ovid, 
oiglu ariud couucut«d at their liftM- by a 

Madame Phwer writing on the hnitiiA 
the PouliH! or Cuttle, mcDtions Uiat int<» oni» iif 
her a«piaria j*be liad put n living I'inn.i 
udherin;; t*j a fraipnent of rock : this a<, 
also contained an Octopiw vtilgaria nod i^.'\u^i 
living' le!*taciH>u:i molluseii. On.- d.ty Av fsiw 
llittl the Poul|)e wofl boll! ^\ 

in one of its aniw, and i i ■ i nj, 

which was o{»etuiig its vnlves. As aoon as they 



lriy«|N'h. \\u- I'nui|M!, with im I'l'liKU 
I^Miiptitmlu, (Wiii-'ril the tUmw hv- i 
T?jo vaJvc*, prt'vciuiii>r tii<i riiiim i'roui 
Uirrn Aintiti, wlicn the*Jf'to|>usset about i 
ing the nioUtiHC. T)ienu\t thiv t!ihi*i4:tw ' 

\ytr. crtali *onii? Telliiw, llicu ^ejirch 
am>iiJgi«t tither dlu^Ils, ninl ilrmUy strutch \ 
^%v^f u* a Tritjnn uixlilVruni. Thi? Triutii 
1.1I IialC tlic btniy Jrt»m iUshcll, no ilt»ul>t | 
ftli.- i..i>t„im^. ^|f giitug Ui Witk iLh JiumI, I 
^K■ sjiraiijr uptm it, oiid stim)iiiuJe«J \ 
t III- itiTtia ; tJn' Mnliib/Kt ri;tire<l procipi- , 
into iti!i alioU, nnd in cUtMiui; tliin with iu 
ilum, piiit'lu-tl the fNiiut til'une o\' tlu- ariiu* 
I'«»ul^H?. which, by Btrng^liii^', at 1:^*1 \iii\ 
arm in (he shell olthi.' Triltm. TIic 
'thf Puuli*? is such, that milwithsland- 
uiitlanro ofnoiiriithiiKMit witli which 
Itnl il, she was t\ini|tcllod to rciunvi* 
ai^uorium, ur it would li»vc devoured 
Insca. So i^cat id itjf vnracity tliat 
attat'lv mu4i, tear;* awa^' hi** lU-.-*!!, iiud 
^ln tlie jKvrt of Mi^vina. tlicy iwcur in •p'eat 
ol" Iiti-]^*slze. Uni'Oclopiw (.hinen- 
k\ by .\iiuiii» was »\\ Ich;! iVnin tip 
of iIjc amis. — I'uifti'/i'/t uf thf Afitintture 
iJSmnjU, Voi. If p. lU<i ; Muilame JeancHf 
\ ifl //k AnnaU anr/ Miitfuziiie of Natut'<tl 
Hiuj. ('tfc. ; Wooffv^anfit Hrcrnt and 
; /niiian FiM ; <iJ. -^</«m«' Traveh 
ijtan nnd MiitwJiouria, Set* Mitthisc^i. 

'YIN»I>A, a t^Mitw of ;iwift-UhH«d crabrt 
Il run with swilliu'M.-- on Icvfl sand. 
Oinliiuiujn, Eilum.^ Miuiritius. 
•Iiricii, Hitrii., OdWiica. 
.'Hit-iplitholjun, JCihi^.^ Efcypt, Mauri- 
liut. .Yew Hniliiiitl. ^ 

brevic-jriiis, JCiiivt.^ Ka^t Inthus. 
uiAtrnK't'tii^ Jjltt'n., KcuhI fudicH, Umzil. 

CYK»DE COUDATA.nyn. of Gei^arcinu^ 

[*A, S%it.v. A fcrr)' boat. 
lAIXAM, VLaleal. ('<TU,Tfti>iialhim, Gtvrt. 
*1>AL.VP(J]£K liattio, fought oil the 4th Dec. 

'ASvSl, a hind<x) scot, foimde-d by Srct— 
_»»n of Nanuk. The rtc^H iti widely 
id nil arc pnmd of ttiuir cimnection 
DAY OfU «f (VKihin, ifl extract*,'*! from u 
pr of chat iianio and given U* cattle when 
wiirkc*d. It if^lU lU ^< aunad a ^uort. It 
■at to thu Gxhibitit>ii uf ibol. 
'OA, a river of Itewah. 
H)A-MAKAM, Tim. '/ A tree of Travan- 
H ffvt in circumfi-roiicv, wood of a dark 
r, u*cd fijf lent-ix-gs, iiiaUutu, &c, ; very 

4*AGA. Tab.? A wood of Travan- 
lUrk-hniwn colour. Used for cum- 
bmldiiig purfwecs. — Cul. Frith. 

1G5 O 

( *l )KVIH « )U, siH.' Mahiatla ^^ovorutiicnt, 

<)i)| AL, -cf K**liiifr<»o. 

n|»|\, a deity of the Sc4Uidinaviant) ; Oilin," 
like /eii£t wud the iEthcr. Sco Hindoo, Sacri- 
fic-e» 8a!i. 

<)]>iNA I'UMATA. 

H'ocHliah WiH>d, 


KctriUtl, nAvx,HKAt«. 

Ilfk ipiHs. IIIr KiLAsHiniiii, 
I'UIikm HuTUw. 

l«Hlm; JHIdf „ 

Ani tjuimk, Tam. 

tJixitiy luiirani, „ 

ti>Xi[Dptkrui t'hottu, Titi^ 

.flfivthvii miirum, Tak. 
I -.»/.C. C. 
OUINA \V0|>II:K, /?o.Wi. 
IMiutitikiL, Nulditiln".!, Ukah. 
Ilnan bui, y,i\ bliiiv, Nii lno. 

It CUM. 

KumlKil, CiiKirAii. 

lUtriii, „ 

Kutilu, „ 

Kiioiiil, Ht!ni.« Juki vm. 

M^H^-vr, Maiiii. 

A hiDA-' tree whicli ;^rowi* in the warmer parts 
of the 'iAhun\ of Ceylon, up Xa> an elevation t>f 
UoUiMt-et, It is a native of moimt;iino!w 
district.^ in the [mdnflula of Iiiilia, (n''>wf« in 
0>inibatore, and is found in the ctmul jungles 
iif the Bombay prt?«idency. In (he Mzulriut 
(iredidency it is gr*»wii from cuttin^rs and pbint- 
wl in avenuca, hut it yields no Hhade in the hnt 
wtyilher, hein^ without leiives till June. The 
tree ii* ralJier rojututm on the bills of Itritinh 
Uuruiah^ I'lie l)oarl-wo«KJ in rod and L* useil 
f(ir slieatliH of swords, itpear handle:!!, oil prcA^s 
and rice-iioundeitf- A cubic llxH weighs (!/> Ih.*. 
In a l'ull-;:rown tr<'e on ^ku\ .soil the average 
length of the trunk tothe tir:4t biandiUyO iavt, 
and the avera;/e ^'irih, imuwured at fei*t fhuu 
the gniuiul, i.* \'J feet. It nclU in Pegu at 12 
aniuis |K.'r cubic foot. The wimhI in wry dilil- 
ciilt to sea.sou, re.|uirin|^ to be kept, even in 
planks, 2 or *1 years : hut^ unce well-^easuned, 
it is a close-;.'rained, beautiful wood, well adapt- 
ed for cahinrt-makiny purpL>ses, thecentralvred- 
di'ih portidiift in particuhu*. It is a mro tree in 
MiuTce anil llaznra. It, nr annlher species, 
occuTf* quite cojiaimu fnHii Mouhoein Ut Toun- 
goo, wliere it yi(dih4 a valuable tiinher. It i& 
much used at SbawayjL,')'en, iu the maniUacturo 
of oil pre.-is<irt and iice-|»oundi'rs. The tr<.x' 
Nomrtimtw attains a girtli of twelve feet. A 
cnasitlerable ipmntity of mun oxudtj* from the 
trunk of this iroe, which the natives ut<e :is a 
medicinal application. It.s ^'uin, tlie Kania ni- 
K(«>nee ^»?»d, also H^ni-jiiifina, riweuibU-s Uo,- 
true jrtim ambic Itoth iu api>earance and pro- 
Iiortiu-*, and is often Ijirgely mixed up with the 
Kast Imlia \^i\n arabic of commerce, which 
olWn citntjuns gums, collected indwcriminalvly 
from a number of different trees, iiieludini^ 
several species of Ac:icia, Odiua wodinr, and 
Feronia elephantuni. In some places it is lopped 
for fo«hler. The gum is used in cloth-priuling, 
also by weavers for slill'ening tlioir ihreiul, 
aud is given in asthma, and as a c*»rdial to 
women. It aHccuds the s1o|«'j* of lUc moun- 
kains ia the Bbabur forests of Kuiuuou, altuiLia 




u. height of 1:2 u> 15 It'LH clour nf lu'iiiichcM with ' ami Suuf^ha, of which tho 

ft (jirth oi' 4 Toet. In tliu Siwulik ru^loii *>( the 
I'luijab, up to near tiie IrnliiK nin\ noar tlit? Salt 
liiiiiLn;, to a height nt' ;J,o(M» tn 4.000 let- 1, tlii>* 
trfv attiuti^ a consul.*rible size. The outer wijod 
U liahle to ho attat'kiMl willi woniis the inner \» 
rlnrk-cokmred antl tolcrahly durable and i-* a-*ed 
il.nUir I'rnmea.— C«^. Cut. Kt\ lh«2; lUnles 
AfSS.; Thomjiions MSS. : Thw. N,*. PI. Xr*jl, 
p. 7(^ ; Orn. Jtaxft., V'fi'jt^ ^S^jht^ CUf/fivrn, 
(V&AifON, Jlnitnn^ Bcatulit^ (XSfMHykufjtBi/t p. 
:;7'), find ./. h, StfH'iti't, ;.. 4t>. 

ODOAKDO BARBOSA, a gentleman of 
Li^Utn, who, in his v<>nlli, tnivollc*l in the 

repro-'icmfd aA a iijuijile. The bit 
ol' die Jaganuth tigures \a |>n.i\tsi 
dotiht by their adoption a** tl»e ro 
ut" the hrahinanif-al avatar of Bud 
annual utniunar?) nf Miithuni an 
Tbc jMiIitieal liniiu nf Orisaa undi 
jxwerful kin;;s» are «iid to huvo « 
tlie Ho»>y;bIy and Damuda rivers oa 
and tj> tlie Godaviu-i on the ^outk 
ancient pmvinre i*i Odra-tle^cl, or (J| 
limited to the valley of tlie Muhani 
the lower counse of the Suvarnit-rili 
It coniprl'*cd the whole nf tin? pre-tei 

Ka^t. and he appears l»> liave visited Midacca I of Katak (CiiLtack) and Sanibluilp 
before it wan taken by tlio I'orluj;ue.4t' in loll, i |xirtiiHi of Medinipur. It was htmn 

iJe wrote a book in loJO. In 151M he 
jointxl Magellan and ivjw trejicheroiialy mur- 
dered in ir>:il by the native* of Zid)ii, t)ne of 
ibe riiJIippincsi, four ilaysf after the ^eat Navi- 
gatur ba<i HutTercd a like futc. — /iiX bmwy, p. lUO. 

OIKK »JATEE. IIiNin .hwticia eebolium. 

OlXMHJAII VKNUA. Tam.? A «tronK good 
wowl of 'rravancoTO, of a dark-bniwn i*i>lour, 
specific gravity 0-.S53. 4 feet in circumference, 
and 40 lV*ct long ; lued for wheeU, guu car- 
&c.— C'yf. /'V.'M. 

ODOUIC'LIS, a friar, who viaited many 
irts of the e:wt. He conunenerfd hi« travels 
1:M8, and died:it Padua in VSM. From the 
luthern part of tbe coast of Oifoinandcl, he 
iK*ec<led by a navigation of twenty day;*, to a 
tuntry named I^mori (perhaps a corruptinn of 
Arabian j\l-rami,> to tlie sonthwaitl uf 
wbiob i)« amither kingtlom named Sumoltniv 
nd I'liMU tlienoe a birge island named Java. 
|i« at'-count, which was delivered orally Ui tlie 
?rw»n by whom it was written di>wu, U ex- 
•niely meagre and uiwiitisfacttjry. — Mor$(lent 
^Utotif of Suinatra^ p, 7. 
OUiL\ or Orissa. General Cunningham 
»li«'ves that the kingdom of U-cha, or Oda, 
tken of by Ilwen Thsang, corresponds exactly 
ith tho nnxleru i>nirince of Odra, or Oriwta. 
the time of that budd'hist pilgrim, the 
ovince wiw 7,'.M.H» li. it 1,107 miles in cir- 
lil. and waA iKiunilefl by the great sea on 
le rtiwih-<'ast, where tliere w3-4 a fani'fUd aca- 
>ri town nauKtl C'be-li-ta-lo-chiug, or Chari- 
apura, tbat is, the "t»wn of embarkation" or 
leparture." ThU, General C-unniiighain «np- | 
ra to have been the present town of Piiri, 
*• the City" near which st-iinds the fiimmw 
inpio of Jagiuiutb. Outaidc the l»iwn tiiero 
ilve conUguo»M tiUt[iii wirh lower* and 
(viliotu of great height, and he suppose^i 
one of tliesc, which is now dcdicatcxl to Jaga- 
;iath. Tlie three ahai»elc«» tigiues of this 
brothtT and -(tHter, Baladeva and 
irn nimpb' riipie.-* of the 8vinbnlical 
0^ ilio buddhint tnad, Buddlia., Dharnia 

166 ' 

west by Giwidwana, on the north fa 
hill-Htalesof Jtwhpur and Singhblnim, 
by the sea, and on tlie south by Gauj 
al8o must have been tlie limits in I 
Hwen Tlwang, as the niea»arod cir( 
with hiH e%iiimate. Hiny mentioiu i 
as a people of India in whtH4> con 
Mount MaleuN : but in an(itli«>r 
locates this mmnitain among!>t 
and Sunri ; and in a tliird pn 
Mount Malliu umong^tt tbe MaJli. 
people were to the mirth of tho Calii: 
the Monede?* and Suari were to 
the Palilxithri, we must, he sayH, |oa| 
Oretess<»raewhere about the Mahanadi 
its tributaiieii. The Moneile^ and St 
therefore, sayft General Cunningham, 
Munda and Suar, and the (Pretest uin 
people of Orissa. Midle id one of thi 
tenuH for a mountain ; and ut* the 
people of west Orissa, still sp<^k a 
dialect, he tliinks it probable that AL 
not the actual name of tlie mminti 
may have been the famous Sri-l'urv:it 
gana, which gaveit* name to tbe Sri-1 
AndhniH? — Cutminiffiam's AnrUttt (/ 
(if Iiiftia^ pp. 0O7-0II- 

ODUi:, Tam. a Ceylon tree whi 
to foiu'tecn inches in diameter, and ti 
height ; usctI by carjjentenj for |mlajv 
coach-work. — />/'/?, on tfu TinJtfr of ( 

UDIGAL, Tam. Tile*. 

UDUL OIL, or Adid oilofTra^anr^ 
rates into two fxirtioai ; the upp. r ' . 
colour of golden sherry ; thelowtir, i. ii 
of tJie cxinsintence of ordimAry harti r«;i 

ODYKAHY, see Koramliar. 

O'E, of the Limbu, llystrix Jot 

florikcn of Europeans iu India, i^ very 
on tlie banks of rivers. It is Luiie %. 
shot, consetjuetitly UuJc sought after b 

OEL, Gm. Oil. 

I 166 

ACtLK, Lintif. The ovpning' 

ItcoJ' plants, comjirising 5 peucra^ 17 
r^ 10 tEnoliiera ; 2 (^hirkiu : 2 Jus- 

LtidwijLpa ; 1 I»f»ozia. There aw 
'0 tini3 8*1 sjH?ciei» and varitties of 
The planti^ arc* rai«c*d fVom sfccl*, 
Bid byers, during the rains, will grow 
td ^rden wiil, jaiccecds beat in flower 
irw plentv ot* wnt<»r dnrinji: tlip hot 
*n»ere are 85 speciei* emmieratcnl by 
ing chicly in North America. They 
&me border-f!ower*i and dt-Rurve to bo 
, b«t have no vahuibk* pniperties. 
■r and whiu? flowerin;r Winrls are easily 

by 8e«<l, in any g»x»d garden imu], and 
lue during the hoi. weather to blfw- 
, Ilu/iUU : Afr. Jitjfrrn ; Rntj, CtfC, 
\ or Oofiaran, Jav. A whirl in tlie 
* heail, indicating a ^^ood sign. 

'S, UjoCVphalieinia ovis(8yii. (K*lrvis 
ind in Kurtipe and the R. Indies, it 
t;g in the nmtriU of the Hhoep, and 
(txim it occupies the frontal sinuses. 
JS EQUI occurs in the H«uith of 
|d in Persia, It is a dipterous insect, 
'e deptisited on the hair ot' the horse 

into the »tonia»*h, atid wlien enm- 
iM^!i through the eanal — Fvjmfr. 

\k SEUUPO.SA, a greyish coloured 
Ch 2 to 3 inches. It is found near i 
i of Mauritius and in tlie Indian I 
to. — Enrj. CtfC, 

fr. Egg?; 

, see Mettopotamia. 
HrXD. Astragalus tribuloides 
lixicD. Fagopyrum 
H Fagnpvnnii cyniosum. 

Hubti, Iticm- 
I tree, a native of the Delta of the 
nd rach other piace* as are yverrti>wnil 
ide*. Flowering time, the hot season. 
Hkb. Adjel. Ar\w., u calf. 
S KHAN is.supp<t*ed by Mr. Prinwji 
A*€*, a Tartar conqueror who utiiietl 
^Hi|td attacked and contjuercd Kash- 
PBb. Then, rotuniing by the frontiers 
took Talash, Sarum and Ta.abkund, 
lu9 son t'j reduce Turklstiin and 
ti Uic Janarteft which was effected in 
. Oghuz Khau then advanced and 
Samarkand and Bokhara. Next he 
if aiid in tlie middle of winter he 
ic njoiinlains to Chor (Charikar?) 
Buch frr-»m ftnow and frost. Here he 
iind reviewed his army in the spring, 
nnrchcd oguinst Kabul, Cihaxrii and 
here a king imnied Jugma ( Her- 
eigncd. who maintained hiuisch' in 
portitionj iiir a year, but in tlie end 
led »Tid Alain. C>gbnx Kbuii then | 

167 O 

returned to Samarkand hy Badakhshan and 
sent an expedition westward again^l Klionwan. 
(>ghuz Khan was the third prince of tlic 
Moghul dynasty, being the grand^-jn of Mf>ghui 
Khan, its founder. Over the I'urly hi^ry of 
British India, juuch olwi^nrity resU ; lor it is 
generally recogiiizetl tliat prior Ui Alexanders 
time and in Jong periods subsequent thereto, 
there are doubts ad to t}ie com^ctness of the 
Indian accounts of kings and localities. It is, 
however, certain that scvi-ral coiujncrors, in 
ancient tinuw a[>pi-oac!icd tlie pn-scnt western 
bonniUuies of Uritijiii J iidiii withuut absolutely 
invading it. The wmipiest (if the Hercuhw 
lielui of Cicero, wlio is supjiosfil to W- the KhuuA 
that inviuled India, exitndcfl only up to the 
Inthis. It waH nndouhtetlly approached by 
.Scmiramis, B.C. ll^^O, but the warrior-queen 
was driven back across ilie Indus with great 
loss, retreating into Bactria with only u tliinl 
of her army. This great A.sayrian (pieen, how- 
ever, extended her a^nqucsts into (.cntral iVsia, 
until they etcn embraced Bactriuor Bactriiuia, 
wbi('h is now represented by the modem Halkh. 
Darius the Persian conqueror of Ikibylon, 
Hprdwl his ndo over liaotria, which is ennmc- 
ratinl us one of liis provinces in the extraor- 
dinary inscription which hecatised to be curved 
on tlie rock of Bohistun. Alexander aller- 
wartU overran this &auie country, and pcne- 
truled from it, into tlie vulhy of the Indus. 
whicJi he incn*ly crossed. But in the days of 
the decline of Syrian power, Ikictria was erect- 
ed into an indejtfindcnt sljite hy Tlieodittufe I. 
in 2i)t> li.c, lUiil he extended his dominion over 
parta of Jmlia which the amis t)f Darius and 
Alexander hiul not rcjicluHl; and it is this 
monarch's descendants who are designated as a 
Syro-Bactrian dynasty. Numerous relics of 
his sucee.tsor8 have been Umnd near Ptwhawar, 
•lellalabad. and in places near Cabul, in tlit* 
y\\i\\^ of coins. Anotlier name is nienliout.'d iu 
connection with Indian history, that of Og)*grs, 
SMpiK»ted to he Oghiij; Khan the Scythiun, 
whose hi^inrian. Abul (.ihaxi, lelales that after 
establishing the religion of Japhet in his own 
dominions and in those of Tibet, Tanjat, Kiiay, 
and other slates imnie<liately adjoining, he ctm- 
quere<i Irak, Babylon, Azerhijan, and Armenia, 
and subs«|uently took Ka.«^hnlir aft(tr a yciu*'a 
resistance. — MuJcohuH Uistory of Persia, Vol. 
ii,/>. iJ81». See India. 

(.HjI-I, see Semetic races. 

OGNEE, Beno. Phmibago zeylauica. 

OGRI, a hill near Tezpur. looking into 
Central Assam and rlic Brahmaputra L. N. 
26' 34" 6- and L. K. 92' 4«' 8-. It is near Uiia 
lliat lea was mnch cultivated. 

<,)GUNA. Taking a section of about sixty 
miles iu the iVipinc Aravalli, from the ascent 
at the capital of 0(xli[K)or, [iu«sing Qawu^Vv 


tlwMr ]«u!crs. with tin' titU* nt' Ikiiwiit, Ix'Siig 
^H JionHlitiiry. TIiiw tin* rawnt <if llie MjrimH 
^H oiMimttnc in i1m* f:vrly jtcirt of \hv niiiprof*nlh 
^H r*?n*iirv, rouhJ :i<'*<'iiiltl<* livo iKoiisjiii'l h<iwi*, ami 
^H *«rvrTni other* '<>iiM on iiociuiioM mtwtnr con- 
^H niHcrahle nimilK'ts. Thrir hiihirxttion:* nm 
^H f|iH|K'rMtl tliMu^h ^t**" vnllrys in «nm]t nicle 
^H hnnil^lA nenr their pii^tiirrA or jilacc:!) of 

^H (U'i'rMlt'C. 

^H (>I1I« IliNH. AraiMa i^tipiilntn. 

^V OFflNI), Oaihaml, nr Ut^tkhanrln, ha-i hrfii 

jiicriUlieU with KinlH>liiiin. Thi* (imtinimJ lii)*- 

•lovf^' of [n(lo-S«-yihian coina is a mifiiricrit 

jtmril' tli;U the rity wa* alri^aJy In cxi.*lotico 

I^H At th(.- hr;rinnin^ of the chriMiaii orii, which 

^H may jMTha^x iiulucc Ua l«i pul Muno laith in 

^^ til*' tnulition. TuiMitionttl hy Ahul Fotla, that 

Wi'hand t^r ( Miin<I. wiu-* niu" nf tho citifw fninulorl 

l»v AlexatMlrr th<' *lrt';tt- — Ciiurtinfjfutttt's An- 

l. cienl fJftHf,'njtfiif of ituf'tti, jt. oij. 

OH! MK! The rhitu"u- htnldhiat itiT»>cation 
fa Oh '. nie fo F.» t Oh nir t/i K.i ! 

Onri>, It nKMiiitain alNUjt lV>iir inilos north 
of Mi-'ltnn^ whore a battle t<k)k phiec hftweon 
Mahomotl wiih I,o<n» niul the Ki>rfish wi(J» 
M/MH) tnM)|w. Mahonieil hnH tlie hill in \\\» 
l'i':u' with areliers [.laccf] on it/* Hank!* In iiiumv 
the enciiiy's hor«c, hut the un hers ']iiittir<l 
their |Ktsitinn to jilnnder and Muliomeil waw 
waiimird and dcfoatefl. 

Ol, HiKi)., of Kangra, Acacia jitijuiliitji. 



Br KM. 

|)AIf., Ih'T. 













Kluion: fjidion, 




The nil.H which form ihe thief export.-* from 

cliffe.rrnt part.* of Imlia tii I-'n^land, France, t}»e 

Maurititis, &c,, are r^»e<iftnut, <iin;;elly t»r SweM 

fiil, <»r«tunfl nut, Miwinrd, \{i\\n\ Sandalwood, 

K«>"fta nr Oms."*, oil and Fish oil. (JiLs arc 

irenemllv dividH into twi> jtrimary j;r<>n[ift, 

Fix<-<r anil "Volatile,** On- fimuer eliuw lH*ing 

:a{;.ain CTibrJividcd into drvi"f?. preasy, and solid 

(OiU. The value of oil a** an article of ci>i»meroc 

Hid iU mimcriMifl iww in randle and soap-mak- 

\\?, woid-dr*SNinj!. ftoul and medicine, rw well 

jtM importAnc? a-* a hihricndnj? agent, arc 

p-eU-known. The fnllnwin? tihin compiled 

r..t,i \)i, Aftieial reptirW of the Mmlnt^ Ciwtoni 

il «h'>w the i]iinntitT and vahie of 

iU '.."T oil soctla exported fnm the 

«^i » « 3 — « 

I -• -• 91 a • 

I— — » e • » • 

O «; la Ml v> r> M 
— »-»;• — »* 


- * 3 

t .' 

3 » .-- .- - 


S O e ; 

The value of th 









'ucitv*. ii'iU itif- loiimt lH)t}i ilk 

iTmftI ami vi^ji-uihl*? kin^ilmii!). 'VUvy 

ttiilevi iriUt tixcil nn>l vi>I:iiilo. Tho liuicr 

IC |irinrjjially pruduct* ol* tUa vuifotabli.' kin;^- 

\ttin. Tlu* fixed uik are couijjoslkI oi curlwii, 

anil oxy^fen. Must of them arc 

>if twu c'vrri|KjiiiuU. :i tiijuld cnlloil 

1 u 4ului culled ALu'^^rln, or uuittber 

inn. Accordiruj a* titt'se solid sub- 

'■i>uud m oilf, tht'y arc lujuid or MtVuH 

I nary trinfirrattir*!* oflUc atmosphere. 

U timiid ill liie fat or adipjsc tidsitc 

Kiitd oil w found aniuu;r4t pliuito 

. til their sceil->. In .*i»me c.a.*e»:w in 

' >lca) it is yielded I>y thr iViiit. S«>mc 

r pUnts e-apcciuUy altoutid iu tril. 

Uc Crijciit-ra; we havt- masiurd, 

.1 i»*?ed oil, with other spruit..'* 

Ill Eiiropo, India, and Japan, of 

(10 hnvf of late ynar^ been imported 

l.iiid. Several of thr tauiily ol'Com- 

^.- '■''" "il in (ptantiti^'d large enough to 

M'!' i.lMv^ ti) cultivate them lor ihii^ 

jjnfl' js*i»mcj*i»ccics of Carthamus, or 

Ikk' . and al^o the VerlHsina .«ativa 

i'' ■ ■» known u» be identical with 

v' I :in (iniKotia oleifera, and of 

<>j1 h known in India as Gin- 

*nd in t'iinim«rce by ilie nauie of 

So Mudia rtittiva ^'ields niadi 

. ■ . II i-- tui." sMiid to ho more abundant 

»ny plant intP'^luccd into Kurop«j. 

(c Cucurliitjvca* ixlno, iis the nnlun, 

u-ueumber, and the* numerous varieties, 

itM especially in India, contain a lar^ 

i»m of oil, which h expresded in the 

tics nm it formerly wart in Kuru[K:. 'l\iv 

iU?u> T^inff up a large projHirtion of oil 

kemeU <ri' their Iruit, a^ in the almond, 

U particularly valued ; so aLso tliat nf 

it, as well as that of the Briuncon 

otlier spei'icft of Prnnus. In the 

oil id aUi exprcAted Ironi the 

krrnel. and ha<4 been made of n Hnc 

. I'Vtni anion;; the AinenUicea* iiLso nut 

•ihKtir'H from the Hazel; bcech-uiit oil, 

. Aticu ; walnut oil, j'roin Jui^lans 

ihRAe, poppy oil, hen-niir oil, 

lieraj, j?ruund-aut oil (Aracbi»), 

.»il (Jntrophtt), arc well known. 

. and the seodsof the teii-plant^, 

jfly of the species called Thea 

lur of tljcCamv^Uia!*. Twonpecio* 

IP lotigifoUa and B. latilblia, both 

-inothor »;^, li. butyrfwea, yields 

' iUf-r, and i^ onnmonly known as 

I bntti^r-irce of Almora. The 

■1* this tree is Chtx)ncc, and Mr. 

"s it as not being foun^ in 

but in Uie adjointiu; Guorklia pro- 


vmee ol Motec. (hU aiv exlensivi-Iy used fo 
cjindli- nnd >*oa|»-ni:ikin;.', fur burnin^r in lump 
ihv diiuiuuiliinu friction in rnacliinery of all 
kimlj*, and (fsiiecially for loeoniotivei, — in w«j«i 
dressing, in ihe manufacture of painla aju 
vartUHhes, 'Jla nn article of i'ood^ I'or medieim 
pur|x»e3, &c. The time of burning of or jui 
quantities of the following uiht ig fuund Uy be :- 

oil of (Mj|jpy... H(mr», 14 ! Gold of jileasuro, 
„ sunliuwor Ut | (Ounolmu ait(iva>u<jur8 

,, ni(>ti.,.. 1 1 I „ nlivpft. ....... 9^ 

„ muF^Urd.. ll.A „ liem|} seed.. 3! 

„ rtiix ftot'd. 10 j „ tallow lOJ 

Tliu tmptyrU uf ftireign veeetable oils have ^^al 
ly incrt4U*ed while those of lUh uilshave decrease 

IWo— Tnnii. I«5(>— Toni*. 

... 2,I4a .,, 9»,<>40 

... 12,315 ... »},lSii 

... S5,d4.5 ... 44«,S8JJewUb] 

... 3^7a ... — 

... 'W^t ... — 

1H2I -Tons. 

Ct>'^i>nut oil ... — 

Olive oil 1.9niJ 

I'nhnnil Z^)0 

U-i|4' ^.w(^ oil... *>► 

Linsct'd oil .... 10,50() 

n^h oib »:!,350 



The ultimate analy.-*i« of fais and oils reduc 

ihern all U) carlwu, hydixiyiMi and oxygen 

Sume of them yield minute |>ortion:iof nitro;/;en, 
' the result olmlhering impurities. The follow 
I ing table showt) tlie relative pnj(K>rtion.s of thq 
I three elements in 100 partj of each of the oi 

named : — 

Carbon. Hrdrotfwi. OxytftU' 

Olivo 77*31 *i:i-3»( ... "* 

I .Alniond....«.„ 77*40 .... 11'48 10 

1 Ufiseed ,. 7B"01 11-35 12 

Nut 70-77 W-67 tf 

1 Ciusior 74-17 ll-OS M-7» 

Wholn 7e-ia 12-40 U*50 

i Spmrm-icetti 7»-ftl 101>7 10 

I Holt's lurd 7f*09 U'U 

' Su*^t 78D9 11'70 9 

j Buttor....- 65-00 17-«W Itf 

The following is a liiat of the princiiiftl unctuous 

oila of commerce ; — 

Liniteeil oil Linum uaitntis.'iinmni el {tfi- Sp.fir- 

I renn«. Drying ... 0-9347 

' Nutoil,L'arylur<avellana,and JugIani}r(tgiA,D 0*9:^ 

Poppy oil Pupaver aumniferuni, D ;... " 

llennt-seed oil > Cfumuhi^i t^utiva, D 

(Jil Ol s^r^Ainuni — Sr^^aniuni orientalo, GreuAy. 

Olive oil -OI»)a L'uru|jea, O O-OIT* 

Almond oil Aniygdiilu*t comninnis, G. ...... 0*9180 

Oil of b(!n -Ouilawdina moringa, U. 

IhicninlH^roil. Cui'iirl>it4i|»ep'iet meUpepo, D 0-023 

I B«?ch oil — Pftgas pyiviilica, O.... I>0~' 

I Oil of ma«t4U-d- SnmpL- nigra eturvensiH, 0*91 

Oil of bunfl'jwor— ileliatitliu^ amiuas et ]je- 
I nmni.s. 0.. 002.T 

IUi>e-s<,*ednil,B**»-'*-^i*^'»nnpiwetenniiie3tri8,(i U'Olfltf 

! Castor oil Kieinua communii*. D IKKJll 

I TohucoHscyduil — .Vicotianalabacum ut ru»- 

I tiCH. D IK»2.^2 

I Plum-kernel oil Prunus domwilica, G 0*0rj7 

lirap»>T»t>ed oil — Viti« vinifera, T> ~ 

Butter of cacao Thcobroma cacao, G 

Coconut-nnt ct\\ — Cocos niicifera, G, 
I Puhn oil, O^ocvwhiityraceavel Avoirs. ulai9, ( 
. h*ure! oil Lanru.s nol)ilis, (i. 
I Ground ni'.t oil— Arachia hyi»oRicfi, ii. 
j Pinpy tJiUow — VHt*»ria iiiflica, O . 

Oil of Julienne— U'»»|M^ris matromUi;*, I> 

Oil of Canielina .>fyat;nini »fttivu. \). 
] Oil of weUl-aeed— K*--^!'* Iiut^ola. ... 
I Oil of gardim-cresMcu-LHpidiumAiiUvvuu^Vi. vy^i 

O 1G*J 

O-920O I 

Oil of *1nndly nighlahrulo 

iloitn^U tM»2n») 

Cotum-!«t»«*(I oil fi p ' :irlKi<leiW(', T) .. 

(>)lxaoiJ — BrnKtic. , U. .il.M^rn.O. O-.Mnr, 

8umuii>r rai>»^-*MMMl <>.. ... .,->;ca pKocox, CI. O-*Jl30 

Oil of rudish-seetl—KAphAnus Bativu^, It 

ulmfi'm.G (KH87 

Cherr>'-fitonii oil -Pnimis cera*iu*, G... 0"923fl 

A|ipIi>«ee<I oil - I'>tus maliL'^, *i. 

8pin<llMivp oil — Kiionyiiius furojuLMif. G .. l>0380 

ttumi'l-lHiro'-ti^'*' oil— I'tjrnub Bftrujuint'.i, O. 

Oil tjf till! roots of cypcr-^Tiw* — Cy|*rufi c*- 

ful.'fiU. r. ftDiso 

Hfiil«iiit-M?«?"l oil -Hyosoittmiisnip'T, O (KUdO 

Ilnrjw^-clu'flinut oU— JE(M*ulua hi|»i»»nflttt- 

iiiim, (1 0.9"^" 

Tiiin injiinl— Piniw aWos, O O0*J«0 

F^iiiseiwI cnntnins *20 per conl. of oil ; rapc- 
fvcd ft'ora Ho to 40 : cnstnr oil sceti^ as iiuicli at-" 
no pf>r cent. Tl\e volatile oil.-^ are vr*ry 
niimt^nnw in Oie ves:ctable kiiigJ'Mii. They arc 
fflvUoil vubitile on account of tlie rciuly manner 
in which they may !)C volatUisotl uinler the 
itiflut'iice of heat. The facility with which they 
aro (litfa^oit in thi? atmosjihcrc renders thoni 
easy of <lek*c'tion, ami it is Uj thw claw of siib- 
Rtances that ]>lant^ owe their j>ct;uliar ixloura. 
Many of tlit-m arc employed in perfiinicry, [ 
other) are. vaai ha iitiniutantH in lucnlicinc, and 
foiuearc poisonous. Thcircomposition h much 

chonii^t they offer an oxoe€ilin;;ly 
field of research. Many of ihcai have acnnl 
tion analogoiw to the compound-* obtiino 
cheiniaU fn»m thccoinpoiunlmdicals. ITi** 
divided by chemistainto tlircoL'n»u|^ : — 1, 
containing only carlwn anij hydrogen, ai 
turpentine : 2, Lliose containing also oxygi 
oilofclovcjt; 3, those containin;^^u1phur,i« 
garlic. Many natural orders are charact* 
by yieldia;; volatile oiU. Tlina tlie I«nimi 
^I)•rtace,T, and nihers, embrace njH'ciai 
which cotdain volatile oiliu llicir K-uvc^. 1 
of the Umbi'lliforfc yield n volatile oil in 
fruit*!. The |>etal:< are ortcn the H^'nt <«r 
accretions, and especially thos^c ni 
the rose, the jasmine, the heliotroj 
othci-s, Ap|K^ndeil i.-* a tabic ofv* ' 
ployed in medical pnictice. 'I'hey .. 
fKiwoi*ful 8timul:int.-ai and c,^nminttliv^■s. A 
(»r two di&)olvod in a few minims of spirit,* 
ounce of water added, give* an cxtrmpnim 
sulwtitute for the distilled water of lie (klaii 
a useful vehicle for many drau;:j^tsor tuxt 
Theiae oiU are ortcn nddwl in miuutv »pcit 
topill-niaAtcfl, cilher to jnvean agrceahU* ft 
or counteract their tendency to griping:— 

Tdble of Volntile Oils. 


Native Port used. 

uauica. 1 

Colour of 


L'scs and Umi 

XMmpinellu ani-ium, common anlBe. ... 

iKruiU ... 

YttUow ... 


Cnrniinativo eo 

Iliciuni ani.^'atum, titar nuise 

Ba*lian ku-; 


tat ...| Do. ... 



IV**.. '■ 

Anthrmi^ nobilia, chamomile 

BrtlHwne.. Flowers .. 

Deep blue J 

T lAJ 

Lavandula vera, Invumler... 

Oo. ... 

Yellow . 


Ki -ituM 

]lut* gravcolene, & otlier ji{>ecie8, rut*^ 

Sudob ... 

l>o., and 

^liniuinbt ^\ 

herb ... 

Do. ... 


AndroiHifjon iwiu^inchuwi .. 

Boostt ... 

Gross ... 

Do. ... 

Fnmnu)l& stni 

Aiietlmui ^Tii\culen8, dill. . 

Sonf. ... 


Do. ... 


^iurulaut U) 

jHinmun . 

Curum c«rui, currawny 


Do. . 
Da ... 

Do. .. 
Do. ... 


KuKeniA piiiiuntu (allnpicn) 

.\momuni xin<;«*lMT. ((yinfffr) 





Faiuiculum olticinaV, (feiiUHl) 

Pniils ... 


Mol • -, [mli, (cAjviml) 


Leavea .. 



Jit 1 iiiiuni?, (jtmii^'r) 

Kruitd .. 

Do. ... 


SUmulMt &<£ 

rn..i .-. - ■. (culn'bs) .. 

kulmb Chi- 


Do. .. 

ToIIotr .. 


Cnryophyllnii nronmticiip fclnve) ... 


dried .. 

Do. ... 


Almont ctiMtic. 

Liiuro)* finniuii-jmuLu, iciDUunion) -,. 


Bnrk .. 




Junn" i-tu *:i!nnii i'«avin?) 


Yellow .. 

In uiuiKnTfani 

On tl'iisd) 

Tul« .. 


Do. .. 

U" li?, <r<j«emary) ... 


Do. .. 



M- (»ilumJunA} 


Roots ... 

Do. .. 

Vificatvrr. \e 

M< iitint) 


Do. ... 


Ditto, niucni 

M. ' vrovHl) . 

Do. . 

D*.. ... 


Ditto, fttimuli 

M. :.t) 

l*uiliua .. 

Do. ., 

Do. ... 


Am . "'T'lrtmoiu) 

Klocboe ... 

FruilB ... 

Do. ... 


nTu:>'-'ii ■ :") ... 

Ifrrh . 

Do. . 

Ditto. ■ 

i54£».-;.rj;i-.!li.-'- . . '.-.1 

. ■ ■•• 


Do., or 





FVacTTUit sad A 

* A W'/iutifiil utl hna licea nutAint-d from tin* >'ijMd {•a^cvitrai*. 

170 O \-v\ 

LV iJierc is an iinTiicn?'0 
nt M-{\h ibo excff)!!**!! oi' the oils «il" 
cinniitiKin, rtKfc^A and ihe rodc utter, 
any Ciiiiixnercial ijuiortanee, nor iirc 
•d in any qoaaitity for consu^nption 
Scente<I dils crrnneoiwly termed 
obtuined liy tlie repeated (listUlatiuu 
t bcrha, ^c, over into a receiver 
H jirtrtiim oi* any fixed oi), to wlitoli 
i i* iinpartcfl. arc prepared to some 
t chierty i'nr native iisc. SandnlwiMnl 

' \V.).mI oil 



Auiutal oils, 



Total .. 12i) 
Of the first claj*?, cocoa-nut, caator, ^ownd- 
nut, gJngely and it.^ variety, rape, nuiHtard 
and iinsced form considerable articlei^ of 
foreign trade. The first three bein^ exitorted 
in tlie shape of oil, the last two aa oil seed, and 
c Urge ^-ariety *if nt'r» altar or otto, ] gingely, both oa an oil antl oil aeod. In addi- 
» form the pririci|al part of luitive I tion to ihwe, the follim-ing are consumed to a 
ore included in this cla^. The .«ub- larj:o extr-ut in India — lamp, ranitil, kurunj. 

will serve to exhibit the richnc^c of 
fcof ditferent seciU of S«mthcrn Asia, 
otiesof oil arc extnu-kd : itgives 
of oil per ceut, in weiu'ht : — 

(Vorb^eua aativa), 40*4 

1 rSi-iiiriiim orieniale), 46'7 

lis hvpt^gnea 45*5 

- t Lalophyllum inoj)hyllum.63'7 

from the Pon^mia ;.'h\bra.. . . 2t3'7 

A of Guizotia oleifera,. .... 35 

|»aver^imnifLrum)... .43 to 58 

fmm Nepaid 41 

napus ) 33 

g nre only a few of the fle^-dj* from 

ted by the native** (»f Southern 

Is mo«t ^neraily cultivated in 

a ctutior, gin;:ely, raj^, miwtaid. 

, linflced, and poppy, but tlie 

•1 lorits opium the eeed forming 

derjtioii. The following plantt^ 

8iate, ibeir fiotit being eoUertetl 

il cx]>re«Acd as t»cea»ion refiuircs; 

}>cn, braniatltmdoo, pinnaeotlay, soap 

J, ea*ilii.'H-nut, |»«»vaua, piaey, nera- 

phjTtic-iiul, eheer^mjee, co^inxdioopiUy, 

. Od is. in MaJiiy, minak,:md in Ja- 

botJi of iJiem words of extonaive 

bout the Miiiay and Philippine 

r*. Abe plants from which fatty oils 

,^tracteii arc the ciHio-palra, the 

ic sci«anic, nnd lliepjilmu christi ; 

edible a»o, and the three laMl for 

In the wland.'* of the Molucca aeii, a 

ni oil IS CI pressed from the n»it of the 

{Canarjum commiuicl. Crawfurd 

ware tI]M oil is expre^ed in any of 

^nu crucifurni [ihiuU, uor id Hax 

prurposr. Animal oils (ivohjiitily 

pc : e-'identijd uiU arc <thtaiuctl 

rir, the nnt-mcg, the kayu-puti 

ILJeput) and in great abumlanec 

i"i-»>m the Malay camphor-tree ' 

cumphortt). i.>tit' lamdred and 

ixe known to he produced < 

prcDtdency audUuimab. i 

!>« tumui^ed a» follows ; i 

171 O 

pimiacottay, illoofioo, pincy or d(H>pada, mar- 
•fX^M or neem, jihy^c nut, brumadimdoo, std- 
(lower and poppy. Of tlie remainder iiome are 
medicinal and sonic are |irepared uidy in those 
Incivlitiert, in whiefi the aubstanees prmlucing 
them hapf>cn to abound in a wild state. The 
pricea of th^^9e products vary very considerably, 
not only in different part^ of HritiBh India, 
hut even in various towoH of tlie ^anie dijilriet. 
It is therefore difficult, if not alt<»gether im- 
practicable, ^) fix their reapective values', with 
any dejj:ree of certainty ; au incrcnsed demand 
or gi'eater facility of iranait morwver consider- 
ably aifoct their present value. The following 
liiit cfiiitaina the nuuies of the better known oils 
ofSonthcm Aaia: — 

Sweet lUj; Aeorus ealamus. 

Adenaothera pavouhia. 

Belgnum walnut.. Aleurites triluhft. 

Almond oil Ainygdalus communia. 

Ciju oil AnaeartUum occidentale. 

Khuf»-kln», OT VPtiver Anatheruni nmricatum. 
Graas oil, oroilofHpikc-Andropogon ealnmua nnv 

nard (rooflfi katel).- inaticus. 
BUhuji'a wood aeed Anethum wtwiu 

Apricot oil, (!hooham ami 
Zind Aloo kn tel. 

Ground autoil Arachia hypogsa. 

Prickly jwppy oil. . Argeiuone mexicann. 

Margosii, or bittor oil,...A«i'Jprnchta indicn. 
Hint^mn. or hingotn oil..Ufihuiit>.>d !Cfr>'p'^it^A. 

llutter or gheo tree. niis.«iii hntNTficeu. 

Do. iiitiwa Bni4^iu latifolia. _ 

Do. illoopoo liftasia lungiroUn. 

Do. kawaii Ba^sia, yietrim. 

Downy inountiiiu tdiony.nauliiniu tomentoea- 

himi Kilce , . . BiTgern knnigii. 

Butter of Shftntfhao Brftpwica cIiinL-nais. 

BnLM(ica erucn. 

Brufiaica juncca. 

Rfijx' eecil Bnwaica napa*. 

niironjfebcrTiea&sccdaBuchanania latirolin. 
PiUiw oil ButvR frondoau. 

Citcaalpinii olowiwrma. 

Poon seed oil Calopliyllum inophylluin. 

Oil of lionip aecd Cannaljia aal-ivu. 

Oiirthanitia o-vyuctuitha. 

Do. k'Miauni Carthamus tinrtoriiw 

Du. of clovee fiu-yophylluB iiroumtiriu). 

D.-txlaroil CeijVu» dcodftrn. 

&bdkunf^anec, or staff 

tree oil ... . ., . Odaslrufi iMiniculnta. 

Oil of cbeeroDjc« ...Chiiun^nu vnvuW. 


Oil of rtti>»H 
[In. <>r t-inniitriMm 
[tit. tif Ifiiion-*... - 
Do, ciK'nftnut 
Do. uf Coriander . 

Nut oil 

f^l ijf cucumber mciI 

Do. ItH'Ion 80G(i . ... 

<'-4>lo(iuintidii sued oil 
i'ufumlirr Pood oil.. , 
I'll of jmiiii>kin wt'il.. 

Do. of euuunia 

Do. vi^rginB-" 


tVongum oil 

Thoni AiMtk' oil 
Wood oil 

(»il of mijo 

Monrt'Jii pT'UlI oil 

Oil fif rurdnniom. 
IVraitiinion oil 
Oil of JniNiM 
Kii^Miiin oil 

Oil of ^Wf(-t Unncl 

Do, tfimihop? butter 

I'oltou .-(rtMi oil 

Kokum oil 

Oil of bonduc nut 

Do. rAiiiiil... 

Ihi. of Ben, Suhujna... 

Kiin flower 

< lil of ^Mauctuh-lnAVM) 

pliyHJi: nut 

Do. or-t-tiraiiiiw 

RttNnni oil 


(HI of J0i!i»fuuin^. 

lysic uut. 

nlnut oil 

thriipw oil 

Liiiitetxl oil 

SwoH Itftail 

Oil nf nijaput 

l>o. ntM«m.. 

Do, of mint 

Do. iiiiiuiwopa. 

Do. U*n 

IK). nuUnctt; . ,, 
Do. of tobiurco 
Do. fi-nnol flower 

OllVn oil ., 

r LoU .... 

(^itinanioniiini. upmf*. 
Cirmiiitiottitini /ryliuiicuni. 
Citni!^ linioniim. 
Coros micifiTti. 
fyoriniiilruni mUivuiii, 
doryluH L--ilurnn. 
rucurhitn |»uih>. 
Cucuiuifi UK'lo. 
Cu(ruuiit> c*4d(H*yiitliit>. 
QiciiniiK HAtiviui. 
<'urin-l*ilii itiiLxiniB. 
Ciihiiniini lymiimui. 
Ciirt'u8 piii'f;»jiN. 
CyixTU*, f/trrtrM. 
Dftllnr^'iii arl>oTt«a. 
Dill II ni, np, 

• ■'iHi\ t'tiiimtic. 
Ih'lviiiiiiiiii kryuiiionxivriiiA. 

, Dolirll»»fl rfnjfi. 

l)olich>u> MMorii;'. 
KlU'ttmiii ciirdnnioiiiiiMi. 
KiiiliryotiUTUH uliitiiiiferu. 
Kry^iuiuni juTrolitanm. 
Euphorbia dnirunruloi<li?fl 
r(i»niculuni dulce. 
(iiu-ciiiia {tictorln. 
44ottfJvpiunt, RfM^r9. 
Oiircniiii iiuriiurfR. 
(.iuituli-linii l»f>nduc, 
Gui/iitiu olcift-'m. 
HyiMTWithtTii niurinj^ft. 
HpfiAnthiis uniiuuH, 

Introphu (^luui'a< 
liliciuiii Hiiibnlum. 
lni[Nitii?nH, ifjtrrit^ 
lin)Mit)eii« tincrc^nn. 
.lajuiiinuni, {mr. «y/|. 
Jairoplui rurr»8. 
JHlropliH ^laiiciL 
.Tui^lutts ri'pM. 

Linunt UAitatijwiuium. 
KitiiiCii, fftfcifis. 
Ocimum or Lavanduhi. 
Melaleuca cajupuli. 
Mtdin azadf riirli. 
Mfiitlm piperitA. 
Miniu?«M|ft>. t.-lfiit^i. 

1' - i-'j-).>-rtWd. 

I'" iiiiKt'..,...,.., 

I'liM' i>d 

Oil of pt'ppcr .... 
Do. tmtelijitMt 
Do. Kurrunj 

r((Bt«'r oil 

iJu. ol •Oilit^ilwOOil.. 


■'■■ ' vi_»<»jR.nn(i. 


> kUJII. 

.01i»n BurojK'ii, 

Mrnthii HAlivti. 

PftJidiiiuL'^ ndoratiMtimns. 

rii|>ftvcr f*"iiLriiriT»iu. 
.Pinipim lilt tuiiMini. 
, riniifl ^ernrdintia. 
.l*ilHir rutn'"ni. 

Poj^tw-t'-nion j^ntcliotili. 

I' .«. 


I'n::. : . .Ar.l. 

AUcu. . 




J - Nirdiuiu. 

ouum indtcum. 

Chini'.<4e UU low tree .. 

Oil of \ma. Huchnw. 

Oil of fetid etcrculia.. . Sfon'iilin fjrti* 
])o, nu.x vomica S; \(n 

Do. wild almond 
Do. {lorlifL nuL . 

Do. CTolon 

TliorHy Trichtlia^. 

.Ti^imm oiHcini 
.Tru-titliu Hiiini 

IHI of Tef;ctAlilf)talIow..Vat(!riji inillca. 
Kiilt^Hlhi, Ulark til of 
Peccoii, Kal A-ti l-lcA-tv I \' ' * ^ ■ v: 

Kliutziuu oil \ 

CiUpah oil... A ,._„., . „. 

Cotton-seed wl i» usud for laiu 
oil und .\r;;omrtno seed similarly 
ohtaineil from the fniii of McUb 
Ac, lor mctliuine and Iam|K. A| 
tlie Himaliiya.4, siintlowt-r oil, oil 
ber-«ced for ct.»i» and lajnp*, oi 
cynih 8ceti, used aa lamp oil. Th 
ItiWiard saffron (Cariliauim* tiiiotor 
oil. Mu.<tard oil, the produce ol'variti 
of Sinapifl, &c, Sliarighie oil, fron 
clnncn.^ia; Illipiu oil. from Ilassi 
which is Utiod lor fryini» cukca, Ac, tl 
and Mftliwa oil. tVom JSimsia lutifuli 
upccic* of the ttamt* ^vnus. Oil is 
from thf fH't'<! uf (.-'{^ialpinia oleo 
nativ** of the Eaul. The neem tree * 
a very clt-ar or hitter oil, a*(cd for burn 
oil ia a romarkuhI<< .mil>stAnce, obt 
N*.'VomlM|H.*cU's of Oipterocarpuft, by a 
ping llio tree. The seecU of the 
inoxit^na, also contnin a bland, 
co|nurl(7d8» tixoil oil. The martftfrom 
Mci\ in i'Xpri'?wc<l u found to bo exin 
iritioun 111 cattlr. A iwilid oil, of a p 
iHh c<»lour. a ^tod deal r«***mliliri;c th^ 
HaH^i:i ia ehnnicter, though ratiicr ha 
apprtJiwhing more in proix^rtii-j* to in 
waM shown at the Great Kxhihition. fn 
|»ore- It w flupiHiM*d to ho the prod 
toJifrw tree of Java, crallcd locally 
pn>lmbly a .s|H.Tiis of Uitst*ia. It ia rei 
bleached ; indecfl, by ex]io«nre to air ai 
it beenm( 1 ^^rfoctlv white: ifuot to 
it pixMuiflcA to beuunio a valuable oil, 
in^ lo Mr. Ixtw, there are wv^ral vai 
«ii\\d oil commonly iwe<i in the Island 
Kawlem Archipelago, and ol.tuinitl fi 
Mns\^ of diffcrt-nt (i|>ecie« of Ihpt.r 
Pinoy tallnw j^ i>htiiined l><.m tJn- itu 
Vau-na indicn, n Ur^e and ipiiv k-gmw 
abundant in Mabthnr and C'annrn. 
whit" wild oil. fii^ible at a temprrntui 
dejiri'^-si, and nmkcis excellent candle^ ci 
whcM <ai)*>nifie<l and dUtiUetl in th« 

O 172 



i1nptr«l with palm oil, &o. It \\as one f Htoiiis, U found fvcrj'wlioro in :\ wild as wl-II oal 
a.!s.viit.i/f over oix:tin-niit oil tlmt iJie | cuitivatc-tl stutc. 'Vlic Ca/fff >ihipiiinff (razetti 
. ii cA) not (pvu uiit any suil'wut- | of Augu^st 1^50, siiys — tlmt un excellent 
is when extinf^niKlie*], as iluwe I oil, e<|U«I to the olive oil ol' Italy, can be ex-j 

with the latter oil, <lo. An oil is pro- 
fmui the inner shell of \\\p cae^hcw-nnt, 
ilium '^erid^utnln var. inrlicum, in the 
III -Inpoii u kinil nl* butter culled 
Bn<yl trmn 5peeies ol" tlic I tolichos bean 
enja). The kernel of the seeds of the 
tree of China, Siillingia (wbifera, an 
thrub, contains an oil, which when 
eonsolidativ ihnjnj.'b the cold to tlie 
. of lall'jw, and by Ixiilinp becomes 
- b*?*T(' wax. The plant aL*«» yields a 
oil. A similar fiitty pnxiuct is obtained 
ibrub in Briliali Guiana, the Myristioa 
.> ^-hifem. Oil is obtained in South 
m fram the sand Iiox tree (dura crepi- 
>K And fnnn the Caruim (^ianeiu^is. The 
several jilflnts uf the cucumber family 
itly sujipiv a bland oil, which is used in 
11 lanipnil and for ewiking. Among 
iblroiU imjported into_Nin^>o and other 
portA, fn»ui Sluintong, Leat«>ng, and 
arc oil of ifUAs, obtained from green and 
|M«A ; black oil of the fruit of the tree 
and oil from the pea of suchau. A 
>.ellowoilia nhtaine*! from the 
(inii5 tinctoriuj4, in Bombay* tlie 
of which oontAin about 2iS per cent, of 
lleut oil i!* expreswed in virions {lartA 
tn the rtcedi* of ditf'erent Bpeciefl of 
Nally trom the black niiLstard acod, 
glauca. S. dicholonia, and S. juncea are 
cultivated in the East for their oil. 
im perfolifttum ia cultivated in 
oil acedf*. A hcautiful pale yellow 
froni the seeds of the angular- 
•«iic nut, Jatropha curcn^i, a shrub 
i« tuftfti employed in the tropics* \\» a 
^urcfl. It 13 used by the natives 
nd u« a lamp oil. About 70U 
s oil wai* imported into Liverpixil in 
Lwlwn, for iho purpoiic of drc-wing 
■;in;:. &r. An oil called Canib oil in 
\^ in tli« Eaat, trom the almond-* of 
.« granacum, or Cnmpa molucceiwiB 
...*ick, which is usei.1 by (be native* to 
tlic hur and amiint the skin, so as to 
I off innecte. Cacao fat, the bntter-like 
XQf nblained from the seeds of Theo- 
c!icao, 5* est«!CTaod a*t au emoUient. The 
Apim, OS it bi called by the Portugese, or 
Nsfoota by the nutiveji anti Aralie ( Oidynamia 
a?), w much culiivatod in all 
■ic» tor its oil, which is considered 
\X rif oli\-es, and letches as hi^h a 
lift the Indian market. The plant, which 
11 and rank as hemp, -'uid e*|ually pro- 

ti-acted from ihe kernel of the fruit known byj 
the name of ** TTcou Pijte'* and " Pruim Be*- 
jee," t'ijcum oil, or butter, is obtaineil froiaj 
the seeds of a kind of mangosleen (Curcinii 
purfiurea), and used in varioits purts of Indii 
to adulterntf gliee or butler. It ia «iid to h«| 
exported lo Kn^iand Ibr the pnijHwe i>f mixing] 
with bt<irs' jTrc-i^ie in the manufacture of j)uma-| 
turn. It w a white, or pule greenish yellow,t 
solid oil, brittle, or nnher friable, having aj 
faint but nut unpleasant snielt. melting alnnit 
94 dojfroofl, und when cooled al^er fusion re- 
maining liijuid to 7o degrees. An exceJlent 
solid nil, of a blight green colour, is obtained] 
from liomhay, having a consistence interme- 
diate between that of tallow and wax, hisible 
at about B*') degrees, an<^l ca^sily bleached : it 
has a peculiar and somewhat anmiatie odour. 
There is some uncertainty as to the plant from 
whidi it is obtained. It was referred to tlic 
Salvadoru pei*8ii'a, and to the Vernonia un- 
thelmintiea, n plant common in (iuzerat and 
the Concan Ghats. A pale yellow clear oil is 
obUuned I'rom the seed of Dolichos billorus (V). 
Oil is also expressetl in India from the seed ofj 
the Argernone me.xicana, which is used ibr 
lamps and in medicine : and li^>m the seeds of 
the cashew nut (Anacardiuui uccidentaJe), trom 
Sapindus emarginatus, and the country walnut 
(Aleuritcfl tflloba.) The fruit of the Chirou- 
gia sapida, (or Buchanunia latifolia,) yields oil.l 
From the seeds of the I'ongamia glabra, ofj 
Galedupa arborea, a lioney-brown and almoatj 
tastelea* oil i« pmcured, wJiich is tluid at com-l 
mon temjieraturp, but gelntinis<'sat 5fi degrees. 
Uthersourcesofoilare tlieC^;lastruspanicuIatus,j 
Balanites eg)'ptiaca and the snul tree (Shorea re 
busts.) Cinnunion suet w extracted by boiling th( 
fruitoj'thc! cinnamon. An oily Huid HtNit^on tliflij 
surface, which on c<M>ling "ubsidcs to the bottonij 
of the vessel, and hardens intti a sul>stance liki 
mutton suet. The Singhalese make a kind 
candles witli it, and iwc it lor culinary purposes-' 
It emits a very pleasant aroma while buining. 
According to the analysis of Or. Christisoup 
it contains eight per cent, of a Huid not unliki 
olive oil : the remainder is a waxy prineipb 
Croton oil is obtained by expression fn:im th( 
seeds or nuts of Cr^iton tiglium, a tree, 15 to 
i'cet in height, belonging to the same order 
the castor nil plant, pn^ducing whitUh greet 
ilowcrs, and seeds resembling a tick in appear- 
ance, whence if* generic name. It is a nativi 
of the KaRt Indies, U»0 parrs of sec^s aOToi 
ahi'Ut t>4 of kernel. 50 quarters of crotoi 
nuts for expressing oil were imported inUt Livci 

4adhe. banng numerous pods ihtDu^dioui the ' pool from the Cape Vcrd Ulaudi, in 1^49, 
173 O 173 

larger than a pt^a, wiili a nu*iiibrvin(.'«)itf 
ing exiKimlin}i iiito tlirec* ■w'inv'*. wIipim 
.Hp»H;ific naiui.' nf*|KTiiift. On 
!lit win;?etl cnvc'lti]kf die ttc-cils appear: 
Ufcc jiitli balls ; but \\\Hm dividiu;EL.t)iL-iii »n 
imil, tlu'v an* luumi tn ubuimi} in a clftix, 
l<"K*», ln«ttlt'», fiw<-TilIc.s« oil. ol'wliich tlic |> 
tiou is aa large tlmt it may be oxi)iv.'*ctl 


ijfhl bo nuulc an article of tiinlc. Tlic Unt losf at tlic fiul-s and abuui Two tw-i i! 

uilo of prejinring it i^ by grinding lliu »oo<I<, , when arrived at the lull gTi>wtb. Tl.- - 
pUicing tlio powder in bajj^, and jircssinff be- i while yet ytninir and It-ndpr, arc nut 
twcen plattts of iron ; allow the oil to «land for <(Uonlly cooked and served up at tlic tab 
6Ueen days, then filter. The residue <>f the | India, like a(*|«iragua, for which (bey lire 
exfa-cfttion in iriiuratfid with twice im weight of I biul »nb**iiruto. The [lods, when fi 
alcohol, and heated on the sand-lialh from 120 I contain about firteen sreds; each coiundi 
lo \4i) dc|p:ee3 Fahreidieit, and the mixture, 
prcssc*! again. In this Mc^ llie utninnt caution 
is necessary in avoiding the acrid fume:*. One 
Rcer of feed fiirnisheii by this process nither 
innre ibau eleven fluid oimcos of oil, six by the 
first step, and five by alcohol. The oil act." as 
nn irritant pur^^tive in (he d(i«c »tf one drop. 
In large dose* it is a dangerous |>«>iwii. AVlien 

applitnl externally it proflucea piLttuIes. In j goodlrejib.«eedby tbe.-*iniple prpA-turcof ibe 
^46 eight cjuci of crolon oil and »ix ca^w^t ol' , GeoHVy infnrms il*. liiut lie obtainml ^<<»j 

c sccaI were exjjorted froni Ceylon. Other ' of oil from eight |ioun(b) oi* tlie dceortimkicd 

rcies of croton as C. |>iivana, a native of Ava being ftt the rate of very nearly 24 lbs. 
and the north-eastern parts of Hciigalf and C from 100 Ibe. ofsced. All over British In 
roTbnrghii yield u purgative oil. The bark of idcuitivarod InrthcRakeof itftyounj? |«Mb 
C. eleuteria, C. ca^i:arilla, and other Hpecivs is j horse-radish of its roots, as luxuries 
aromatic, and avAs a^t a toiiic and stimulant. | tnble, but itn giuu is usicd meilicina 
It fonus the ca-scarilhi bark of commerce already 
spoken of. W»en l>rui?ed, it give* out u musky 
odour and U ortcrn used in jiu-mille^. The oil 
olitained from tlie sucds of Jatropha curcas, a 
native of Soutli America and S. Asia, ispurgative 
and emetic^ and analogous in itn properties to 
cr».»lnn oil. It is said to be a valuable external 

ipplioation in itch. In Uritish India it is Ufted 


its leavci* and flowers as grvctis, 
pecidiarly valuable for the turn. 
I nienti*, from its capability of 1 
I alnui^t any length of time without kmi 
I into ctnnbination with oxygon. Thi.M pi 
I together with the tittal ah«cnce of colour, 
I and taste, |>eculiarly ndaj^ts it to the nui 
I of the p<-rfumer, who iaahle io make 

r lanips. Oil of Ben, known ns Sohunjuna in medium for arresting the flight of tht«w? 

Ilengtd, and Moriuga in Malabar, i^ obtained 
frtJiti llie seed or nuts of tJie horse-radish tree» 
the Hyperanlhera moringa, of Linnaeus. Tliis 
dear limpid oil, having no jM?rccptibIe smell, is 
much esteemed by watch-makers and fitr- 
tumers ; it is cxiwnsivc and not nften to be pn>- 
cured pure, c«infte<iuently ihcoil woiddbea very 
tiliihle exixat. It grows rapidly and luxu- 
tjy (^crywhore in Rnrish India, in Jamaica, 
particularly on the north side of the islaml as well 
in Trinidad and otlier tjuarters of the West. 
Il is easily pnjpagtited either by cuttings from 
tlie tree (the branches) or by seeds, and In-ars 
the second year. Tlic pruduc^i of eoeh tree may 
cstiuiuled at ftom one to two gallons. Yrmu 
c llowcr^ a very pleiuant perfume miglit 
efltdly distilled. It is a small tree, of 
ut twenty feet in height, of mo^t rapid 
tb, eomuig into tlower within a Jew months 
T it hits bt*eu sown, continuing to product 
Is and blossoms aiUirwnrd* throughmit the 
r. The timber is said to dye a line blue 
itu, wbicli exudes from wounds in 
ii<.ni-« n tttrrtntj T»-««'mblrtnce to that 
:\nihft, fitr 
uu-d. 'I'he 
of wliius blociBoins witli 

17i O 

volatile ptirticlcs of essential oil, which 
tule the aroma of many of the most odorifi 
flowers, and cannot be obtained by any 
means in a concentrated and ]terntanent 
To effect this, tlic petaUofthc* Hower*. 
odour it is desired to obtain, are thinly 
over flakes of c«ittnn, wo<>l satiu'atod witlij 
oil, and the wliole enclosed in air-lighl 
cases, where tliey are sulfered to rt-ma 
they begin to wither, when tlicy are rej 
fresh ones, atid the f>roceM thuscontiuuedl 
oil has absorbed as much its was doxirrd a 
aroma ; il is then sejnratefl from tlio «( 
pressure, and preserve*! ' under the 
essence, in well stoppetl bottles. By 
the oil tiiu? impregnated in alcohol, whichi 
not liike up the fixed oil, a solution 
arumn is cil'cclcd in the spirit and inan^i 
riferuus tinctures or ^vatci's, us they are 
wluit inaccurately termct), prcpari^. B] 
process most delicious perfumes might bci 
ed troiu the (lnwersof tlie Acacia tortuoAi^, 
crHtiiun carribcum, I'lumieria a" 
rubra, au'l innumerable other 
mi«t exquihite fragrance, which abound 
the inipics, blooming uiu'cgarded, and 
Ihcir fragnincc an the InuTou air. lliree 

iirtttf<l ill Mymirc ami rlie w«*fcni 
iVniiwilur Ii»liii, as» wi'U as in tiic 
rrsitlrncy. AImuI StTii»j:ajuU4iiii, a« 
c millet crop Iiu?* hfrn refiped llic 
lighoi Tuur times uiul ihc ?ce<l s«»wn, 

c oxtciLsivcly ndtiviiti'il ihroir^'lmnt copra, nre thrown inlo tlu' mill with about 
tlie *alcc oi the fiiip oil exprtsHotl iliivo jrnlloim of wiiior uml Inmi tliiM i?? pioducud 
<(ro<U, the whi!o-flccJt«l \ariot_v, the thrco uianiiii^, ori*oveu ami thri^e-tjuurlfrpilluiii* 
ccl, ami the hliu:V. Ii 13 Iron* thr 1 ol'nil. Tht* copporah in itJ4 uuprt-jtaroti itatu is 
; l)»c i!if^imum or gingely nil of ; svUI, slij^hily rlricti, i tithe market. It is bunu-d 
is obtained. Si-samuniKrd con^ains ' lU imti vuha or grates, ou the top ol* ytuIoH or 
W cent, oi'nil. Gixui ^ninple;* <if'i>ll I lorchi's, in priK^rjviions, nnrl an nicnn^ »>i' ilhuui- 
i attlicGroiit Kxhibition i'um\ Vuia-! nation lor work |M.'rlbrnieil in the opon air 
ifinjam, Ifyilombiul, 'luujorc. the | at nif.Mit. No prew tir otlicr contrivunce in 
Mi«»r*lie*hiba»i, ami Gwulior. The ' niarlo iisc of by the nutivia of lutliu |l.»r sujiiccz- 
H i» «roteii to be worth (ibtmt jE4 injj out or expruiwin;; the i»il from the rake, and 
[ "i»rn Circai**. An oil rcseni- ti liir^e amount i^f waste, in cunsr^^uencv of this 

bt:iine<l friMii the i»ectl necesAarily ensnc:*. 

iicn^ n plant intiiH I Apncnt oil^ of the finest kind, xs made 
•mmon in licnpil. in India by exprc.s.«i»in fniin the kernels of the 
ul, or vuiisai'Xt (locnU, yiohl ulKint 4-4 aprirot. It is clear, of a pale yellow eoli^iir, 
f <»il. Ilieoi! IS ;?enfraHy used tor > and snielU stronp-ly ot' hydiiv.yanic ai-id* uf 
id if* w<irth lo»;ally alM»ut nix aaniu^ whicli it eontiiins, iwuiilly, alH>ul 4 jK;r eent. 
Bhirk til (VerlK-^^naMativa) i?4 known Hutt-Jlfjwer oil Ls niised in Tartary chiefly 
«r kida til, in the IHvc^in, It w tor the oil cxpresst-d from it. But it is al»o 

of use for many other jiurpt'Ses. The pi'ople 
eat the seeds, wlueh, when boiled in watt?r. 
t:LstL' not unlike l»odrd Indian corn. Jn seme 
districts of Uiwsia the !«eefU are enipltiyi'd 
with j_M-eat sueecss in falti-nini: jtuultry ; they 
jr ntre, durin^r the month ni' July t)r I we also said Ui increase ilie numlu.r of r^fjs 
cr the fit^t heavy rain. No manure 1 more than any other kind of grain. IMiea- 
is ro<iuiriil, fnr the rmp will jiruw I s:ints and pai'trld;/^'ii eat tJiem witli great 
r»t MnU. It is reaped in three months j uviiUfy, and tiiey t-aiwe tlic same etFctts on 
chnv to the gmund, and stacked for ' tlicni aa other birds. The dried leaves are ^dvi'u 
Aftpr cxpoaurc to tlic :^im for two or t»» cattle in place of straw ; an<l the witjured 
, the -«ee»l is Iwaten out with a stick. I stalks are s;iid to produce a eousiderable 
11 M%^*^rp rarely yields two bushels I "piantity of alkali, 

but 'nhout VtH.nfih the prmluec Is | i.j'r«i«(/ oi7 U bvu little made in Imlia. 
^•r. Tlic we*! is wmetimcs parched i Manf^nKt, or Aeem /»7, i^ ma«le from thr peri- 
niftswootiuents, hut is usually grown \ carp or He:<hv rwrtnt' the fruit of the ^[elia :r/a- 
TUw i* nsod in cwkin;/. Imt it is not , .Icrachm. and of the Azaderachta indica. J)r. 
W in the «eod, nor s*»p>fKl w* that of ^r:lxwell has found tlii^; oil oqiiidly efficacious was 

CDil-livcr oil in ax.^vi uf consnmplinn ami scro- 
. ANrnt 5,0(10 uiauuds I |„|„, n^ l,e-au with half-<mnce doses, morning 
.iuCalcmtji.;tj::J0bavsl mui evenings whicli were ^^radnally reduced. 

BiiHsiftoUs. — The seels of tlirov hjhjcics of 
Iia*.iia trees, iudijrenous to Uritish India, and 
one of K. Africa yield solid oils, and arc rc- 
uuirkable for the fact, that tliey fupply at iho 
winie timi* saccharine matter, spirit and oil, ftt 
for both fix>il and burning in lam|w: they are 

n. The JlU/te {\\. iLingifolia): it is abun- 
dant in the Madras presidency, the southern 
parts of Uiiuto«Trttan jrern'raUy, ai*d the northern 
pro%iuee of Ceylon, In Ceylon the inhabitants 
use the oil in cooking and for lamjH. The oil 
cake is rubhetl ou the body as snap, and seems 
admirably a<hipte*l lor rcmovinj^ tlic ifuctuosity 
of the skin caused by excessive [)erspiration, 
ilia, is that yielded by ihf cnr*ja-uut I and for rendorins it soft, pliable ami ^li»ssy, 
nut having been slripiH-Hl otF the ' whicli is f*o ctmdueive to health in a tinpical 
*boII i» brokt'u and the fatty ' climate. 'I'hc oil i^ white and solid at eomiuon 
I milk is taken out. This is | temperatures, fusing at from 70 to 80 degrees. 

^. -i-iVi, or copperali iu ditT'erent It may be Rdvantagroualy employed in tlie; oinundu, or niuety pountU of I manufacture of both tjaudlca aM «stt\i ; vn ^"j- 

173 O 175 

irtc*i iuu» Uveri>«>ol in 18.31. Tht 
piarter of ei;.'ht bu^thels, in »Janiuiry 
ftum M*M. to Xti; ofte.! <»tl, in tins, 
Ui l<IOff>H.,X2 to £2 4*. lltjinbay 
worth £-2 11*. frt £2 12^. the 
1 ■!.[ hu.'"hpl.'*, in January lS.5;i. 
U 'S. The imi»irtd inio Liver- 

liajrs and 54.>*H4 parketA in 
I4,4y*> h»;rs and ;i.%7O0 ]iackets in 
It t^0*iO bnjrs of muKtard seed and 
tn 2it,0O0 boiLf!* of rape seed are 
' >'f'. The price of the latter 
^ati, — The rhi( foil made on the sen- 

ImTnmlflmnp parN of fudiii tlii-? nit forms thr 
clti*'!' iii^.Todicnt in tlic iiianiUUcturo (iI'mujiji. 

h. Mithwa ( U. iatilijlia) U ct^iiiiiiou in 
mtiuy pnru tt( Uriit-ih India. The ail a gfiod 
deal i-cs*'iiililc'» thai, last described, obiaini'd 
iWmi the Iilc]'« tioedt* ; and may In.' iw«l lor 
8iiiiihir purjHMfH. Il u iwlid at oomiuun tern- 
].H^r;itur«H, aiid bvgiiui tu luclt at about 70 

r, Yf'fftnhU f'uttfr i.« obuiini'd fmin the 
Cluiorio (R. hiUyrufoa). 'nioii;.'h lar li*** 
genernlly almndanl than thn utlicr twu .<j>ecu'w, 
it \st common in crrtaiii ol" the liillv dixtricn^i, 
C3[H.'rially in the cimtern parts oC Kinnaon; 
in l)ie province of lUitee it is 541 alnindani that 
ibp oil i.H I'hoapor than frhre, <ir fhiui bnttcr, 
ami is* used tf jidiilt^^^i. It is likcwij-i- com- 
nmnly burnt in lanijH, for which purposo it ift 
preferred tn cocoa-nut oil. It is a white solid fat, 
fui*iblp at alwiit 120 d*'gr*?es, and cxhibit*i very 
little tendency to hrcunio rancid wlicn kept. 

*i. »VA^rt, or [ftiUim haitrr^ is ohiained in 
Wrstpm Africa from liip Hiu^ia parkii or l*rn- 
tadrsnia hntjTacca, a tree closely r«:fsembUn;; 
the H. latifolia and other spceies indigenous ti> 
HindfMx^uin. According lo Park, the tree is 
abundant in HanilKira. t)ic oi! '\» tu^lid, ofa 
proyiflh wliitc coltnir, and Iilspii at 07 dcj^eea. 
\\» ppwhiot I* a-^fd tlir a varioty of purposes — 
for ein»kinp, burninj* in lamps, &c. This tree 
ha.-* much of the character of the laurol, but 
grows to the bei;^ht of eighteen to twenty feet. 
It« leaf iff 5oniewha,t longer than the liinro.L't 
and i* a little broader at the point ; the etlgc, 
of tlie leaf are gently cur\'cd, and are of a 
dark wp preen colour. The nut i^* of the form 
and <ue of a ])i(reon*.s egg, and tlie kernel com- 
pletely ftlU the :*hcll. Wlien fresh it is of a 
white drab colour, but, if long kept, become* 
the colour of eho<'ol»ie. The kernel, when new. 
IS nearly all hutt^^r, whirh in extra(rte<l in the 
inllowiug manner : — 'I'lin shell in removed from 
the kernel, which is also enwheil, and then a 
cjuantity \a put into an earthen pot or pan, 
pifti-ed over the fire witli n portion of water and 
the nut kt^rn'^ls. After boiling slowly about 
half an hour, the whidn is strained through a \ rtnaearthum. 

ree-*iuarter« of an inch long, 
bram- is attiM'bed U* the iiide ul' l>ip 
wht'n riiM*, reliiMjui<<hes its hold, antf 
(alU to llip ground, when it is gntberc 
A gofi(l-*ized healthy tree yields ab« 
of nut^, but the greater number 114 
{iroliHci The trees elude lo the stnm 
a more healthy apfjearance. probnh 
count of being belter wati'reil, and 
tieuig le&s ]Miwerlul close to the strcoi 
cxteiLSLve collection ol M;u^*r K oiLi waa 
tiio Madras Kxhibitton of lb55, \ 
Hawkes, vi?:. : 

The A'hd oil of Travanroro was 
tut the (Treat Exhibition of 1851, I| 
Uti uiediciiml, but the t>otauical 
plant prtwlucuig it is not given. 

Alfitntrs triloftit, 
HvU^atu wuhmi oil, | I1idjle« find^m km I 

The Mfilueca tree, which pnxlucni 
bang nut* grows plentifully near If 
The nut« yield a very lar^e percental 
and the tree is fountl to be wry prolj 
nuts are said to be strung tipon a tbi 
bainbof>, and when li^^hted will bo 
candle ; a notice of this interesting i 
may be found in the Tntn»*actions of 
Horticultural Society of India, Vol. vii 

AUiufn satumm, 
Qnrl'w oil | VnlUj-tmndoo p 

This meiiicinal oil is obtaiuuble 
parts of Hritish Imlia. 

AiifU'ttniinm (Hrifirnti$lr, C'ushew-al 

KaiiMilci t^'l, Hiku. I MiH>ru1rvoentt«7T« 

The Hglit yellow, sweet tasted and «] 
obtainnl from the nut of iliin tree, is 
rej»pcct equal, if not indeeii superior^ 
olive or almond oil. It is howt«ver vi 
profiared, tlie nuts being used as a 
Another oil is prt^iwuvd fr«»m tl 
dium of.'oidentale and called Ouhew 
It is a jKiwerfuIly vesicating oil obi 
ilie ]>ericarp of the Cojuhew apple 
long known to the native phvsi 
It much resembles in ftsi>n>|jerii 
ttbtaine<i from the marking nut. 

ittdtitptujiiti cnhtmuik etromfttu'itjt^ 
oU, dit)'ers but httic either in apj 
ipiahty trom the Lemon grass oil. iti 
the same purfKJses. 

AiulroiMMjon chofHaMhnu 
C'luoocliie pilloo tylum. Tam. | I^nion ^rani 
is obtained by distillation fiiim a 

gnuft nmt into a clean vessel, whon it i^ allowod 

to cool. Then after removing tlie fibrous 

part from it, it m put into a grass bag 

and pressrd fto as to obtain alt the oil. This 

is pourrd intrt the vessel along with llu* 

first mentione<l |»orfion, and when cold 

is about tlic t^onsistiMme of butter. The 

nntA hang in hunches fmm the different groivs plcntiftiUy in many pnrtsof Bri 

bcniffhs, but ortch nut boH its own Hbre, about It is much twed as a rubefacient for 

Yv indie-* long, and ab»3Ut the 1 affecLiona, as well aa in jjerfumory. 

It -rir of whif>-cord. The nut Is [ purposes it is»»ajd Ui he largely t-x 

a ^'Ur*' in a very singular man- Travancoro. When nt^wly madu. ihi 

li' I -f the fibre i» cuncoaled by a | a light mraw-colour, but a^e 

fHln mcinbratie, about half an tacU wide and 1 deep-rc*!. 

J7C ^6 

Wtivc secda ^ieltl h\ 
■jl whidi lA given medici 
4MUkt. orui. 
is chiefly (Tcparvd in Malubtir aiid 
n OniiiI of the poninsnla of India, 
i» exported Ut Eiiglaml in large 
iht dein&nd u ai^u yearly Increas- 

oilt is alBTt prepared chiefly on 
Coast altWougli *iine is now tntu]e 
, The liver of the white shark U 

iwe t the wcfoTte exreedt-J lf-MJ.i)iJOjjaIlon». Iiww, 
lUtilla-1 h.nvpver, fiillen 10 57/207 fnillons iu 1852-5:5. It 
does not sei^m to be cmmmiori tn any larjie 
extent in this country, alihouj^h the nut iteelf 
lA much eiilen by the poorer nla-sses. It is sriid 
to bo used fur adulu-rin;; giwg^I^y "i* ^" North 
Arcot, where it c.m\A Ki, I-H-0, to 2-12-0 per 
maund. In the Nellore District, the ^etU are 
prtKurable at lis. 1-8-0 per maunti, anr| iti 
Tanjnre ab(^»ut2()0 acri'sare cultivated, produc- 
ing annually 75 candiw of oil at Ra. 2-0-0 per 
maund. 'Hie seeds yield ahont 4S per cent, of 
a clear straw -col nij red edible oil, which ia an 

ully used. The heat cod liver oil is ■ exfeilent substitute for olive oil» and makes a 

good soap. Its value in London in January 
Ift55%vaa i:47-I0 per ton. Perfect def^-l'iTJ/u- 
tiim, far froui depreciating, considi'rably en- 
hances the value ofthiaoil. 

ftarly in January when the livers 
I, firm, large, white, and full of oil — 
ai« aometiintis found dlseadcd, and 
lighter Uian watA>r, should he 
livern sho\ild cut amtv>th, mid 
heneot none of the substance sliould 
A Imlf Uqmd state. The quantity 
»duc«d by livers depends much upon 
of the year. In the beginninjj; of 
I.OOCl Uvers were found by experi 

rricldy. fwppy oil. 
.Ivniaui yellow thiatlooit. 

Argcraonp mexuiana. 
nrnrunilundoo otl. 
C*jon>ok(j«> oil. 

Faring! rUtuni 1u ml. I Bnniindundooycnnui. Tam. 

HiNT>. I Bnimadunrli noona, Tkl, 

A pale yellow limpid nil may heohtalnetl in 

.,„^. . 1 ., , , large quantities" from the round eorruguiod Mjods 

aeld 3. imperuil gaUo!«. and at the - ^^j-^j,^, ^^-^^.^^ ^..^^.^^ ^^^-^^ w«i* originally intro- 

bru«ry an etjual number only ^vc 
of oil. In the beginiiint; of January 
n of average ?ize weighed 9lMJ Ib^. 

the last day of M;irch the name mmi- 
ed only 575 Ih-^. The oil at these 

neoaooA wan c'ltLally pale, and the 

tiXly white, although much smaller 
llahhy in the latter seawm. To pre- 
mt — wash the liver very careful ly» 
ing tlie gall Madden which adhere 

Uid infuse them in rain or other water 
salt. Place tliem over the fire and 
w the hcnt to exceed 120 or 130°. 

i^sid especial care miist be talcen, a 
of heat although yielding a 
k, oommanioatcs a ranlc Hcshy 
1 and heightens the colour of the 

If reudariag it diitgu^ting to the pa- 

f09i oil is used as a sofVcuer of lea- 

, oil fif v'oj:. Bee* wax nubmitted 
ve dLitiilalinu with the addition of 
yields an eiupyreumatic oil which 
*aI in mtdioine by native doctors. 
mit > medicinal oil. 

Vfif;Vr4ULR 01i«K. 

Wi, CiP-v 1 -■ 

ki- , 

Him*. I y 

luaht^ oil is now 
a large tiniount, 

from iho needs of the ground 

ntit. which ii now cultivated 

Srrahle extent inmoBt parts of the pe- 

Id tlio year 1845M'J— -87,000 gallons 

ipodf but ia the two foUon-ing years 

17? ( 

' i-yennai, Tav. 

exported from 
It is obtained 

iluced from Mexico in ballant, but luiw flourishes 
luxuriantly in all parts of India. It is Rome- 
tijiies expressed by the natives and used in 
lamps, but is doubtless adaptcii to other and 
more important \xwt». In ?Jorth Aroot it costs 
from Its. 1-14-0 to Rs. 2-1-0 per maund. 

liftssin lorujifoiia . IIloopoo oil. 
tf ohny ka trU Hikd. j Illepio yennai, Tam, 

This semi-solid otl is expreaf>edfrom tlic seeds 
of a tree which » evervwherc* common in 
Soutlicrn Indin. It im seldom Hold in the bazar, 

* but tiie seeds are collected, nnd the oil munu- 
factured by the natives for private consumption. 
The seed--* contain about 30 per cent, of oil of a 
hritcht yellow colour. It is procurable in Soutlj 
Arcot at It^. 25 per randy, or Rs. 1-4-0 per 

I maund— in Hellary at 3-8-0. in Bhopaul at R?. 

I r-i-12~0 In Tanj(.ire it may be had to the extent 
of 2,702 candiesat the rate of 2-8-8 per maimd. 

' This oil makes excellent caudles and soap. 

I Its chieXuse ia, however, for burning in lamps, 
and as a substitute fur butler in native 

j cookery. A vory great diiference is olw^'a- 

' blc in colour, ctmsittence and rtuvoiu-, but is en- 
tirely attributable to the mode of preparation, 
and to the presence in some cajfe-sof a very large 
proprotion of muoilagc and other extraneous 

Pttma IftfifoVt, Mahwa oil is a solid oil or 
huttcr. The R. latiflJia grows plentifully in 
the Northern parts of British India. 

Bomhn^t peiUandnun^ Silk cottonseed oil. 
A dark-hrown, though clrar, oil is obtaiiicd by 
exprcfwion from the seed of the hIIJc cotton tree, 
the fibre of whicli is largely used ns a stxiff- 
ing for pillo;ws, loattreaaea, &c., &.c» 

• 177 


p.- -■ '■■ nil. 
To nnni. Tam. | BiHlitftiim kain nooiiiit Tiu.. 

i ■., . .; .> i)Hi-(i for burning in lamj* in thiwe 
partft oC British Imibi where the fniit abonntU. 
It in exlracttd by Iwiling iu wal^r, nncl ia pro- 
curablf only in very small quantitirs. 

Bfoottfja Jdahtijutn ointmmi nml Vlfhuru 
jtuxystt/ or fnake tree oitthnent of Masuli|iatam 
apl>c:u- to bo hew pr^lncts. 

Bi'ten frond'^a^ MiK'diwjga oil. The seeda 
of tJiia tfL-o yield a small (piantity of a brifi;lit 
clear oil wliioh i» somotimes lUted nie^licinaUy. 

Cahhage ued oi7, is prepared in aiusJI quau- 

Cftlopfitflhim ralfif*a I a new oil under the 
name of Cheiroo pinnacottay was sent from 

" Pootronjio." A new oil from Mysore and 

Caiofihiftlum iiMpJiyUum. Tinnacotay or 
Poini^sced uil. 

Ilrx7>. I Pinnay noonfr, 


^irpiia kii ti'l, 
Wnniiy yrnnni 

The fnvli ^i:!t><lt> «»f the** Alexandrian lanref* 
when slirllcfl and »ubj<'cte<l to pressure, yield n 
dark-irroeii nil 'W a iH'^ulior <vloMr. Old seeds 
▼icld n higher cnloun d and thicker prrjduot. In 
the ycAr l>>47-^*<. ealbma ;i,87l of the oil, and 
CTTt, ."iOS of the (*ee*K were shipped from 
Mmlma chielly m Ceylon and the Strftita, it bite 
now ecase<l to bo an article of exfort. In 
Tanjorc, 4^7 acres prwlucinj^oii nn average 2-1^ 
culliunij p^ acre of fVM'd are covered with i\\\^ 
tree: Ihiii yields 2^671] niuunds of oil at Ra. 
20-4 per tnaund. In Tinne\cny, it costs As. 
4-^S and TrichiDO|K>ly jVs. 4 per seer. In Tan- 
jore, ii U twed for lauips. and for caulking 
TCsseU. hut it appears to he chicHy valuable a^ 
a me^iicine. It is fieldom procurable in the 
biuiuar. but i^cxprevted when required. Sam- 
ples from Canarn, under the name of** Honay/' 
from Goa hy the name nf ** Oleum unda," Irom 
Cochin pulltxl *• Pemn poonako," and from 

CwMbis sativa^ Iletnp seed oil. 
Gflnjayennai, TiM. 

Tilt? oil » olitaincd by oxprewion from the 
jircdfi of the conimou hemp, which \» cultivated 
ia many parts of the countrj'. In Russia, the 
oil iji mueh used for burning in lamps, hut it is 
unknown to the natives of Indja, Of three »p€S 
cimens exhibited, at the Madras Kxhibition of 
1855 one wa» of « deep-grrcn e^bur from 
Tanjore, another of an olive-^recn, sent hy 
tjcnt. Ilnwkeit. 

Cardamom Hsd ot/,(Thia tixed oilia well 
known . 

r '' oil. 

Hgbt yellow rU >: Irotn the 

of tUe plan' ihc w«Il known 

dye. It jcrowft plentiluilv in '>iv! 
nevelly. lii iMy^ort* and Bellary 
Rh. 2-H-<> |>ctr nmnnd, and I* 
cidinary fiixA otlicr purfM^ttei, 

CeUtstria }yinicuhua, Malktinf^unt 
tree oil. 

M)tlUunirunrekat«l, Hisr*. I II«i-ut«gi noot 
VftJuhivy yi'im«i, TAii. | 

The deep scarlet colunrcd oilohtaii 
pre^on from the seeds tjf thi* ^hrub ij 
niedicino, the aclhU submitted to 
di^lillatiun yield the 

OUum nitft'um, 

ViiylAfi tjlurn, Ta«. 

An cmpyrcuinatic oil obtained hy 
BtTiictivc (Ui*tiUation of llie ^nsc'U of 
irus, either alone or in combinouon 
ingredients. It is much used in the 
of Beri-beri. 

Chferon^if oil, Chirongia ^pida oi 
nania latifvdla. 

Cbo«roaji or Cbarvoli k* t Ranjinippo m 

teL Hrxn. I 

The kernels of this tr. ■ 
tivea to promote? fatntisn, i 
coloured, sweet tasle<l ami JnujuU uil 
seldom extracted. The tree ^tows jAt 
in Myiiiire and Cnddapah. 

G}€os nuvifent, (.V>coanut oi). 
\ftri*l ka-tol. Hrtrp. | Tean^ noona. 

The »verfiL'"0 annual quant- 
piirted from M:idra/», from l> \ II 

was alwiil gallons lMMt,0(MlpeT annum. Oft! 
far the larf.n:'.*! i>ortion was sent tn the 
Kingdom and Franre, the reniainder 
way to Arabia, Mauritius, 
(Indian) Krcnch port*. Tbepn 
connidernbly in ditferent pan-. ... im 
For the (juarter ondiniDr 3l8t OetobcrU 
max. and the min. were Ba. 8-5-4 at Jul 
and Rs. 1-1 2-& at Mliow jter mj 
average of 21 lai^e stntiona in the 
prffiidency giving Kfl. 4-l>-5 per 
about X41-2 per l^m. The mi 
" Gxdiin oiP in London (Januui 
^46-10 — the average being X4tt 
best oil if) that expc)r*(eil from Ct 
nei^'hlxiiiring jtort^ cm the M&lal 
nAually fetches 20*. per ton m< 
Ceylon or Coromandd eouat artii 
Kurofie, it ia iiwed for candle and 
nnfhcture, fur lubricating machinery, , 
In India* for making aoop, anointing ihi 
for cocikery, lamf« and in medicine. Ad 
rcuiuaticoiiand pyndigoooua acid are 
by the destructive distillation of 
The latter substance lias lnTn u 
in developing photographs bv the 
CGas. The oil ol tarmixcil • 
varniidi*^ is aaid to be ua- 
the "backing up" of positiw pictttrca, 


.iiowu mediv'mal oil, tl\e tuc 
A Uroalic purgative, seems to be 

Colocynth seed oi 

■ '.i seed oil, Pitcha \nx»- 

Tharbix)xa, Khurbuoza, or Pumpkin 

itt ^y/H^^ Ctictitnber HCcd oil. 
r-.iikt. Tax. I 'i*hu6ai Doorui* Tel. 

,-t. niinlM>ctj butter {Rtu\) 

iiikJii'lyliim, Tam. 
iic«l in the s*^edr* of 
btigc tree," u Bpecios closely ailittd to 
tirpureu wUicli producos tbo " i:ocum 
III nas alira<:tHl altfulioii. TheCiaiiibi>ge 
ulrtiniUntly in ft-rtaiii parts of tlie 
knd Western wiitet juiiglos. The oil 
prucanible iu uiodcrute miaulities, is 
by potjiidiny tbc seed iu a stone 
iliDg tlie rtiiws, until the butter, 
ihff surJbiie. Two and a hall' 
Med fthtiuld yield ouc nucr aud n 
mt^r. In tin* Nu>rgur DivLsiou of 
w scM at the r.uc of jVs. 1-4 per ^eor 
wri;.'h:. nv at XIKz-G j»or toil, and It* 


0-' ' mam obtained Irom the 

tree ; conwdcRjd ftn exccJlent remedy 


-fwT, bondnc nut oil. 

of thU t'^imrniin «eed is mentioned by 
1 useful in cwuvul- 
'h thciD8i!lvc3 fire* 
pc»«*e«« luaic virtuoa. Usod aolciy 

olri^m, Rumiil oil — Verbciina 

I tai, HtKO. I V«IfW9iLloo ixmriity, Tat. 
'^ •I 'diblc oil b plentiful in 
I ni and Ganjam DijftrictH. 
ilti" 4niuo pur[Hitf€^ as the 
II lA procnniblo in tlie Niiggtir 
'^ ': *: ■ 'I jM»r maund, 

'■\y oil. 
hi t)t)X :roe oil. Thifl 
■ I'll ftx'm Jamaica. Ita 
<n an uiJ ; a? the whole 
iM'^ innrtiT, thin oil pro- 
mt uixr. 
r^. [lay nil. From 

\ ttry valottblc vegetable toUow, uaed 

\mUii, Crtjmnltoiipilly oil. Tho AcoiU 

-^ '"-^ '■• ' '■■■• yield by expresaion 

iliiT oousistence of 
i« <| wm,v* Jii'l USC5 are luiiiscer- 

i,ir :iL-.«: i 



Jairoiiftn purgaiis, or Curcaa piirgana, Ango- 
lar leaved physic-nut uil. 

Jnngli er&ndi lea i«I. I CHtt-amunak yennii). Tax, 
HmD. I Adavi a[UL'diii>ooootrtia,Tw_ 

This oil, has of laU; beeu ixu[x>rted into 
England, as a substitulc for liuiieed oil ; it id 
expipssed from the fruit of a species of Jatropha, 
which abounds in uU part^ of lixe ALi'lra.* presi- 
dency. The colour is somewhat palej than iho 
bortt Uq8cc<1 oil. It can be ubtaiued iu some 
part8 of tho country whore it is plentiful, for 
little more tliau the cost of manutUcturo. It is 
now chiefly iwcd iu lamps. 

JtUrophi ffhucn. Glaucous- lea^'ed physJc-naL 
Aildjile or Authaulay yennai. Tax. 

This in appearance approaches castor oil, 
and iceius to be but little known. It is 
fluid and light straw-coloured, and is pnxiur- 
ablc in South Arcot, where the plant grows on 
waste land. It w now cliieliy U3e<l modiciouIJy 
as a counter-irritant, but if procurable in 
sufficient Kjuantity aecma likely to prove a 
u.-»Gful oil. A hi^h coloured apocinien was aent 
to tlie Madras Exiubitiou from Tlnnevcjly aud 
one of a pale straw colour from Miulrati. 

LcjiidUim satifum, Counti*y Cress oil. 
Ali-vpfi ycnnui. Tax. 

This oil 19 oxtRurted iViitn tho seeds of tho 
** Chinese wall crt?.'*.'' It mVLst U'"*! be con- 
fnundwl with *' Linseed oil/' tlie Tamil name of 
which is the same as that of the present article. 

Liiiam ugitatiSitnvun^ Linseed uil. 
riaso ku tel, IIisd. I Avt»estte noonii, Tex. 

Alliveri ytfTinai. Tam. | 

Tho scod from which this oil is exprest^cd^ 
has long been cultivated to a liuiiicd extent in 
Nagpore, Bellary luid other |»arts of tho Mudnu 
presidency. Thifre in an impression tliat the 
oil obtained &om tho Indian plant is inferior to 
that imported trom England, hui it will he 
found ou experimuuti tliat Urn arisen from (he 
former having been imperfectly freinl from 
niucilagr, wliich prevent* itadryiu;^. Thescod 
is now an article of ex|xirl froiu Madras to tlie 
amount (l«o-*-53) of cwt. 1,10(1. Iu the yuar 
1852-5^. English Linseeil oil to the amount of 
fjjallons 4,5r'>2 and valued at Ks. 8,7*^^ was im- 
|R>rted into Madnu, whilst at the same time 
cwt. 1,045 of the Heetl were exported Irom 
heDco mostly tn Enjj^land : it cjin be made 
on the spot for much \cs» than the average 
value nf the English oil. It would, however, be 
iifceuwary to guard against tho adulteration of 
this oil, with any of the other grooAy oils which 
would of course infallibly de»iroy its drying 

MacfUimr oU^ is U5cd by the natives of 
.Stn,c-a[)ore as a hair oil. 

MatMloo oif.^ of Canara, is used for lamps. 

AzoiUmc^tla iwHca^ and Melia Azadiracb, 
Margosa or Ncem otL 

N.Hjm lui tol, IIl»D. j Vapamratui, Tti . 

Vapum yennai, Tam. 1 



XpreiHiou or boilmg, Iroin 
(lir ftcttU ol' »j»ecio« ol' Metia iinil -Azud<*racii- 
ta« nhich lire cummuii tlinnighoiu Souitierii 
Aaui. It ciiu Tti much into tlie pnu^ticu o*" native 
Diyeicifins, b^* wliora it is ailinini^tered iiiter- 
iially nfl uit anthelmintic, nnd oxtcmully as a 
liiiimvntin Hicuiiintism.itTid headache arul ns nn 
application to iiIloi^. The uil is of u deep yellow 
vdIdut, haa a atrnng smcl! and uii iinpleiwnnt 
hiUw Uftte, In the year 1H47-4S, galloiw l,5iS7 
were exported irom Mndran, and in the year 
IS51-5'J, gallons 1.'J17, in l><52-:>3, giiUi.n« 
;j,lll. The ehief market bi Oylon, but the 
dcuiund is not conntnnt. 

Mnnn ffrrta^ Nngit-suinpungliee oil. Thia 
viiUmhlt* oil i^ proiuimhie In Conani, nt the 
rale of R^. 4 and the seed at 1-S-O per mannd. 
It irt tuod both as a luuip oil and as a healing 
application to gt-rea. 

MimM$t>jtn fUiuji, Miniusof>s oil, a medi- 
cinal oil, ol»tiinahlc in tJ)ltrably large quan- 
tities in Honie parla of the country. It la 
known in Kngland. 

MoonhXtnua talhw. This valuable snbstanro, 
which even (it hij^h ttmperaturcs is jwrhai* the 
inofi Miltd nil with which wo are yet acqiuiinte<i, 
is mode in Canuru. If prticurable in large 
quantities and at a moderate cofit, it promises 
to be a valued material Jbr the manufacture of 
candle.s, &c., iScc. It is med tor medicinal piu- 
pOA(«, Ac, &c., and as a cure for cattle wound- 
ed by tiger?. 

their prescriptions. It might pml 
. thund of iiAC in tbf nrtA^ ii tnuoh r 
I aln)ond nil but Ia rattier thicker. The 
I co«t in MadniA A"*, 2-0 per seer. 
Ni'jtiUt miivn^ Fetmel flower oil. 
Kulonjcc ; SiiiU Ihinith, | r^tniTi »r«ni4^uni 
IIiYii. I N'kIU ({illtluuTVt 

The hlaclc nromaiic sectls of theNigtl 
yield by expre*si(»n a dark rolonrt?d 
Pajjftver mminferfum^ Poppv oi 


K*% ciMK yenniu. 

Kbu>ili-kbUBh lu tcl. 

The poppy ia larjrely cultivated thnw^ 
Malwa and tlie opium <ii4iricts, where th« i 
ing nil obtained trom the seed U more rx 
sivety tucd than any other, both iu lamne la 
food. At Bhopanl the oil ts procurable jU 
rate c/i Rs. 4-ti-l> per muun»l »»r 25 n»« 
X40-(J jier ton. By simple cxi^wure to thm 
of the fiun in shallnw vessel.'*, this oi ' 
peiiev-rly colourlwstf. It i* mucli pru : 
pean artinls. 

WiUi olive, or Pootroojie oil, obtAinti 
expreftsiou from a handi*iimo tree gr9wibg| 
tifully in C:innra and Mysore. 
. Politnifia viscota, Vi^eid Clemne oil. 
>'ahi-ca4rtSfhoD, Tau. 

Tliia worm and pungent little 
subjected to very powerful pr^-^^ure, 
moderate pt?r-centage of a light, 'jli»e-gl 
coloured limpid od, which promi^L-.-i lu t< ui 



IlifpfranOitra moriiir/a : Moringa pterygoft- | for purposes requiring a very liquid oil. 

penua, Ben or moringa oil. 

BahujnA, Hum. I Mocunga noona. Tut-. 

Moruntfbjr yennai, Tlu. \ 

Ben nut oil has long been considered valu- 
able on account nf t)ie letigtJicned peritxi, whieh 
it may be kept without contracting rancidity. 
The tree from which tlie ** uutfl** are obtained, 
IS common in all parti of British India the 
Howere.leavw and fruit are eaten hy thenativefl, 
and the raspe<l nM)t is used by Kumiifans na a 
frubi^tituttj for horse-radidi, to which circum- 
ec It owes its common namn of •* hoi"8e- 
ih tree." The oil however is seldtun ma^lu 
in India, nor does it now form an article ol 

Mt/ristictt moschaia^ Nutmeg butter. 

Japhiil lot {n\^ tlixp I Jaikkam noonu, Tbu 

Jiutip'.>ou'i tjlura, Tsm. \ 

It i«obtuititid hy cxpref>«ion from the nnitneg. 
it hoA an arumatic fmdl from the volatile oil it 

If0fradinu>oL>o oil. N'rcrada. 
Jttdt 't tol, IlixD I Mootoo yrnn&i* Ta« 

I Mr nil wn« tent to the M.idrae 

Ka 'ue varjniia najnos 

of L^ ' ahtiond, M;jroty. 

'tuiiAna, Maravctti^ Ncerrctti juid Soorty. It a 

180 ( 

I'otmfja or Kttrunj oil, UalbcrgiA arbi 
or I*ongamia glabra. 
KurunJ ka ti'l, Hnvn. | roongs jciind. 

This oil. which, in some {arts of t 
lA used to a large extmi in aduhf i 
oil, is expressed from the seedn of u i. ■ . ■ 
mon in most pnrtd of the Madnw j ;• 1 
In North .\rcot, Bcllary, and thelSn/ ■•.: I 
nion of Mysore, the oil is pri»cuiabi'_' *' 
2-H-O {>er maund. It Ia chiefly uied u ft I 
oil by tlie fiooror cLaMes. 

SaJiocoitntf oil, from Canaro, is tuod 
ncoiu diseases. 

Santaltnn alhum^ tSaudal seed oil. 
C'liund»nu puttjUum romuti. Tan. 

The seed* of the sandalwood Uee 
expression a thick and viscid oil wkieK, 
hy the poorer classes in lampA. 

SaiUalmn aUtttm, vStindalwood oil. 
Ctiundun.1 vMiriiU, Tax. 

Iliiit oil i5 made iu Sulem, M^ 
Canary from tlic santhtlwood. The cx[ 
amount annually to ab4nii lOU cwl, , 

Majiftanu* tativut^ Uadudi seed oil* 

Jlkinvx commimijCj ('aAtor oil, FfflCtt 
mlnorihuA, in smoU !«eedo<] variety. 
r <i kalW, Ht:m. I f*httt<*uiiiadiaW»M 





\h^ oth.i ^ leil, iiTP firc>- 1 

«r liAiIii. I'hc BmuU-je«detJ variety ' 
ett I't-uduct. unti i^ employed in prc- 
oil eip-iflcri for mcflicinai purp«.we». 

'^ •'•tt Imviag been siited and 

itoiieit, Htid all exiraneuim 

t . crushcHl betwe'eu twarollers. 

:l 1 hitsk--* and onlourtii grains, 

dill iJcan guiiuy. Tliev then receive 

rcsamre in an ohion;; mould which 

ifhrm shape nnd density U> llie 

sei^l. The '* IJricks" r» they jure 

ar*' thrn [tLircd altcj-nutely 

!■ '.-et iron id lite ordinary 

i- I'KSh, The oil rhud pro- 
I i» cleftii till piuwj and 
the pn'iMirUou of a pint Uj a gnllnn 
., ..1.1. ,1 flic whiilc iH boilfd until the 
i- led, the niueilugc n^U be -.ubMik'd und encnutod the 
llje puio, whiUt ihu aJbumensnIidiflod 
aU Tonus It white layer between the 
^ water. Great care must be taken 
la the jKin iVoui tiie fire, tlie iu^tiint 
lul* tJie utttrr hiLs eviipomted, whieli 
povru by the bubl>lea havin^ cmisod, 
H ttr remain ionger, the oil wliich 
r J ihe temperature ol" boiUng 

ieidy rises uj that of oil ur 
V hei/zhti'uing the eolour and 
1 eiupvTeuuiaLic taste und 
iien filtered thron^di blanket, 
,..,,.. til drill, and put intncari'!i fnr 
It 18 usually uf a tight utraw colour, 
" l;iujel/>a f^eeiiish tinge. The 
lom 47 to 50 per cent, of oil, 
i^mn'j irom -W. to o<f., per lb. The 
the result of experiments made at 
tin the percentage 
>iiary27ih, 1S53.) 

. — U-ltMJ ibi. of seed yield kcrncU 
iJ aa f*>Uow!i : — 

KrmeJ* . . «;32 lbs. OU . . 324 Iba. 
„ ..lH4il)a. „ ..87i \hs. 
B «» ..164 lbs. ,» ..T^lba. 
meat of 9m llw. af kernels and 
mir oil from 1,400 lb«. ofseetl, 
. — 1,400 Km. of ftoed yit4d raw oil as 

T' .3IS lbs. of oil. 

8.Slh8. do. 
..... 74 llw. diK 
tuial of 480 Ibe. of oil from 1,40U Ibe. 

rtrdif* ^(adradoil was Ri. 7C-l-0aa 

p^^U «. I£s.a-3por bag of 1()4J1)6. 

57 3 4 
4dc<0tusg kenicLs and 

.. . 3 11 

]81 C 

Crn^hing,mouldiug,pre«m(f and boiling 2 7 1 

I Filtering and sundries.. 2 80 

Overseer's («y, godown rent, &c. &c. . I 6 2 
■ 3<)0 empty quart bottles, cork«, &c. .34 4 8 
j Cleaning and packing rhar^^es. . .... 4 80 

'Or an average of Anna* 4^*q per quart of 

I first:, woond and third sort oil ^ 4*'^. per lb. 

; This oU in chiefiy uswl a.** a mild purgative. 

Soap of good quality may )>e made of it, hut 

the cost und disti^ri-eable smell which it com- 

. municateH, preclude it» geuerid ii^e. The 

avern;fe exiw)rt^ for the 4 yeuM IS4II-50 to 

I8j2-j;S ll.3l'.~igalluns pernnnum. 'i'hcqua- 

Htieanf Ldeurne-ssand limpidity do not arise IVotti 

any superiority ofthe see*!, or care in extraction, 

hut (Voni repeated deoolnrixatiori with animal 

charcoal, which in the opinion of many emi- 

' nent medjivd men, coiwiderablv delractw from 

' its strcngtlinndrHieaey. When mnnufactured 

' in the ordinary native mill, this oil is soiqc- 

times used by the richer clashes in lamps. 

Cnxtfir oU, e.rtriW-teii Ad/, iliffers Irom the 

' fireceding only in the modf of preparation. 

; Tlie .'ieeds are boiled Hit two hours in water, 

I dried for three day;* iu ilie f*un, freed from the 

' tthclJg, pounded and thou boiled iu fre.5h witter, 

j imtil the whi»le of llie oil lut** rwen to tlie but- 

lace. Five seers of tlie seeda or 3^ II>a., .chould 

by this pnx'esi, yield a quart of oil. ThiA is 

I the sort generally used in medicine by native 

I practitionerH, it is ainiw-coloured, and free 

\ irom atiy unpleasant taste or Mmell. 

I Jiitinux comjnu»is, Cojitor oil or lamp oil ; 

; Fructibiw majoribus, large aeeded variety, 

I Chirni;h-kti-t«l. limn. I red'Omidam, Tbl, 

iViilInk enniii, Tam. | 

This oil wliich itt obtained from the large- 
seeded variety of the '^Ricinus connnunis" in 
I sometimes drawn cold, it i« then of a straw- 
I colotu* scarcely distingui:»hable in quality from 
die oil of the amaH-fleedcd variety. It is how- 
ever more usually extracted by heat, and 
forms tlic common " lamp oiP of the bazaar. 
The sccdi having been f*!irtially roiwied over 
a charcoal fire, both to coagulate the albumen 
and to liquily the oil. are then pounded and 
Imilctl in water until the oil rises to the surface. 
The nta^jling proccjw, however, gives it a deeper 
red colour and an empyrcumatie o<lo!ir. The 
price of this nil varies iu dill'creut j»art8 of the 
country from }lit, l-lO-f> to Rh. ;i-i;i-tf per 
maund of 25 lbs. The average of nineteen 
large station.*?, in all part^ of the Madraa pre- 
sidency for the quarter ending3l$l October 1 1^64, 
was Ra. 2-8-(i (►er maund. It ia uftcd chiefly 
for lanqw. Aventge ex|Ktrlii of the sis yeani 
ending 1864, were gallous 27,5(»l per annum. 
CtxM&r oi7, from a new wild sjKJcieg iu 
Canara, \a burnt in lAin[>t. 

S*tpinfhi% vmaitpnntujt, SotXf-nul oil. 

Krplhay lea t/il, Hixn. I ('oAiiRiim-kni j*<»nnai,TAM. 
ro«Jvandi cottHV, Taji 1 Koocoo^U wwua, titv. 




nj^Jini-^olid oil w iwftd inwlicinally ny tli* 
nutivw, atid id exhucU'd iVom the kernel of l.ho ] ing th 
Boap-iiut. ItA cost prrvcntj* it^gonfml use. 

Sit trust itfimt lUinii, Ponvana oil, maule in 
TifinevcUy, Travnncorc ami Cutuvyatii, '\& re- 
|iort«l to be twefiil for rheumaiiiiin. Thw 
subntnnce liaa bwri Imij^ known under Uie 
name of Poovana and iVivenguli, as medici- 

na] oil; it i» u*e(i litrgcly *'n the wfeilern coust.antl 

ae«nL4 rspociiilly Ui iii(*rit furihL*r i!iv<ytigauoii. 

Sem/!i:arj>tua nnitfuvdiutn^ ^larking nut oil. 

Sli ' . •'iinHi, Tan. | 

I ! and vi.-«icuting oil which id found 

bctr^'fcn Ui« two laiiiin.'u of the pericarp of tlic 
marking nut itt collecti^t) luid u^cil qa a ]>rf.>\Tn- 
tive AgimiHt tlic Htt;kokj« of white ant;«. und by 
native practitioners in rhrtimatie and lepr()ii9 
ufiectiuua. By buUing the whole nut not di- 
vectteil of '\\A |iorit:urp, nn oil is aluo obuiiued 
which acl» m a blister. Tho pr*'[ivira!iun or 
coUectiun ciOuT of the oil or acrid jiuce ia lia- 
ble to came much iiTitaiioit and inttaimnatiou 
of the lutnda, lUce, ^*^ of thwe enguj^od iu tho I 

Sesamum orifnUtU, Gingelly oil or }!GS:iraum 
oil (hlm:k-*cctlcd vari<.'ty.) I 

Meetlm Til ka tol, I Nool ennai, T^M. 

HiM", I Miinditf nminny, Tkk | 
Thw oil wbicli ift pfrhrti*)* timHunied to a| 
grcntpr eiicni rbfin any nilier by iho natives | 
of India, w, nioreuver, scrond t>niy to cocniintit j 
oil in \\A imp«»rtan«e a^ an artirle ofcommcrre. , 
It IA extonsiv(;ly cultivated rhmuyhout the 
whole of the Mndnis presidency, and its 
[needs und oil have bron exported us follows ; 

GinytUy Seed 

ces?, into ifie common miii, mid i 
the iwual way. The oil thiw I-r. 
with a largo |ii>rtion of tlieoolo;, 
epitleriniaofthe seed, and i* n.. .- 
to th*< eye, nor 90 agreeable to the tastr, 


Year IWTW. 

.Rfi. l«a,]U 

17.6 1 j4 

Yenr iJiCiIot 

Y«iir 184H-4a 
(jr. ».M'4 . . n*. 1,02,7?<T 

V " M. 

Cwt. 1,37,1S5 

trinytUy OU. 

Year 1817.48. 
11, 29,&2U lU. H,766 

Vr«r 1840-50. 
(L 62.7il Itn. 30,201 

VuM- l8;^l-&2. 
}\. 4fi.l9(i tt». 26,722 

Of tlie ginf^elly uecd exported 

Year 1848-i9. 
GL 14.684.. Ktt. 11.535 

Vc*r 18&0.5I. 
Gl 77.3C-' K.. 4e,C05 

Yonr l»6a-53. 
GL 72.607 Rk-M.COR 

in lS52-5:i 
[ih« Uuiied Kin^idom received cwt, 12,71<-^ — 
Ion, cwt. ;jJH»— France, cwt. 12,87«:^5 — 
'«^;nc«wt. 741- -H*)inbdy, ewt. 113 — Malacca. 
33 Olid Tnivut.core, itwl. 148. Of lJ»e 
Itfiiaucity of oil (72,»><»7 nal-.') oxf»orte«l in the 
lU. -l"_',0-|:t \v. ! U> the 

■ rn— urjOli'n-^. :.' L'ylou — 

1 -. and lUtuiiton — j:aN. 
1*1 to Bengal — gaU. 27 
vliHiuu) portA. and gaJ^. 3^03 

to ibc mode 

ii di«p.irity "f 

•oil ill merely 

of prcpttrtUion. 

>btainedbyfiri*l re|xaitcdJy wri.'^!^ 
cold water, or by boiUnR thom. 
until the whole of Uie rc«l«iisli-(>n-H 
matter w removed, and the Aer-I 
como perfectly white. Tliry are t! 
the sun, un<l the oil exprc9ij>oil as 'i 
prfHTe** \-ield« 40 to 44 jier cent, 01 
«traw-coloureil sweet smellinif oil, ■ 
substitute for olive oil, for v, ' 
largely i*oM. la India, ir i 
cookery, in angintingtlicjj 
and for burning in lunifM. I 
iL«ed tiir the manufacture of wxip. and t4 
ing in tnble-lamjw, for which it w l>ct 
ihnn or»coanui oil, owin>f to llie lower 
ature ul whioh the tatter eou;^paljL 
value in England (Jtmuary 1^5) £4 
per ton, In diflcrent purta of tho Ml 
jiresideney the price of tliis oil vurim fti 
lU, 1-o-U to Rs. G |H'r mntind • ' '' 

lu S. Arci)t it u procurable at R«. L' 
candy. The prices pftr nmund »ir 
the undermentioned stations, tcir r .,.; 

etidin:/ 31st October 1^54, were m ai 

Arcnt R«. 3 8 

BfUitfalonA ,,873 

lioIUry „ 3 a l> 

lU'ctiJUti|ioru... ,.280 

CX»nnvo»re ,, C *i 

(JuJ'iniinb tt 'i \^ 

Jaulnah 2 G 

Julibulptirc I iS 

Mudnu ., 3 14 

Miwttlipatiuii. ... ft tf 


!• ' 

»^ , 


Stxoinl wrf QimjtUjf oi/, is, ia 
crroneoasly called * l^{>e,' (KluiniAaiu 
is expressed from a v:u-icty »• 
diir«'r3 but little from the (J44C ;• 
In raniorc, it is procurable at iU. 

The folliiwinj: particuIarH coucoj 
v:irietie* of jJant, yielding tint iiui 
have been furni*ihed by F. 
Knjnhinundry. Wa tolls \xh that 
scsamum arc cnltivat<*d ii>r the sokt 

The 1st Fort of ginjWiUy sow! u 
duce of the plant, which is »uwn in tin 
of March, after the rice crop, and 14 
twice, K}<\i'o at eowin;;, and once 
The 8ee4 which i* black, and ui 
irinjrrlly, froin the fact of iu 
larL'c"*!. |H.'rcejit;i{ru of oil, ripruu 
nelU at the rale of \U. (If) \wt candl 
The oil obtained from t>nth varic 
llie *ami' prire. vix., ICs. 2-1 4-G to 
mauud of J5 Ibd. according to quttlity. 

The :2ad sort of gingelty in sown ia 4i 

O 182 



snetl. The \ ' ■ ''ft 

)le* in in- ' ' 111- 

rtST^ li N(m)i'wWi.k iiingirr 

dUrnrn II s\mdi: or two iu 

IV oC .'i4 10 Ib.t. uf tliU feM'Utl jiells 

li'Kr [irioc ut' tlie oil in ihy tauie 

>rt git»;rr-Ily. 'J'hit suctl al)i)iit 

to be liu-j.'1'Iv oxp(»rt«d l<^ 

|ucnro of wlut:h lUu price 

«k Mustnrr] oi). 
|];^- ■ - ■ i.noQdijSarsavttnoo- 
'I Tr.i,. 
or.'t... : .--.!;»i? np^ ciiltiviitwl 
iba, fi-T tho «ik»* of tho valu- 
tlii>u> Du»t fiwjiiently peon 
and H. mccniiwii. Thcspcd'* 
yield by oxprcjusion 3(5 
r A iirij^hi y<?Ilt'W» pIcuMiDt tasted. 
Having ;t f. and alight 
itJtrd. i lapis nigra/ 
f '- ul. ol Hi oii m nil reepccts 
f ■'•. Tbe a\nni^'w prico of 
t *i liir^ piatioiis, in all 
, -iidrm V, for Uie qiiar- 
3ltt Ucinbrr 1>*54 wa^ lis. 1-2-8 
of 25 lbs., the mniimtun l>ein(» 
lit Cjinnanore and tht* iniuinuuii 
V 1 1,< ,r«». In VizapfaiiatAm it costs 
( irc»', Tbe oil U not export- 
,, , .. !...«,, shipped as t'ollown : 

t>.436 I 1S52-53... „ ICOTS 

■ * oil, aJtiiougb scJdom 
mJidc when required, 
I India in rx)okorv» and 
to all ntbor niU) for 
which it in siipposeti ta 
cme, it is 8omctiino8 given 
f»ul L3 more !'rt^nionr,ly Rpplicd aa a 
Thr commoQ imi*t;»nl oil cake a 
nil four diiierenl sorts of Siuapia. 
F.'M ^f.^rpulia oil. 
II. TAit. 

.od by expression 

of a large junjjle tree, appear* 

large per-centage of stcJuriLnc, but 

S it can be obtained in large 

fomttti, Nux voiuica oii. 

• >y yonndi, Tak. 
lonillie fresh 

diiuiiail-. bv n-i'-.---'- pr.irtitionera. 




•Yw j<i)roboIau oil, 

• in small quanti- 

ilei'ici myrobolan, 
:^ uuLterial. 
WUld. Almond oil, 
ica of Terra inalia, 
\\a cktM^i^ Clicbulic tuyrobolaa oil. 


'iae^ 1 

TTiwUffWOI oil procurable ui rtiry mxit 
j qtmnlitics (Voni tlic krrnol, 
I ThffprMo pnpulnett^ I'ortiu nut oil. 

runiji pi|i|*ul, 11 iNi>. I I'ounuiani yriinai, Taji. 

TUi» dL'<*p, rml-culou red tind^niewbal thick 
oil, i.^ nbuiiniH] iVoni tlio seciht of the poriiu 
tree, which jcrows in great abtiniJjince in the 
peninsula. It 'm^ cxtcn^vely pliinted t»nn avenue 
tree, for whieh it'> qiiick-growth imd the beauty 
oi' ii4 llowefH rend«r it a favorite. The wood 
is cajwhle of being worke<l when frc^h cut and 
i$ used Ii»r boat-lmildiutf and cabinet work. The 
juiee of tltt tree is used on the wcMtern coast, 
UA a remedy for v^uioiw cutiineous affeclion, 
and the oil ntighl probalily be of ui^e in siaii. 
ciwes. lis expense precludes its use otherwise 
than iiieJicinally. 

Tfuvftia neriifolin^ the '' exile" oiL The 
kenjcls of Uie !*eed.s of tliis ronimon shrub 
yield by expression a large percentage of a 
clear bright yrllow coloured oil, 

77u)ronoi/itUo vU, Fon^'amia glabra? from 
Cauara UM>d fttf cutan&oud dincafies. 

Tuntapoooil^ (Caasia t/jra ?) an empyreuma- 
tic medieiiiul Rubstance called Tunta]x)0 oil 
known alwut iManulipntiun. 

Valeria xndieay Piuey tallow or Doopada oU, 
Piiiey yennai, Tam. 

Thia most valualile tre^t whicli, besides the 
prt)duct under consideration, yields a reain 
nearly equal to copal, and furnishes an excel- 
lent buiJding wood, grows plentifully in the 
jungles of the western coast. The oil which 
IS perfectly solid even in hot climates, n pre- 
paro<l by cleaning the seeds, then roasting and 
grinding them into a mass. To 5 seers of 
seed, add 12 seers oi* water, and boil until the 
oil rises to the siu^ace. Ueinove the oil, stir 
the coutents of the vessel, and allow it to 
8tand until the following (hiy, when more oil 
will be oUened on the surface, which may be 
collected and tJic process repeated. The oil U 
principally used for laiiij;*, but is very suitable 
tor soaps and candle-making. 

Wood oils. — ThU cJaas of oils i^i obtained for 
the most part from the Buriucsc coast and the 
8traitjs- They ore usually procm*ed by tapping 
certain trees of the noble order Dipterocarpca, 
and applying heat to liic cavity. The oiT which 
Hows from the wound, is a mixtiu'eof a balsam 
and volatile oil, and when applied an a varnish 
to wood or other sulx-4tancc tlic oil evaporating 
deposits a hanl and dtirable coat of re^in. They 
are chiefly iwed as natural vainlsho^, cither 
alone or in combination with coloured pigments, 
also VA a substitute for lar in paving ilie seams 
of shipping, and for preserving limber from the 
attacks of white ants. They are said also to 
be useful as an ingredient in lithographic inks. 
Owing to the distance from which they are 
brought, and the iinperfe<;t kaoy«l^d^« vte. "^eV 

O 183 

sub(*iai»r*»rt aiv» (J^rivod, art* invnlve<l 
rlr^rot.' of olx^-urity. Tlie oil, thercj- 
ly rcv.eivci the iinmpa of ihc loca- 
ii ; wiiich ihev :*r»' ini|">rt«l. Sonic of 

liieni <hller •.•oiisid»*ral'K in colonr mnl roiuist- 
pnt***, but (liey all posiiox* llie snmo biLl«imic 
<Mjnnr. Abuut lhi» end of ihe Jry season, that 
is ill Mai'oh or April, aevenil dcup incisions ore 
made with an axr into the heart of the wood, 
and a good sizfd picr.c «coof>ed out : int« thejin 
\io\^ fire 13 pla<'ed, nnd kept burning until the 
oil begiiu to run, when it is recPivod into a 
bamboo, nnd allowf'd to run slowlv drop by drop. 

Ttid-ufwi oil. — An opjiqiio Jull ash-oolfmred 
cmI procurable in most of tho Ifir^n' biixanre n( 
India ; when allowed t»i re^t for isomo lime, it 
wparates into two layers, or an tipper dark- 
coloured clear slratnni and a lower »nd more 
whd deptwtt. Its chief iwe i» for applying 
to wofMl-work of all sorts, either alone m a 
natural varniah, or in combination with certain 

WoOfi oil front P^cfu. — The oil which is 
generally Icnown by this name is a very clear 
and lii^uid nubAtance fonning a natural vnmiHh 
when applied to woikI or other substiince. 

Deo€lar or ShenuinaUihu oil, Erytliroxylon 
3reol;ttum. An empyreunnitic modioinal <>il. 

Wood oil from Chiftafjoiif) . — Much re*enj- 
bles Teak wood oil and Wooil oil from Fegu. 
(t ifl leM liquid than the latter, hut lA tiAed for 
The »amo purpose; procurable tu all large 

Wood oil from Rangoon andMoulmfin differs 

)«inoi3th, the lenv^'t aid mihIo. piniifU 
piilate, frtiit a oue-!teeded druj 
anil anatro|>al. The oil whol^^H 
ivniaiti at ru^t divid*?i> itvlf into two 
uplit»r ooni»)>tting of a v-lvar ehrtint 
lirpud baUam. and the lower Uiiag 
anee like flukos of gruniilaied su>n« 
listing pr«»b:ibly of the ^iiri^iw re»n 
by the action of the atm^ephere. 

Mifwrat ov6i, or Petroleuni, ibo 

Thf Woutifi-irM oi/, or Ga^Tftpl 

Wrifjhtia antitiifseuierica^ Rosebo; 
VaipalUy jremuty, Tak 

A tlii ck, scarlet-oolou re<l , med 
part;ikingdoubtlessof the propertie*' 

Although the number of oil-produ 
in Southern India i^very large, biitfo 
viitc»i to any great extent, the 1 
lion conaifiting of trees, Hhriibs, or h 
ing in a wild folate, the fruitji of 
gathered by the poorer p(K)ple. a 
prejMed a* necevity rei^uirc-H. The 
peniiuiula may be classttd under the 
hejids : 

(1.1 Oils {Procured from pUuit« 
cultivated for tlie i«ike of their pro< 
aA eocjianut oil (Coco? uucitera) 
(Scsamum orientate); eaator oil, oft 
South of India called lamp oil (Rii 
mimi»); ground-nut or MaiiilLa-uatui 
hypogsn) : linAecMl oil (Unum uaital 
ranttU oil (Gui/otia oleifera) : muittan 

very c<)nftidcral>ly from any other specimen 

of "w(K>d oiP Aewi to the Exliibition, it w quite ( used for anointing the I 
wliite and almo«t.«olid. hut has the usual resin- I poppy (lil (Papaver son 
ouft smell of thiH clasK of oils. I (2.) Oils procured troin piauLs vr 

Woo*i oil from Chinrt, t<t one of the ' spoutaneowilY and iire found in suific 
■ttbfftaticet of which the well-known and tities to admit of the produra 
much prized China lacquer is mmle. It is used article of inland tnide. Such,^ 
in .Sinp«p<^re for painting the beams and wood- oil or neem-<ul (Azadiraehta indiea 
wnrk of native hoiwes, and may also be mixed nxaderacb) ; st>ljd hassia oil, nucd' 

with paint when not exp(»e<l to the sun. 

StMoo-woofl oil, Dalbergia sUsoo. An em 
pyrcnniatic medicinal product. 

Wood oil from TinHtvelUf, — An empyreu- 
matje product similar to tar, ehicHy useil ruedi- nak oil (Jatropha curcas) : piney tallo' 

dies and for butter (Baiuia k»ngi 
hutyracea) ; pinacotay oil (Cftlopir 
opbilJum) ; karinj oil (Dalbei^a 
coorookoo oil ( Argemone mexicana) { 

indira); and gamboge oil (Carciuia 

(3.) Oils procured from planlj wl 

spontanemwly, but to a limited extent 

cinatly by native practitioners. 

Citmphor wood oil, Dr^'obabnops rampborn 
bftlangt to the das* of " Volatile oiN," is n«ed 

|ftTV«lv in Rinc^fK-ir^ as a substitute for turpen- I parts of the country. The^eoila are 

»'■ I 15 fj, 2"') PonTA. n Kutlo. i extracted by the ji«»orcr elajMo* for ] 

'fW itt iibtained from the I sumption ; — SaiHowcr oil (Carthuiu 

It is obtained | rius) : Belgnuia walnut oil (Aleuri 

raerons family ' poor:jnaoiltSarcostigma kleinii):jun| 

■ I .;. ;■ pj i> oil (Hydnocarpus inobriaiw); Addalp 

I. .r.'l ^v\\ u. n phttgiauca) ; crcas oil (Lepidiim sati^ 

Witco not lopped loo «oon, i cumber, melon, and gourd oU (specie 

18^ O 184 



rrbita) ; coorkapitly oil (Tnga (lul- 

lird^ plont. 
prcH'tJrfi) in siiiul] qiiautilios ffnn 
chietJy Tor niedicina) purposes, 
»«?y, sucii as eoap-nuf. oil ^Supiu- 
tTw) ; caMhpw oil \ Anncurdinm 
le^; cott*^^ "il (specie* of Roiwypiniii 
ibux) ; crolou oil (C'ruton tigliura) ; 
<«^ii»fi<«* of L»rvi«iift; ; coKvyuth oil 
jn»f>k oil (Trtgonella 
. Thu I'oilowing are 
itus vi iiu e\[-orimoMt mudo to 
the periods t<i which the same \{uauti- 
Iffcrent oils Imrii, Nigelher witb their 
iw^rs of iUuinmtition : — 





-<>«>««} CO 


iMf pan jdi^mioiuiditx 

si a 9i 9s 91 

•\a»m\t»ix^ }o a)«<[ 


,^ — — — — — 

ai|| in p»n XiptnmT) 

W <5 o d o 

' 3 

1 « 

< CC tC 00 '^ o 


fr- - c o oe T« 

irti«»^ |ioi(nnc»a 

i'ort St. Uror^*', ! 

dark. AUnospht-rt! dnring; the I 

kind ut' oil, fA\\m und htciip. 

in rach oasc. iron Mire. l-lUih of | 

'.ra ciiciHafprciioe. 2\ inehe?* high, with I 

tin ftjAnd at bottom; wick. i>rdi- 

J«5 O 

nary white lamp cotton, liii'k.n^'H in each CMe, 
HO threatlit, burnt in a .^mall tumbler lialf filled 
with water. Ago ol the pHrty making the ei- 
|>enment 1^4 yenri), eyesight in perfect vigour, 
llie gingelly oil (Se^amum indiouni) muat be 
extremely preindicial to tlie hcalt*h of those 
uung it, from the vast amount of amoke it 
emit?, (.he earth-nut oil (Arachis hypogea) 
emiia a large quantity oi' Kniokc though not so 
u»H'h UA tlie gin^'elly, but has a Jifttigreeable 
smt'll whiUt burning, the araoke from the other 
Uiree kiiifU of oil 'a scarcely perceptible, 

Kraiwf or Miitittk- kruiiitf^ a wood oil, ofBoi^ 
neo, is extrarted'froin the treo* which produce 
it, by simply cutting a large hole in the tree, 
to which fire being placed, tlie oil diatila over* 

Between balauni of copaibu and the wood 
oik there is this ditl'erenoe, rix., that the wood 
balsam liintilled with the addition of a smaU 
quantity of an oxidixing agent, as chlorine, 
bypo-chkirite of lime, or bichroninte of potash, 
yields nn essential oil of a fine blue, whilst 
ordinary copaiba, containing *^'Joft rewn" afTorda 
hardly any colom^ed esfiential oil. Gold sul- 
phuric acid protluccH with copaiba a pur[)le 
coloration similar to that obtained with tt>d-liver 
oil, 9i) that di^honenl perN>nti might Kubtftitutu 
far the latter, a mixture of olive, oil or of some 
other fatty oil, mixed with a small proportion 
of copQibu. 

To obtain wood nil, a large incifflon is made 
in tl»e trunk of the Dipterocarpus turbinatua 
tree, at. ubont 30 inches from the ground, in 
which a lire it* lighted nnd kept up until the 
incision ir4 charred : won after thiH, tlie liquid 
begins to flow. It is conducted by a little 
trough into a vessel placed to receive it. The 
average pr««iucc of the better trees in a single 
:*enj*on, is liU gallons. Roxburgh says that 
woctd oil is aUo produced by l>iptero<rarpu8 
incanus, I), alutus. and D. costatns. The first 
of these throe is reputed to yield the best sort, 
and in the greatest quantity. When filtered, it \h 
a transparent li<juld. of a somewhat dark-brown 
when seen by Iraiismitted light, but appearing 
opaque and of nn obscure green if viewed by 
reilected light> It itc-sseases, theTeii[»re, in a 
very marked degree, the dichroifiii observable 
in II tl rei'iu-oiJs obtained by the action of fire. 
This character determines the nature ofwnoil 
oil, and shows that it is not :*iniply a natural 
pnuluct like opaiba ; but that it is in prt tlie 
refliiltof a liquid nifHliHoation of the Diptero- 
oarpiw re»in, effected by the agency of heat. 
Moulmein wood oil is of somewliat greater 
consiitence tlian olive oil ; it has a sp. gr. of 
9ti4. and possesses an odour and taste very 
analogous to those of copaiba. It dissulvea iu 
twice its weight of absohite alcohol, with the 
exception of a minute residue which is depowt- 
ed uf»on repose. Bnl the mo»»t c\\iv»\vi ^x^ 





perty of \\iU m\ w that of 3uli<illying when | era const of Africa, has large •, 
heated in a cltMed viitl lu ^*jG' K. ; at tbifl teni' i palm uil, ut thv rututistctice of : 
pemttire t)ie oil becnmep lurhid und 90 gela- ' OnUhn hutUr or (Hum', Irom K 
iinonfi, thai it 14 uol displaced up.>u Ute tn\cr- 1 mcva, Fulwa ur I'hulwaru, IIivu^ a 
frion of the vial. AHer cuuling, the solidifi- ' Nepal and Almoru in northern India; pi 
cation in yet more per Ice I ; but » ^rcnile warmth, I an excellent hutter. 
unifited by jilight Hgitation, restorer its tbmier | Bawia latijhlia^ the Tax. !Iloo]tti-^eB 
liipiidity. I Tbl. Ippta noona; Hixo. MaJiwa ka tcl. 

yrtfrtabU hittUra, la the nnme given to the 1 oil of this Ba^iiii sepuratcs inter twi» portj 
?rele oils *if ccrtjiin vryetuhlc*. from the one on thofnirfaoo, Huid. and o1*a pwtaciof 
iblant^ to the hutter uhtaiocil from the colour : tlie other nf a browiiifth green, 
"mlTV of aiiinmU, and from being employed for almost polid. 

similar pur|»i>«f«(. Thi- tt*nn is h1*o moaeionally, 1 Btisxia hintjifolia.'VkVi. Il}oo|Mwyenntti;' 
but improix-rly, wjiplied to *tniie vogeiable pn>- , Ippa nooiia; IIinw. Mohe ka lel. Of t 
\\x\r\B whi<:h are entirely of a waxy nature, such fuun[tles of tlie ll)<n>poo oil, one sejittnitnj 
lu the wax of Myricri eerifera. The name ia | two jxjrtions : the upper, tluid, of a p»l« 
likewise bestowed in Sibi^-ria oil eertiiin algae, , green in colour : and the lower, grcrnJ Ji-m 
species of the geniw Nostoe, «uch da N. pruni- \ and of the coupiat^^nce of ghee. At 
forme. The im«t ini{>oi'tant vegftiible butters | men of the oil of thus Boasia sc-, 
are produced by the B:bwtu butyrucefl, and ! three portlotw; the upjiermost a g 
other spc('ie8 of Umtiia and irertain palms, such 
MA tlie ( 'oro0 hut^raceu, and the Kluis guiucenpis ; 
t-lie former o\' which i* of great utility to the 
inhabitants of Brazil, where it grow^ nauirully. 
and to thi* negri^os of St. Oomingo, where it i» 
cultivated : while the latter t« very ser^'iceable 
to the niitiveii of tininea. The generally known 
BuUd oiU or vegotable buttore are as follow : 

Butter of Ctuao^ from TUeobroma eJicao ; 
1,000 ports of the ^■►ed yield 3LM» parts of a con- 
crete oii ur butter, of u mo^it agreeable davour. 

Suitrr of Cinim mon , from Ci nnamomiuii 
Tenimur C zeylanicuru. By strong deeoction, 
Uie fruit yields a concrete oil, called Cinnamon 
wax, used for en miles, and wliich exhalefi while 
burning a m(«t delirioiu odour. 

Hutter of yutmr*f, from Myri^tica moechsta ; 
thi|i is brought from Ute Moluccnx, of two kinds, 
and is obtained by bniitung the nutme>:)» into a 
paxte which is conipreaited in hags between hot 
mt'tallic plates. 

Bntirr if Cinvtannt^ frnni Coc»38 nucifera. 
whicli yields u concrete oil, but pcrhap* ex- 

Oocoanut m7, prepared by rasping the pulp of 
fresh ripe coooannt, adding a httle hot waitM-, 
•iL[uet^ing and boiling the milky jmce until the 
water Uha eva|Hiratetl, and filtering through 
paper, jinxiticea an oil which srpuratta into two 
pjirtion-s. the one Huid und hmpid, the other a 
^olid concrete j^iilwUime of a jiure white colour, 
which in tlie sliade remuina unliquidated at all 
teiii It may powibly be found that 

ihc ; I tntuiufiicturc atl'ects the uut-turn 

q/ the twhd product. 

ButtfT of f*atm oil, from Klais guineenais, a I pictoria, Jh,rh,^ is c:iUe<l Mukke t_\ 
uaiive «f Afnnfi and America. The eonciete Aranana ghwrghy ycunai, Cxx. The ( 
h esteemed in Kurope for ' grows Abundantly in Mysore and thu wvl 
i'ccn lately recoimnendcd for coa*t jungles. 1 

I Cuctim butUr, Gsrcinia purfiurea? «iti 
v now export from the west- 1 one of the two species of Uar\:i]ua« W. 


and fluid, the middle ycllowlnh *«<in'. 1 
and floating in the upper ; atid the lowat $ 
and brown in colour, A thinl sample in 
Madrud Kxhibitiou of \H'>5, was of the cob 
ence of ordinary ghee atidwaa«ent n 
fit for the lubrication of railway cm 
another boftutitui specimen, almost aoUdJ 
Tanjore, was of a light gulden yellow colotifi 
■ ChirmM i'ftjtUthU butttr from the StQIil 
which sebifera, produces tl»e butler and a 
much in use in China : the number of il 
trees in the province of C'hekiani^' 't» immea 

Indian vetfetabU butter^ Piuey butter, or £ 
pada solid oil, from the Vateria iudica or W 
marum, Ta.m., which jltows on the wcst«>jii e 
of Indiaand in ('anara. It i? white 
white, of the consistence ol hanl salt 
in the shade remains always SL<lid. U*^ 
prix'tired in qimntities in southern Indi*. I 
used for hunjK* principally, but is very wiiti 
for (ioaj« and candles. It is pref»uro-l h* '3l 
ing the seeds ; then roasting and gr 
into a mass. In making it 10 Hvc »ti ; . ^ 
add twelve seers of water, anil boil until ikit 
rises to the surface. Remove the oil. stir 
contents of the vessel, and allow it to stand « 
the following day, when more oil will h» 
served on tlie surface, which may hv culle( 
and the process repeated. 

African hutUr^ also called Shctt butter, fl 
the Baasia parkji or Pentadesmis buiyi 
Sierra Leone. 

Japan u<Lt, from Rhua suecedaneura. 

Almomt hutUr, 

(JamfHKjr fnUt^. a prtMliict of tl 

.1 ,i. 



purpurea, the seeds crt' which 
oil, the former the Gamboge but- 
iattrr the Cocum butter ; the Gara- 
are wlid and of a deep luek green 
G. piotoria grows abundantly in 
■of Mvsore and the we*iteru jungles. 
d by iMunditij;; the seed in a 
.... l;oiling thcmsu^H until the but- 
to tlie surtkce : 2^ tneaauros of^eed 
•etfT ttf butter, and it w sold at the 
inxiaa 1-4 per aocr of Rupees 24, in 
riir divwion of Mysore, and is there 
unn oil and n^ glkee. 

^ft nil, in Tiiiuil CoodirBy 
pusjun yennai, u thick at all 
r, nnd w obtainable probably 
■< in the forc'-sts on the Nidla 
ui Veihi Mnllfl rnnj^e. 
of tufirrl, LauHM nobilis. 

arc obtained from tlio Dipterocarpi, 
iiftn Archipelago. 

oii of the Hor»e eyes and Ca- 
lamaica, Fevillea acandens, is while 

! id procured from a species 
jpOTe or Ja%-a. 
tjituL hatter from Dolichoa aoja, 

^m Myrintica (Virola) tsebifera, of 

\il fn>tn tJic Dcmcnmi butler tree, 
Vke«i tuberculoma. 
\U i***u.' from Shftnghue. 

' 11 Ca|>e of Good Hope. 

iJm^t frtHU iSalvadora peraica 

' vegetable butter, fri>ra Carapa 
« huge tx>ee lu Triuldad, and Britiah 

afihe Qrftti Mtuuw tr^e, from Acrco- 


a ifu^lnQum oil or ointment fmni Mn- 

i.!.ir.ite4 into three jMU'tions, the 

rc*oinbling brown sherry, 

j.L OL Liio con.'^istence of ghee, and 

yellow ; and the lowest almost solid 

lair-brown colour. 

ffiiift fftiiUr, or Mooror>gann or Holid 
imra, w used f(«* nicdtcinal purposes 
rantmpnt for the wounds of cattlei 
It w said to be produced 
, rowing in thcCanuni jungleH. 
dark-brown and quite solid, 
ii'-nU the b«9t rousideration. 
!o of this wild oil was in 
1 of ISij?, from Manga- 
m»~«^t solid of the solid oils. 
0il of Travan(*or« i^ 6eparat«d 
the upper, fluid* of the 
Aerry; the lower, reddish white 
of ordimiry hard salt butter. \ 

1ST O 

Caniujaii Uttoil^ a small bottle, priced Ru- 
pees 21 from the name (iistrict., by Uie s:ime 
exhibitnr. was a dark '^el.itinoviit mass, of the 
consifltence of blanc mange. 

Oil of Htfdnociirpus infftrinn^^ the Thortay 
oil of Canara, a very valuable vegetable solid 
oil, used for sores, is solid and of the consis- 
tence of ordinary hard salt butter. 

During British rule, tlie cultivation of cotton, 
sugar, o5 seeds, fibres, tea, coffee and indi^ 
have been largely increajsed. 





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US »o lA 4 X» W 

*=^ ® @ ts C§ (§ (5 
4 S « 4 i« ift " 


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Canani w iwecl for ct»tiineotu 
••riptirtni*. Ilie sperinjcn ot* thus oil in the luncrctc. nf tlic oonsiat*^ n-^r t^f ?nfIoi 
GovcrnraciitOiitral Muaemii,Ma(!ra*,«f*p,iratc*i ' not 31^ hanl si» wax. 1 
into iwo j»oriiori<* : the uppor, ypUowwIi and more paruonIurly,pr(Hl'< 
fluid, uiid the loM-er hmwnisb fed and of the ! qiiently KUppiie'tthe jffcaredl ijuatitily 

c't»nitu(ence ot' liard ghve. 

Hiixtvnn'ui oilo( I 'a nam ; nnd^r ihi« nam** 

tht'i*: was exhibited at llu' Mrtdros Kxhibitit>n ol' 

1857. a BoUd oil of a dove browii colour, from 

the Sampajoy d'usLnct by Pedro I'roblioo, a 

>m&Il phial was pnred at Uupccs 44. 

PUtcts ufchitf jfro'(wtyyn in Imliit^ tlt^ fjtKffihf, 

pric*ff, in 1801, aiul tfiuttUUv nf thf principal 

oilg atul oil srfffs ^.VfiorUtf fiuui* /i'mihctji fo^ 

thtt year endiny '6^)tfi Ayril iJSfjO, 

fa «i-M of A if X 

^ -t — r.. 



C - I- o 

3?11 1.1 

1^ ^ 

« a o 

« •- ^ X . ■ 




1 »> 

1 : 

t ■ 

^ ■ ' — i- 

3 » 'J i*; > 

Is a g.2.g 


H '■ L 


"^ I 

:- -r ^ OH « bC 

oiniP'*- "-'"' **\ Japan are mado of an 
out of ih« seeds of the 1 

In the c:ttteru pariA of Chiiia, 
diM-t of the tiillow tree, StilUmjia itebiftra^ 
biM-'f aiid bogH tAllow in the souths are 11 
tlie uiiunifaL'ttiro of i^aadlf^. Wax is 01 
ployed to iucaso the tallow or lard, whick^ 
the htat <if the climate and itd iinciaritifd 
dilion, never become* hard. 

Hutirrof Mm (ji'froiu KLau»guinoen^! 
tii'e of Airini and Amorioa a concrete 
is mticli t'AK'Cmed in Knm[H. f»>r img^nto' 
been latily nrom i 

for it^ oi! pec'Li. 

Tfiinitmlla heiUricix, in Tamil, 
or 'i'annekae yennay. Thifi oil «pparalc» 
two |)i>rlion>t — the one fluid, of a pale oU- 
colottr, and tlie other white, flucoular« 
the eondi.-itence of ghee. 

Oils from the a^ed* of the tfottrd tnit^ 
Nearlv all tlie ^pccieft of gnuixU and ir 
cuciinibiT3» L. vulgaris, C pepo, V. 
utiltMiuiiu. C. nalivm, Lutfa pont^mfpila* 
yield mihl clear culiniiry oils ; ihr skin c 
seed is removed, and tlie iuttide und*^r thei 
of ** miigh?,/' khiyar, kadu, ^u., &c., fiotdgj 
the oil exprejrted. 

Air, in Eunipe written Otto. These are 
strong nits, containing the eA-ieQiial oild 
plaati and Aubntimceij sufficieiu to pnMJuce \ 
fume whitili is perfectly overi»owerini< aod 
duced a headache. The native* of Hrituth 
have the phnidc in their lnn)niafjc ** 
mu*attar bona," to be stnpificd witli fri 
Thc^e attjir!! arc principally rnnde in Hindi 
at Amritsur and Delhi, See Attar, O 

Ch^^r^iujer- sefi ml of the Uuchiinui. 
lia, ifi rarely extracted from the abuxi^ 
olea^nous ^ct-d? which ari. oaten by tb# m 
to make iheni fat. Tht; oil is (Ji • 
straw-colourctl the trees ^n>w ;i^ 
Mys'iru and Cnddapah, &c. It« vui«tul 
-.'^To '•p. gr., ^M. per cnbic f*»t, i* worki 
gcnrrally iulo fui'nilnre, hou^e doors aiiJ 
dows, prc»e"^5, l;d>le?i, Ikx. It rctptirei 
poli-ihed, otherwise it ^tainii a burnt 
mlour any cloth brought into contact witik 

Aimoivd oil u a term applied to tliat 
ct>mmon almond, Amv^ihw communis: 
Indian jilmon la, the fruits nf the Termil 
caiJ4ppa and Cunaritim conimnne and 
mondM of (ien. xliii, v. 2, havo been ihoi 
be PistJi bin nut^, 

Ahnonif oil, 

lU-l. Hixo, I I . 

'iam. Malay. 1 

Thi&i?from the fruitof Amygdaloscoi 




■r iin[»ort, bill ohiellT ' obfeiined rro»n ruriou-* parts of odoriferous 
ti n:itivc o\' tlic ilimu- plutiU* chiotly by dmillatiuii, but altu by thf* 
imlanl in raAhiiu'lY. 'Hic oii cliPiiiic;il jierruniiiig proce** ot* entloweriu^. 
fof very sligliily ^^eilow, o ad in I The best known arc thme ol" alinoudfi» aai- 
wtiii flilBculiy. It is obljiinod lor | J^ced, bcrguiaot. faJRiiuti, (..aniomile, cam- 
in Endiii, but does not as yd lonu pbur, ciimwiiy, ciU'tfia, ciimitmoaf cloves, juni- 
ajticle nf export. H«»tb VHrietiffi ' per, laveiidar, IcruoiiH, uiiut, uiiimeg, orange. 
bivter »nd sweet, art- iinf)ortud luto | pepjHTnunt» pimento, iliodium. roeeiuary, roses 
p»rMoflmliji from Gbo(>rbund. and I (ottu), siiviiie, HUttsitru.'*, mint. But, in India, 

b - tronv the Persian Gulf, i HAndoIwood, jasnnnft, nuiniefp*, indeed every 

i-, there are about 80 i odt<riteroai plant is by the pvrluniers oiadu to 
11/ impi^rteil int*> liritjiin. t yirld un e.'v^ential oil. 

tioiit 1«. f»er lb. It is I Chattihfli-l-u-nltar of Lucknow, from Jaami- 

uuuj grunditioruiu. cxtractt'd from the pel 
«oIU at 2 ru[>ees per tola. This plant is ext< 
lively cultivated in gnrdeus in Kucknow lor the 
ftakr.' of ilfl llowcrs. 

Ahiinh vr lifUik-Kit-fttiar ol* Lucknow. Jaa- 
minum eanibar, is al*i extracted Jroui the 

le ptoductf '>(* tlio Arxn irco, ibroats 
to llies south of the empire of 
rhjch produce an excetdin;;ly hard 
almrmd. Its fruit fHHisists of two 
HifiiiandbiUtr: in manulacturinf; the 
oil rubbed or nhaken in a wjarsc 

fctc ft bitter ptiwder which ooveVs | petals, and sells at 2 rnpcovS per tola- It is 

thry are then p)nndcd to a 

mortars, and the paste jubject- 

The almond ia"ftap[xwed to con- 

c- of oil, but from h\ lbs. only 1 lb. 

extracted by the cold procoas ; and 

if heat«d imn plates be used. I'hc 

ia the bj.wia of the great part of 

cultivated exteniivcly in gardens in Luckjiow 
for the sake of its flowers and is colouruil 
red by means of drag«)U*a blood. 

E$»0ntial oiU of vinoamon, citronelle and 
Icnmn jrraw, are niadecbielly in tlie neighbour- 
htXMl of Galle in tlie stjutlieru provinces ol" 
Ceylon. The oil of einnaraou is also made 
«s,ointmenu, nnd pliwtcw, of the | lar^^.j^ ^t Crfilomlw: it is obtained from the 
phormacifits. It u however Uttle used i broken or inJerior pieces of bark rejected in 

packing tlie bales of spice. Gitronelle and 
lemon f^rass oils arc the produce of two higlily 
scented grasses cultivated to a eonsiderablc 
exte.nt by both natives and Europeans for llie 
purpose of distillation. The extent of the trade 
in this may be thus staled, say for 1849, oil of 
cinnauion 32,4)»0 ounces, oil of lemon grass 
:^8,000 ounces. 

Sevei-al kind of essential oils are produced 

phfttmr^rv. fhe oil of the Sesamuni 
Axtsvx us a substitute. 

oils. F, of Price's candle 

tly received a consignment of oik 
\, and found iwelvespe^'imeiLs that were 
U) them, some of which promiswl to 
tent value, and government might 
rrore to ihcir revenue if they would 
in waste lands along shore ilie oil- 
m of wp^tert) Ai'riea. A large and 
Inbde might be hud in paJmine made 
!2l«ap oils, Uie diifirutty o\' Eraiwport- 
is well-known. The mvne. etVeet is 
rtbia 'lil and on olirc oil by adding 
Ifroni tlie Roo<«a grass, a native oi' 
ig the base of the Himalaya, at 
e Khp**ree pa*« and aUo found 
nd in Malwah» generally. The 
nt grass are used by the 
*Tt> India in intermittent fevers. 
■4 retnarkably near \\\~ 
The oil is ined qa a 
ally and externally, much in 
AAoilofeaJaput. Koosa oil ha^ 
to be the celebrated grafts 
hut Dr. Koyle does not re- 
corr*"rtnft»* of thia opinion and 
N«mar oil to the A. calamus aro- 
It W probable, however, tlmt the 
furnish oils of similar characters. 
o»2>, called also volatile oii^, arc 

189 O 

from strong scented llowers. Other perfumed 
oils are mnnulit-'tured witliout resorting to dia- 
tillatiiHi, merely by the process of eutloworing. 
The layers of the Ja^tuine, or other Howers, 
four inehe^i iJiirk and two inche.s square, 
are laiil on the ground and covered over 
with layers of se»*amum or any other oU- 
yielding send. These are laid about tlie 
nune thickness as the flowert*, over whicli 
a second layer of flowers like the first is 
placed. The seed is wetted with water, and 
the whtilo mass covercxl with a shoet held 
down at tJie end and sides by weights, and 
allowed to rcmiiin for eigliteen hours in thia 
form : it is now fit lor the mill, ludeas the 
perfume is desired to be very strong, when the 
faded flowers are removed and iresh one* put 
in their place. The seed thus impregnated are 
ground in the usual way in the mill, and the oil 
expressed h»* the scent of the Hower. At Gha- 
zccporc, the jasmine and bela are t-hicfly em- 
ployed: the oil is kept iti leathern bottles or 
dubbcrs, and sold for about rupeca 2 & ^«i. 


le newCTt oiU siford t)i«? Biiesf perl'utnes. 
procfss here de^tribod U the ximc a.^ tliat pur 
sued Bt Bombay. In iMirofM'. a lixed oil, 
usually that of the ben or moringa nut, is 

frntn^ ; tiiin aWovta the roUem 
distaiH'e apart, aocoiding to Uic 
nem ot* xhi* ACtrd to lie crushed, 
are sometimes ofdiflVrent j»izc*, wo 

Cotton ia soaked in this and laid 1 vcKK-ities may be givtin u^ their w 


over layers of flowera, the oil beinj^ shjueezed 
out BO soon as impregnated with perfume. 

Animal oiU are in frequent u«te amongut 
the people of India as medicinal aubntttncei*, 
for external application such as» that from tlte 
pea fowW fat, from the ueat»' footi the 
crocodile and the igtiana. 

Miturul oii» come from the Persian Gulf and 
Bunnah, from the oil pits of Burmah, the Bur- 
mese government used to obtain l»;i.000 ton« 
annually, the oil on the sp'Jt fetching about a 
shilling [>er cwt.: as it reaches the market 
it ie the most filthy dirty stuft* that can be 
imagined, chemically treated it supplies half a 
dozen of pniducts of the greatest beauty, 
several bein>f oils, ont» a hard wax of snowy 
whiteness, and one a rich j^erfunic. In several 
places in the Jliclum di'*trirt along the Salt 
Range, at Kattr Kotc, at Jabba in (he Shu- 
puor district, and in very small quantitiw at 
Shah-ke-Noor[Kxu,in theRawiU Pindee district, 
ft petroleum exud« out of the rocky soil, but 
hitlierto, though every etPirt has been made by 
the Punjab authorities to utilize it in a commer- 
cial point of view, they have fail^nl, chieHy 
owing to the enormous cost of carriage, and to 
(he difiiciUty of retaining the substance itself 
within any other vesseU than those made of tin 
or glasB. Price and Co., of London re- 
ported favorably upon it, and asked for sr)me 
tons of It for further experiments. Their appli- 
cation could not be complied with to the extent 
of the requisition, not more than eight maimd<) 
a day are obtainable, and it appears ihut the 
yield of oil is jjreaier in the hot than in the 
cold weather. W<xt<i smeiu-ed with the mineral 
oil, is effi,*otiially pre.-*erved from the ravages of 
white auta. The oil burns with a bright flame but 
the smoke is insud'nrable. The native^ of India 
call it Gunduk-ka-tel, and use it only for burn- 
ing in their lamps. The Jabba spring is the 
most extensivr, it is situated within the jagetr 
of Malik All Ynr Khan, wlio claims the produce. 

Oil mitU, Oils are usually obtained by ex- 
pression by mcan<» of oil mills of kind*. In 
Kurop«, an oil-mill is used for the purpose. 

Lin*, or R^tpe ; it it* desirable Hrst to pass 
<ach hard seed as tin l or rape between 
iron roUt«rft. in order tn crnck the :<hell3. 
Thes« rnticrs Jirr of <:Jv»t-iron turnr*d trulv 

enables them to draw the seeds in, 
fiirm their work more quickly, 
rollers ha* on its axis a small apur- 
enpiges a cog-wlieel on the «i 
mill. It^ motiou by another f 
second roller. By giving to the 
a dissimilar number of t«:th, d 
made to revolve with different vclfl 
answers tJie stime pur{>nse aa itii 
diiferent «izes. Al>ove the rollorf 
containing the seeil, wliich run 
opening in the bottom into a ini 
which is agitated by a piece of 
it resting on the cofr-wheel ; the 
the roIl4>rs with a small c^uantity 
time, and prevents them Irom b 
up. A plate of iron attached Uf 
each side pi-e*SMS( by its edge agai] 
part of the rollers, and si-rapes off j 
seed. The ••mshed seed falls upoi 
IxMird. and collects in a heap, from 
removed to feed the running 
arrangement of the rollers nyembU 
crashing mill. The wed hrnkwi 
w paKsd under two vertical indl-sl 
nors, rf'V"ilving on a horizontal bed 
further l>nii.>4fd and prepared fur 
In .lome places the rollers arc not 
seed is at onrr subjccteil to the 
runners. Hard and snitwth gnu 
ever, liable to ulip away from ben< 
ning stones,' and thus require a 
time to prepare them liir the next 
of cviinpi-essiou. Rollers do their i 
but thev require great power to ' 
When the 3ee<l is sufficienlly bruiJ 
or both oi' the^e uieaTw, it ii c^Ueo 
bags and placed in what is ealU 
prcsN. In olive otl-mtlU ascrew- 
used but the hurdncss and Nmool 
grains of lint and i7i|jc, uikI the ci 
by tlie broken shell which retail 
qnire the exertion of a strnuger 
hair bags containing the cru^ht 
placed between wedges of wood coj 
in a strong framing. The w«d| 
driven down by a heavy ram or ( 
by machinery until tlie [K>stle r< 
them three times, when they are j( 
sufflrientiv tiirbt. The oil tl»ut» 

iu a lathe, and their *pindtc^ run 


brass ' ^^*' ^'** quality, and is kept distii 

obtained by the alVr- process. Tl* 
out of the bags m tlie form of Aat 
are broken up. and jiounded in 

Ihuthe-i, tixed in an iron frame bolted to 
\)if irjriM»ork of the mill. Tl^esc frames 
s, in which the bushci for 
-r<i pUced and are adjusted by I heavy stampers, which reduce the 
OMing ihnmgb the eoda of the iron ' of the seed to si fine meali 90 tbM 

100 ido 



iTr**ly ^Um subjected N* a ?*'roDJ 

»},.. h U now rtn!e«i by boat. Tht* 

• 1 is b«tilei] in u [>an, tu the 

,.,..iin)» hres"-wnx and i» kept 

Apatuln worked hy machinery. 

in pill into h»ir ba^ and com- 

r«<tiilhn(( oil in c-onnidered to 

'v. Aiioilior 

^lary !»*»c<>nd 


lUc tituitii;^ mI the iiieiil a 

t4 •4,.nif>tini^>« lidded: but in llol- 

1 to bt> injtirioua. 

. and are sold hs 

ir ; but the t)utcli break ti»(Mu thmti 

again. Thf? re.*<ult iic an iin- 

;i»lurh in hard with a very little 

(nr some lime ut the tempera- 

in^ water, with diligent stirring. It 

to the ;ircHte«t pressure that 

(plied, and the result w an oil of 

Ity- The cake '\a dry nwd hard 

and ift ufwd inr iti:innre. Somo of 

in Ibtlland |>nrcba**e nil-i'aki*»* 

d Klandrn* I'T tlif pnr|K»Be of 

iferior oil, 

dUare extracted by tiie native 
>11kk>,* turned bv means of bid- 
'BXffptiiin of the ciwtor oil Meed. 
f^tiicb i!i cxir.ii-ted by boiling the 
ai'terwunht akiioniing. 

however, two distinct foimaof the 
lifl. One of the-^e will he found 
[under »u;:ar-niakin;r, it being itfed 

an oil or Hugnr 

mill — the other, 

;rr ore wiinf* varieties, is a simple 

with revolvin^r ] 'ef*r le, iind 

or <frmr — gen^rnllv jjiranite. Two 

i to the gcf-rin^ whieli do- 

iijijwr end of the p4>:trhi — a 

ihc tnp of the mortar, and thrown 

It nwy have got dinpluted. The 

ice a dny,^ — a frwh man and 

doyed on each ixxaaion. Wlieii 

11 tt (o be mnde, sbtmt Aevcniy .sceni 

two and a hali' bujthels. ot' fieedfi 

in : to litis ten Heern, or two quarts 

- if wutt'r lire pradmdiy added : 

(tnce of the grinding, which 

Li L*Ai/tf, unites with the tibrons por- 

arod. and forms a cake, which, when 

ixet the oil clean and pure at the 

liMt mortar. Fmm this it is taken 

lat-nliell cup, onthe pestle being 

iher f»red oiU are described by 

A)nw»t entirely in the name 

The exeeptiona are the 

or caiitor oil, made Iroui either 

VArieties of the rieinujf. This 

w flrst parched in pots contain- 

roorr- than a seer each. It is 

io a uiiirtnrand funned into ball*: 

12^J O 

of these from four to sixteen seers ore put iti 
ftu earthcn-ft-jre pot, and lioib'd with an equal 
tjuantitv of water for tlie space of five hours — 
frequent care being utken tn stir tlie mixture 
to prevent it from burning. The oil now floats 
on the surface, and is skimmed oH* pure. The 
oil mill made ubc of at Bnmbay and to the 
northwurd, at .Sural, Cumhay, Ktirrachee, &c., 
ditl'erH a little trnm that junt described, in 
havinff b very f*trong wooden frame round the 
mouth of tlie mortar ; on ihia the man who 
keeps the aeeds in order sits : in Sind a camel 
is employed to drive the mill instead fit bullocks. 
Castor oil seed is thrown into the mill like other 
seeds, ha already describeti^— when removed 
the oil requires to be boiled liir an hour, and 
then ^trained through a cloth to free it of the 
fraj^Tneiits of the seed. It is a curious fa».'t, 
and illustrative of the imperfect manner in 
whicli the oil is separated Irom the seeds, that 
whUe the common pressman only obtained 
some 2(i;j per cent., tioiissiiifja\dt, in his labo- 
ratory. fn>m the simic seeds, actually procured 
41 |H?r cent. When the oil cakea are meant 
for leeding stock, such loss is of little consequence, 
inasmucli as the oil 3erv<« a very ijood purpose, 
but when the cake is only int«'nded to be used 
as a manure, it is a ^Teat loss, inasmuch as the 
oil is of little or no use in adding uny food tor 
cro|Mj«to the soil. The chief oil on the seaboard 
of British India is that yielded by the cocoa- 
nut palm. The nut is tirst stnp|)ed of its husk, 
this furnisliing the suhstame from which coir 
rope is made, while the shtdl is broken, and the 
copra, or fatty lining, enclosing' the milk, ia 
taken out. This is railed copri or copra. Three 
mauntU <»r ninety pt>unds of copra are thrown 
into the mill witb about three gallons (eleven 
cutcha seers) of water, and from tins is pro- 
duced three maunda, or seven gallons and thrce- 
quaxiers of oil. The copra iu it* un[trepared 
state is sold slightly dried iu the market : it is 
burned in iron cribs or grates on the tops of 
pohis as torches in prueesaiomi, and as a means of 
illuminaiioD fur work perlbmied in the open air 
at night. No press or other contrivance is 
made use v( tn India for squeezing out or ex~ 
pressing the oil from the cake, and a large 
nmomit of waste in consequence of this neces- 
sarily ensues. 

The manutlieture of sandalwood, grass, and 
other ciwentiiil oils employed in medicine, is 
differently conducted. 

Chinfu oiU. In the markets of China, the 
following oils are obtainable. 

Oil of Aliiwftdgy the Hang-jin-yu of the 
Chinese, is manufactured in Perriia, N. India 
and China. 

Oil of star Anise^ the Pah-koli-yn of the 
Chinese, is of a (uile colour, with a irorm or 
sweetish taste. It is made b^ A\*V\\V\u^ \\\« 




fruit in .-ninll rctnrtfl, a picui }irtKiiicu5^TrBSii^^TSwM«riifrf or Pea uut oil, 

M'l'fii totiii?flot' oil. 

Oil of Api'uyit nfnU, Hanjr-jin-yu of tlie 
t'hinw*. if I'reparcd in the uoith ot'Cliina from 
«ljri«,iot k<:'rnrlH. 

Oil nf Jiffing^ Tflii-yvi, Chinese, in tlie 
MUlK ol' I'liina, i« ]<ri*|mrefi in jar^'c* quantities j nally aiul e.\t».>Miully. i 

iVoiii the JKiliiliiw* i^\\i\ and is ustd in Ibol. Myi-vh oil^ Mnh-yoh-yu.CbineM,: 

OH of Br»Ziun, NgaM-«ih-yu, (JhiDe*e, is oU, having the smell uI'Myrrh, » 
KiiprM«Gd to be the lii^uiil stumx or njM' luuloea. Chtun td iJreK« ulcem. 

Oil »f Ci$hfMnje, or Cftha oil, the Ti'ai-yu ol' 
(h« (.'hinofii', is i'xpr*»wwd from the Heeds ul' the 
Hraniiui iinetiHw, all llirungh ihc riilleys of tJie ' 
Yaiig-toxe nnd the Utiu. It is used in I'ciokcry. 
ai; A huir oil, n Jnmp nit, iiud ud a purgative. 

Oil of Camellln, (mm tin* Camellia olollrra, 
fhc t'h'a-vu nf the (.'Iiincse, ij< a tliin ypllnw 
roloured oil, nxrd in lnm|ki. It ifi made in ihe 
hilly di&triru of Mwnnti und KiaMg--ii, wliere 
the Ciinejlin ^riWAin ahnmiani-e. Tiie Chinejn^ 
ojUI the C^uirilij plmii hv the ftame name a» 
t]M> ten |ilnni, henre tUi5 oil in otten erroaeoufUy 
cftllpd t4>n oil. 

OilofCiiMfihor, llie Xaii-yu of the Cliincse. 
ifl ohtAJned frurn Fnnnrnu where it exudes from 
votn in which rtmipbor in storcl ; it in oily or 
iincTYtttallienbte L*ainphort Lh a Rtrouv smelling 
liquid vt' a yelkiw colour ; it \n K^arcely saleable. 

Oilo/Campffof, from ili.- DrvohalaMorwcnm- * *"**^ h ^*>''"esp women a* u tcent for t 
phora of th^« west r»iiwt of Smicitrii where the Sftndalifftmf oil, Tan-hiang-yu, il 
oil ilroji* from the split timber of the lri?p, i thick yellow fragrant oil extnicio»i 
felled tn prorur*' the Brinw camphor, and is [ wood. It Ia u«etl to colour woodn in 
thos*^ 9o\ti nt the rite of n large iiniirt bottle- I snndaIwo*xl. 

fill (or a Dutcli guilder : it in n iwefiil em- ' Oil of stone ch^mU, Shih-li-jn, 
bnvntion. obtained by expression from the fi 

Oil of ChftHlmt)0ffra^ the Tn-fung-yu of 0»c i Aleurites trdobu ! it ia superior to 
rhinwip, t« obtnined from the so^U of the | as an economic substiince ; »nd is 
<tyiutenrdia nd'irnta. 

Oil nf rinnnrmon, the Kwoi-pi-vu of thr 
CbiT><»*', \n ft volatile oil, iHfd iw a iwrfume and 
flnvtiuring in^rdient and oxporied from f'nnton. 
il is made from the lonves and twigs of the 
Ouuiu or cinnttinnn nnd rrvemblos the genuine 
<iiJ of cinnamon prepnr«'d in Cev'on, 

Oi7 o/cZ'jr/'^.Teng-hiatig-ru of the Chinese, is | or l^vanduln. It in a fine drying nil, i 
madr at TantiMi ; it i* a heavy oil ot' a pale painting' on (mrcflain and I'or \-umiilai^ 
rpddish-hrown oil onloUr. Oil nf thf talLtw Irrt urtilK, 'IVii 

Cot(on ae^ oil. the Mien-yu ol' the Chinese. Siillin;:ia Hebifera, i(ich*ar but of a. 
*xprca*ed from Cotton ^eeds, is ilw?il fi>r lampft, ] about tifte«*n or sixteen cnttieM of 
in cookery, ami externally a» un migtient. I obtained from one picul of berrim. 

Crotoii 0x7, tKe I'lw-taii-yu of China, it u to varnish umbreUiM. to dre»M thft 
drastic purgative. | lamj* and to mix with tlie taJiuw 

Fijth (til, the Yn-rhi, oflhe Chvnesie, is ob- , givRU internally, it acts m a ptii 
from tlie porpr.ise which nsrcnda the ! emetie. 

\*u of die Chinese, is from Uie AracI 
*Sp. Ur. 0.9 ns. 

Ilfntp sertl nil, Ilo-mft-j i D-yu. 

Liimeffi nil^ Hu-tna-yu, Chin, ti 
of Linum, in China, ih UMed medit 

Olit*f oil, Yiuig-kuu-yu of tlie Cliii 
fruit of ihe Cunarium ia «ometinii 
for the ulive. 

Pittn uil, Sung-i, of the Chinew^ ai 
pentinc obtaine<l \}y heating pine 
Ur*ed ill nkin di.«cttne*. 

J*rpf»frittiut oil, the Poh-ho-vu, ofl 
U ni;ide in Canton frinn aevenvl kindx 
used ill sweetmeats and oa a [h'tU 

PffitimHUfii oil, Po-t«!e-vu of 
glutinous oil from tlic Embn-opC 
The i'ruits are of tlic Kize of an ap] 
crufOied to obtain the dark refliuous 
It mnke^ an excellent vamidh ihr tlui 
umbrellas. An extract trom the fntj 
internal and external a siriiigeut. 

Oil nf Popfuj wfifo, the Chinese, Ying-I 

Oil of n)*c*, Mci'kwei-vu« an 

nally with properties like ejintur oiL 
Sficamtini oil, (^Jii-ma-yii, alau 

Chincf^, from the black nod whit 


Snitjlotffr oil, the K wei-tsze-^ni of il 
Oil of Kwfft hnxil, Su-tMse-yu, 

feXprrsfled from the RCedsof aspecin* of ' 

>f ffl 

].<iw : the oil is 

; iwatig-ku-ii'H, i* ob- 
'■n' nil hi-i ji qtronp i Edward Bnlfour in 

Tvrpfntivf. oil, Tuh-nan, hiang-i 

— Monthly Homhaff Tim^f AVwHtyvTyier, 
A'ovmthfr IS49 to 24th / 


inwi- ' Reports nnd Hfrord$ ; ihid. 
iiary I Hvet% nf th^ Mndfos Fresid^tmfi 
I p, 704 ; Simmontfs C^mmaxinl 


' * ffffHU'tX 

fK '■SlU : I'ni-rjt, ffnrtvv ,SnfiUrfifttnts 

lAL* ,'»_ 7o7 ; (y^ifnifVfhnMstf^ Hriujnl 

' : O'Sh., /ifiiffiil f'finnnnfO' 

./,...f,f fff„f Jffrif^ J(ffHtrtn ; 

. I , Cntal/ttjitA KrhihiiioH 

; / - ' ^ /or the fitHJnf), 

rAXi : U h'p. 4ft : IndMA 

'fcui JurUn HfpnrtK fiy 

'. M. u.. M'. J. //"n- 

i.'. //. ;'. ifawl-f*^ Dr, A. J. Srntt, 

'\r«it^rf'tvt f'^ftrriel IPtlfout'^ c, n,, nnr/ 

', r. n. If. T. atiif tf. r. ; 

n, /'. ill;J; Strtith'.^ Chhifs^ i\fttirria 

(ttiiff fffm Mr. Btirffv /o .Si> W. 

f, F, Ct}jtMon ill Mtt'frnjt Kr. Jnr. 

. *. /. .V, Btftt^ut, oUf Jr. .V. /., irt 

Oraas oi) of Ncmniir. 
ITYINSEK, sfc lJipicrocarpa'4 inr- 

' itnis ntimntium. 
/ I ,-y, or Jnmnicu yrllnw 

Lifuiikfru or Bruni'.ulundoo oil ; 
Vitriol, Sulphuric no\f\, 
fALM, «0G CtK-miiiut pnlin. Klosis oil. 
' iPEFt, iIm- Yu-rbi oC tho Cljinwe. is 
fflf Cliina, by I)riw!»in;j; ovlt paper 
ml or *ome other *lryin;r oil. It w 
Ucrfinx/f-jiiipor, aiwwow nil the 
silk and U *> clionp that it 
rl and frorjtjnntty clmn;rcd, no 
the Ircaiuiout of wounds in a 

thn Ifili of India* wlio cxprcaa 
IftcotU. lu S. Imlia they bavu 12^ 

<} RrMitUait- 

Ki Kawnou 

U Miithitnedan. 

l*J 'Mi. 


« \dep« myriaiirm, n cpncivtc 

'eiaia, au ov».'rc«»at used chif»rtv 

en PANDK^NKS, the VnnAy.m ruU-rfi ofS 
India ;it the Uyinnin" of Ihr tdiri-haii rru. 
Si'*' VixTuhyti. 

(JIUO. 'Sp^Oirn, Oiiro, Pout. Cnid, 

OISKAU OK ^'Ar^M)IS. Chalyha-u* [»:i- 

<yKIN, an ancient city, in Malwah, belongs 
ing to SindJiia, built <m t.lw banks '>t the Scofrtm 
river. It hna lattorly bcoiiniu iui{<civeriaboil. 
.So<* Oojftimi, Ooji'in, Ujoiri. 

OJIIYAL, u G(Hid Iribu, wandering bar<U 
and fiiwlors. 

OKA or Poka, Tkl. Art^ca catechu, A. 

OKA CllhrrrU, or Vakaor vukudii. Cw- 
i^sa caratidas, A. 

OKAi5, .ice Campanula odulis, 

OK Elds, an anr.ient ruintvi rity, nrcordirig 
to Str;ilk» and I'liiiy, the Hcn fn>rt ol' titc CaUi- 
In-ni or Gebania>, and lonj? the centre of ojm- 
merco lietween Europrt and tlic East. Tlip 
mtna are situated inaidr the.' Stmit.H I'f li:ih-ul- 
mandeli — alxint a mile in inland, at a place 
calle*! by tho natives Dakooa, 

OKKU of NepanI, Heliciin nlpalennis, Jrrri. 

OKIIAMANDILin a stenle jungly tract in 
conUiius about 13,0(>*) inhabitants. Thcw aro 
ihc Wnghcr. Their only iin[Miniint places are 
the holy hindoo site of Dwaraka on the w«t 
r.amty and Beyta small ialand a few miles tu the 
north, with Rhrincs Iwa.'^ting of scarcely inferior 
hnUnesA. OUhanianduI, as alr^j Uniruyli in 
Kiittyawar prot)»T, and Korinnr in anuth Kiittya- 
war, :u"G un-lt'r the direct i-ule of the Giiekwar, 
and are the Alajitia of Kattywar. Thrice, in 
iKoa, 1858, and in October 185!*, thoy rcpnWl 
Hriti^h iroojKj, but at lengtli, in 1 HW, thry scvm- 
ed outirely dUpersud or surrendered. Kattny war 
i& rif^h in jimglefa'^tnesaes. It;* jxijnilatiou m 
b:ihinially armed t*' the teeth and lar^'el^ 
intom»ixed with moroenarics* from Mekran, 
Arabia, 8ind and Koluehiritan. On a former 
occasion, iIk* rajjidity and severity of tho 
veni^eance. in the cHcaJadc oi^ the gtroujibuld 
of the Wa;?her pirates »»f l^warika by tho Hritinh 
force under tlic Hon. i-olonel Lincoln iSlanhojio, 
induced Sinpram, the chief of the ikidhail of 
Meyl to stie for tmns, and he nprced to Bur- 
render l!«;vt, and to live at Arnmra onaHtijxind 


it is g:itheretl inl^i [duits or 
Ifl oQt above the girdle, fulling 
'titbe feet. }l m generally made 
S-c fiarani. 

li«;yi, am 
k. It rwemble;i a laily'tt ridin;; | furnished by his atizerain, the tiaekwar. These 
:lit to the IkmIv from the neck to | Wai^'her of Dwarika, wlio with the Hadbail uf 

Aramra, were so lonp the terror of ihe^e aeuM, 
:irc a spurious branch of the Jhareja family 
of lihooj, one of whom, called Abra, with the 
ci")gnomcn of Mo«iehwaI nr the whiskered, 
from a tremendmiH jiair of these adjunctj* to 
the face, came from Cutih in thn lime of Rinna 
Sowah, in wluwo family he intcmmrried. and 
from whom he held in chnrL^e tbtr tha'na, or 
^rrition of the eaatlo of Gt^»mioe. or fiwarika. 
' 1 liis <«oD had ofliiprinfF by i\ wo\u&u vA \ttvvva« 

TinU, MAtKAL. Scindai«u-s ..ffi- 

Corrhonj*! nlitorius, /Ann. 
kADllli Hakx., frL»m Indm. and 

h the iHstinctive office ol' Mnntk, or penu 
'I'he la>it tour cliicllainj* nlthw race wt* re Mahaj>- 
Manik, Siulool-Maailc, Snrncah-Manik aiiJ Mu- 
too-Muiiik. wlio witii nil hiH kin and inotW}* 
compjiny of Washer, liadhail. Arah, &c..after a 
desj^rate defenco, was slain in the )$U>rui. or 
Rttcfiipted rclri»ttt. Throiiphoui the sea foa«t 
of Samtwhtra, ai Gi»gi>, and Mandavie, are »ea- 
raeii wlio call ihenintdves liiudiK«, hut whu 
kepj> emircly dwlincl from all other cloflse*. 
Some of llii'm claim a desoetU Iroiii tlie marin- 
ers of the Arabian shores, but still m* hiiidoo:). 
The liadhail fixed themsclvoA in the district 
of Oku (<.>ka-mandala). on the migration of 
Soitji from Canouj. — loiCa TravrU, pp. 22*"), 
440-1; ToiVs Rajasthun, To/, ij, yj. 14. See 
B;idhail, India* Kattvawur. 

OKinCK, Nki*. VVallnuts. 

OKH-HYWAN, Ak. Anthcmia iiobilis. 

ana ivifxihak. wore entitled only C4 
allix, thougli il)C tdher \a Aometimfl 
t))eni in adulation, llie uon^u^ 
\M\& commenced by C'hinghiz, althd 
not w)mi)leted for Mveml gcneratioi 
in 1205 he had inroded Tangnl 
twcupying tlic extreme nnrtb-wcM 
and cxtendiag beyond Chineae lit 
same direction, lield by a dyna»tjt 
rnt'O, wiiirh wiw or had been vaasa] 
This invasion w:ia repeateii in succq 
and ill 1211 his attacks extended! 
pire of the Kin itself. In 1214; 
their provinces tn the Yellow Kivel 
follnwing year Uxik Chingtu or Peki 
)»e turned his arms against Westei^ 
coiiqueretl all the countrJoA betweei 
and the Caspian and aouthward tO) 
whilst his generals jicncLrAicd to 
wenia, and Georgia, but a lieulfl 

OKHOTSK, the country of the Amoor, in i he liad hii behind him in the Em^ 
divided into two provinces, the first of which to pra^ccute tlic subjection of Nortl 
prcacr%cs ibi actual name of maritime province ; Chinghiz hinuelf, on his return frj 
of Ka^tcrti Siberia, and the other titko:* the ' ern compicsts renewed his attack I 
nanto of the province of the Amoor. The i and diet! in the enterpriflo on llie Ij 
OkhoLflk district is detached from the province ' 1227. Okkodai, his son and sucocaarn 
of Yakouuk and united to the maritime pro- i thcsubjugatitm of t'hina, oxtinguisl 
vince, which compriaea six districts. | tinalU, in 12.'J4, and consolidated t 

OKI-DON-TAKO. The Japanese have I''*'^ "'^ ^*'*^ pn»vinces north of the < 
n\mi«rou3 festivals and holidays, heUl in com- :\"*^'" ^'stablwhing liis p^.wer over 
memoration of ance3tc»ra, deities, warriors and 
sage9, or from some untraced ancient custom. 
Tlmt at the winter iiiohitice, thoOki-flon-uiko, or 
great holiday, lasts 14 days. It is a f>eriod of 

China, Ukkotlai raised a vast anui 
in motion t4jward«i the west. One 
directe<i against Armenia, Geoi 
Minor, whilst anotlier great host, 

great rejoicing, 


mercjuitile accounts, are, if ^*'« nephew of the grwit khan, tx^ 


countries north of Caucasus, over^ 
making it tributary, and still d 
carry fire and slaughter westward.) 
detachment, under a lieutenant of j 
ed Poland, burne«l Cmcttw, found , 
Hslica and abandoned by its peoi 

possible, settled and much friendly intercourse 
takes place. The Gokats .Seku festival at tJie 
summer solstice about the middle of June, is 
in commemoration nf Gongcn Sama, a jireat 
general to whom the present dynasty owes its 

origin, and the Japanese date their births from «/"« ana aoanaonea ny its peoD 
it. Banners with koi or carp are hoisted aloft ^^^^^ *"^ ^^^'f ^ slaughter at Wal 
with scarlet streamers. H'"'^^ (Aprd 12th. 1241 ) the trooj 

f)KK( *DA1 was the Sfm and successor of Chin- Moravia and bilesja, who had gtttl( 
giiKhan. As the result of Chingiz Khan's sue- ' '^^'^^ ^'^"''r «^ ^*'** *»"«r provioi 
ceases against lixe nations of Tartary, that leader 1 ^^ ngmiwtihw astounding fl<«d I 
was aaluted in 1206 by the diet of his nation, as \ ^*" huusoli. with the mam body a 
Chinghiz khan. Acrording to Quatreniere, "»« ravaging Hungary. The kini 
however, Chinghiz did not us« the higher ap- I ^'^^'^ »'f*^'', '" '*'» T'-^Tar^t'on*. ] 
pellation of Kaan (or Quaan). which was eventually he hkmIc u stand againril 
adopted by his son Okkodai and his bucccssots ! "^* ^"">' ^'^ J<--fc:itc<l with groAtj 
,as their distinctive title, iilentical wiUi Kha- : e*«»H *»th difficulty. Pi-*th waa, 
the Xaganos of the Bytanrine historians, »"^ '*"™'- ^^'^ "" »^s P^op^c put to: 

licreforc properly, a distinction should be pre- 

fcd between Klian. tlie nrdinary title of 

chiefs, and which has sinrc sprea<l to 

T»-nf!i^nkcn and l?cromeacnnimon affix to 

iti of all rla»>es And 

- „r title of the supreme 

U, Th< 


The rumours ^^^ the Tartars and tbi 
•icvastations had scattered fear throjl 
which the defeat at Lignii?. niised i 
Indeed, weak and disunited cHriste| 
ed to lie at tlic foot oi the barbai 
Pope, to be sure, proclaimed a c( 
Mongol princ<-^ of I wrote circular letters, but the em 

O 194 

It the enml 

•mprror fivtlorick, FT. wa.«t a!!ow- 

ntiv (*o-<^(»or;ilj"in, and neither of 

V anything better tlian words 

• for help wliicli cume from 

piikiu^'iif Hungry. No liuiuan aid merited 

Hualnvkn Europe was relieved by hearing 

■m tlu Turtar h'ttit had suddenly reTreafed 

^r— T-*| Thr jrreat khan Okkotlai wa-t dead, 

:* lit' Ajtia, and a ctuirler had come 

prrnuuc army from Kurope. In 1255 a 

VI Tiff of contjuest rolled westward fruru 

llgQtiui, thu time directed a^ the Is- 

\V " Awa.'win*'' nn the Houih of the 

, ami then succcwively n;;nin«t the Klm- 

ihM and Syria, The cnclaHJon of 

litinn uiuKt Mula^n may hr eonsidcr- 

rii the cilmai of tlic ^lonj^il {Hnvcr. 

Kliau, the emiK.Tor then rei^iinp;, and 

HQ ii r.ampai<:n in China in 1259, was 

fbo escrowed a scjverei^ty so ncnrly 

L His successor, Kabtai« extende*! 

lu^Ir the frontiers of the Mongol 

f'hina, which he brought entirely 

ynke, I>e9idc3 gaining cont|ueit3 rather 

than real on its ^)ulhcrn nnd nouth- 

ieni. hut he ruled eftcetively only in 

ern r^cpons of the great empire, which 

nrw hr*»keM up into four parts — (1) The 

of the Great Khan, neated 

i;l»alik or Pekinpr, embraced 

(.orea, Mongoha. and Manchuria, Tibet, 

daints at lea^it mer Tunkiug and countries 

Ara frontier ; (2) the ChajrAU»i Khanate^ 

r.i.II,. Pnipire of thr Tartars, with its capi- 

ic includefl the inrnlem Pzimpuria, 

r L^e-Turkiatan, Tninsoxiana. and 

\ . (3> the cm|>ire of KiiK-hak, or 

Tartar*, founded on the (.vjiKpiests 

[' with iln rhief «cat at Sarai on the 

I [►'d a large (wirt nf Ra-^sia, the 

!. :i of Cau(2a.>iiis, Khwarazm, and a 

ilit m^Hiern Siberia; (4) Persia, with 

eventually at Tabriz, embraced 

Armenia, Azerbaijan ami part of Asia 

Persia, Arabian Irak, and Khora^an. 

tw<n brou;2:ht into China a vast intlux 

and Tix>Qgani eiuipranti. It waa Ali 

or HooLakoo Khan, the i^randflon of 

^vn Rhan. who rompleted the c*inque^l of 

and alterwanhi «ulHiucil and t4x>k JVi|i!:h- 

' ■ " - tii death the last of the onee 

t Ufa. He aUct employed his force 

t' : the AaMMtip:*, well-known in 

I the ('nwades. — yuU^a CaOunj^ 

^. See hurifttan. 

' >ee India, Japan. 

I li.AhelmoschuscAculentns W.SfA. 

' \, a Burmese long measure of 70 

..„.,,<.nH£ Diet. 
in Uitzcrat, black mail. 

OL, Siss,, HixLi. Aruiu catnpanttlat 
Amnrphophallua campanulatua. u 

(>LA, IliND. Acacia siipulaiu, also Solauaj 
verbascifolium. j 

OLAX SCANDENS./to.iri.; Corr.; W.^^ 
Kot«ke hipuitL niiL<^itti, Tkl. | Muritco ruallis 'llf 

A plai»t of the Coromandel fore-^ta: Ulj 
scandeos and O. zeylanica do xmA extend. tJj 
tbrmer beyond liajmahal. and the latter llie n 
ninsula. O.nana.allied in MtruetureCo them 
tlr^t found by Dr. Ihuniltonat Gorakpore. 
has Hcen it in large (|iiantilieH on the banka ^ 
the Toitsc and Jumna, wilhiuUiu tttouutaimi, 
beyond 81° of northern latitude. — RotfU^s 
Him. BoUp. 12tl. 


Melle, StMcm. | Miiellp, 8iMa( 

Unrler these names, Mr. Mendis de'wribeji. 
tree of the Eastern province ol' Ceylon, the wuo 
of wliich in used (or iximmon purposes of houa<| 
building. A cubie loot weighs Ibn. tJ4, arid^ 
ii saiil to last 40 years. — Mr. MenJis. t 

CLAY, also Ola, Txu. l 

Puttay, lliKit. I Nerikii, T4) 

Ttir kapntla, „ \ Tatuku, Tl| 

The palm leaf prcjKircd for writing on Ui^l 
are made sraa^th by being drawn for al>o| 
20 minutes, between two hloebf of witoi 
The dried raw leaves are calle<l Kanik ola, an 
the finest prei)ared leaves, Pusk ola, but O 
or Olay ia Uie Tamil vernacuhir name by whi« 
the people designate the leaves, when pre[>ar< 
for being written upon. These arc prepare 
from the le^vea nf the palmyra (BoraAsus Habe 
liforrais), tlie coooanut tree, and the Talipt 
palm (Corypha umhraculifera). The olde 
hindoo autlior who alludes to writing c 
tite olay is Panini, a ridhi* who lived aboi 
4,100 ycar^ ago and resided at Arittuwaruii 
near tlic source of the Gauges. Pliny says ej 
prcftsly (lib. xiii, cap. 2) that the mast ancioi 
way of writing was upon leaves of |)alma, froi 
which, it ia believed that the leaf (folium) of 
book came to be synonymous with tliat of 
jilant. The Olay are written \i[khi with a sty! 
which is pointed with steel and its Ijand 
sometimes highly ornamented. Durijig Ll 
operation oi' writing, the leaf is supported h 
thii left hand, and the letters Jire cut or scratcl 
ed u[K»n its surfiu-e with the style, which 
kept always in the same position and the le: 
is moved to the left hatid Mde by means of tl 
thumb. To render the char.Ktcrs more leg 
hie, the engraved lines are occasionally filU 
by smearing the leaves with fresh oow-duui 
which Ls tinged bhtek by rubbing the lines ovi 
with cotoanut oil, nr a mixture nf oil ai 
fhnrcoal p^nvder, nnd for the same object, 
Ceylon, an nd^ called Poomalc is soractim 
rubbed on the letters with a burned rag. / 
the sarred books of the Hindoos, Kurmo: 
Singhalese, &c., arc still made o( Uv«ae uU^ ^^ 
► 195 



i^ritivm living highly oi'ii;imwitc<i. AH ivcounu ' in c<Hii»<?«]!ienw. it U supfHWfl, of d 
111 lilt- Tillii;;c rpvoriui* itopurtmoni, rill ffranU i rlnriiii.' thr voyngc. In tin* ii;uu! ol'tlai 
rf Uni), loasc:?. Olid all llic nc<:iiHnU In Hho|i^ ^mc otIiiT Inili:iu dye KtntFi, the 

uru slill kt*[it fin these* leaver, ant] titcy arc 
ItkowiHc sent ns IcUers. Palm-lcHl' ImmiIcs are 
never nmcli ln; tw«i (ct-t in Iriij^tli and two 
inched in ItroftdOi. th^y arc sai<l m Iumi. from 
one to four nr (ivc imndred year^. In llio [»cDin- 
sniti crindiu, tlic Olay nrc prL'|)nrL'd from the 
Unvr» of Uiu |>almym ^lalni, llic paDam oiay 
wliioh are taken wliile luuder, and the flat 
p«)rtiun<f l>ciiig cut, into 9,\r\\}A find freed from the 
rdn and wornly tendons, iirc- hoilc^I and aftcr- 
wiirds dried, first in the shade mid ftftcrwarda 
in th<! sun. In Ceylon, olu are also made from 
ihe ilried 3tn|>s uf the youny leaves of the 
Titli[>:it palm tree. The pal toy ra puliii ola 
arc called by the Sinyhnlesc Knrak-iila, and 
iip;>Iipd to the more onlinnry purpitwi^J. Hut 
ji «till tint-r description cnllc-d I'uak olay, is pro- 
fiarcd in the temples hy the Samanero pricuts 
«nd ntivjccd, who, after damping the Karak- 
ola, draw it tightly ovit tho aliorp eil;io of a 
hoard at> as to remove all incipialiiie-s and ren- 
der it p<^ilished and smooth, — St^man. 

OI/CHI, HiNo. Prnnus domeslica. 

llodynli» liunniuminnii, /!. Itr. 
iiorontd^en hiilunt, Chum, nnd !ichU. 

KIi(>r pApm, [IfiMn. I Viirputi,Pupra,1IiN». 

;* tttiwuruil Indian muddor, K»u. | 

A plant of Ceylon, both pcnlnaulas of India 
and IW:ngal. Appears in moist ground in tlic 
rainy soa^on, iik very cuinmon and \a extcn- 
ftively c^dtivatcd in Kcn;^!!. The whole plant 
ia usp'l in iufiwion as an excellent Umic and 
febrifuge in chronic fever. Dose 1 to 2 driw^hms 
IVice 8 annas i>er lb. ; other species also o<:c«r 
and are callwl Gunda badalec and Pi»unkha. — 
Ortil. Mid. Top.^ ;>, 180; O^Shauijhnes^ij^ p. 
|*nl; Cat. Kv. 1S62. 

Roxh. C»rr., W^- A. 

liodyotJs umbellotft, />iw*., Choi»jf. 
(?lwy rant pUiit, E»i». | Chiri voru, Tei. 

timml, Kaiolsoram vorci, Tax. | 

nntivc of Java, Coroniandul. and Mexico ; 
long and oranj^e-colourcd, employed in 
£5. India to dye an excoUcot red on oottoa 
cloth. 'I'hc small, wliito, numerous leaves of 
this low-^ruwing plant, are slightly hitter, and 
uiiplcJL^int to the tast« ; the native mLnlical 
mun oftlto fH.minsula of India consider them .i» 
Old prescribe thctu, accordingly, 
J of the chwt. When dried 
v arc also mixed witli flour, 
■ (r<, whicli aru ca.tun by such 
: tion nr a'ithmntic aHcc- 
i tiy lliu Indi:u) dyer in 
I It fnnu^UcH a re«i dye 

niottd' Ciinld ho cxlractetl •-iniilarly to 
hofiire It is exfjorted. — O'Shfuufhiiixttt, 
Aim. Mitt. M^ii., /*. 7y. »Svc (Jh«y m 

0I,KA<:K.'K, LiwlUif, The oHt© 
plants, cumpriiiing 3 Irnlian s«ncra,72 

!W Olott, 1 l*nchythmnft, 

4(> liinocipra, I Myxup'^tuai, 

3 Li^iistrum, 2 Cliondxosperi 

I Syrin^^, 4 Ornus. 

They are trees ur shrubs, and about 1) 
have been discovered in Nepaul, the ~ 
and the Khassya mountains, tlie 
nalivoa of the two peninsulM »>f Ceyl 
and tho Molucc-aa. In mn^t oil phuil 
iH yieldeti by the seed, but in this t 
oil is eonUunci in the pericarp, fpii 
alone oil is entirely expresM.*d. Tbo^J 
and species are aa under : 

OloA aixtivH. H^jff: Alnpjio, l^licknon. 
„ uardntTi, fhw., Ceylon. 
„ uuicori, Lnm.^ Maiiritiun, Bourboa. 
„ ciii**nsi», //mil. 

„ f^n^Tani<, Thutik, C-vrhiu-Cliinii, Chini 
„ ^itnlillnm, WttlL, NVjial, 
„ ntt^^mmta, T/i//., Miirt^ibaa. 
„ clavii;ii, a. Ihn., rtiina. 
„ ruhtidta. HW/., yyUict 
„ plttndulifcra, Wa^., LKdirn, Kiu)m<%n, f1»yf4i 
„ rriXburghiAnn, Hmn, ^ Srh., Circar mu 
„ iht<icm JOtrh., VhiiUv^ittui, 
„ ucuiiiiimtu, Wn//., XojHd. 
„ verric<_ihi!, Lnm. -'f 
.. nyrtifolifi. M WA, N. R. Ik^ni^nl. 
Linoeiern dlcliotomn, FlVr//., Cuntiiiandd 
„ runiilliini, Fl'it//. Muliiocn^. 
„ nuieroithylin, U'al/., gylhcf. 
„ purpuri>a, KiA/., tV'yIon. 
LigustTinii jitponicuiit, T/mnh., Xe(ul, Ja| 
„ hract*<olfttuni, JK Don., Ncpel. 
„ liiciduni, Ail., China. 
NoronhiA cernun, D. Ihn., MAuritiuH. 

„ cnmri^nntJi, l\>u\, Manritiiw, 
Chondru'ijHimmm laurtfuluni, rtiittiigonft. 
KnxiJMis chiupui^it*. Ko-ih., (.'Iiiiui. 
tlriiua llnrilmndo, (i. Don, Ne[Mi]. 

„ uropliylla, ir, Don, Kliaaerya. 
Syringtt chinen.^ia^ WiiUl., L'tnna. 

„ persica, Lmn.^ IVraia. 
Pjichy'Irniia javanica, Hi, Jsni. 
MyHo'pyruui norvoHuiu, liL^ Java. 

Of die olive tree, or Olea, genua of pi 
cj»ecic3 have bicn discovered in Indi 
olive lrc« of IC(iro[M* gruws easily in In< 
j!;lnndulifera, Wnll.^ of the central p 
Ceylon, arrows frntn a,lH»0 to 4,o<X) feet h 
on tlic mountains ncnr IMira Dhoim nndH 
on. Olive-wtxxi is ijupttrrpd from ilir- M( 
nean countries into Mritoin. It is vrinH 
dark grey, and rcHeinblea box-wood in 
hut is softer. The knottixl and curlew! 
madr into embcwiwd Inixes. Thiis is 

iufan.^ol pro«ure in cngnived moulds 
>- Kx]>criuiculji tu Groat i t'r. Wijjiil ai^ mimes Olua Uaiociauifl* 
iiy ruot luvc Utthcrto fiiUod I gmua, auri robusttt Thr geata 

I if ln'jit or r<»if|, a** 

. ^JilVIP-fi in slu'ltfTrtl 

ami m HKiiltjriii)' olcTUtiria't in t)ir lli-> 
, 01r:\ t.'lin«^Jlircni, ai SnliimMinllwirn 
t T.l ^' In KtnrUtMtlec, n» well 

Ju! _ , ' : «(nl Olfii fi'rrujj;irH'ii iii 
ll«ey» of tht' Jtmina nml Stitlrj : Ohw 
|trubablv alfw wcujx hi sikIi fitii- 
extt;tui>{ friHu KeuuMm to Svllit't 
Olt.\i cotu{«icl:i ami O. rt>iMj«t:i 
) — A.'rt*/. t^r., KoiV/£.. Thv'ititcs ; 
IftM. H,»t„ fK i'MlL 

Exn. I Kn'ni, Ifiprn 

in iho Talley ol' IVirUiii ; varicn imii:h 
its leavia, auJ Dr. Ctr;;1hini 
1w O. euruiH.^!.. I'r. rUniu^uii 
'it-natt, p;iS4iii^ tutum t'ariii- 
, tielils lie cMitcreU a^oattercil 
11 •.'livt: isva (Ulea ctcfpidatA), itilxeil 
hiu amj wild ponie^'raiiatt?. On llu' 
ttit'a poM iu the niiter llintahiyan wliicli 
t njr»ro thajj O.OOO livt, be li>und a ln'.wi- 
Dtian (G, kiirrtw oflt^yle), and a yclluw 
gaitis. — Dr, Thoui^ons TruofU 
llitiykhtifii ittuf Thif'fi, pft, ;i*»H-ll) ; 

DIOICA, lUvh. 




I'lir jamb, 
Kuti iitanitti. 


grows in Cliitlajftn;;, Sylhel atid in 
and is coiiiiuon ill iIm^ lorctl-* nf 
Snn<.la, uh tlic cliauUt. bul si-ldmii 
iland ulwwe. Tlu* wwmI is wliite, 
Ijifict and luH'tul. and niijflil ha cre»>- 
rlT*-''M. According lu KhxImit^^H, llie 
*V reckoni'd excellunl and is 

. tbu inhntfiUtnU ul' Syllict. 
'i/hfott, Vui'jt^ Iltwff. 
;UK(>PEA, /.inn. 
£oyic. 0. ctiapidntu. HVi//. 
, Paxjah. WT, Sifniy. 

Kaxawar. Kliw^u, Tuaws-Indus. 

I'KtUI llMIl kuil, M 

tree u n native ol* ihc south of Kunito. 

lia anrl the N. VV. TIirnala>'a. h i.4 a 

Urc*»,nlnimlnni iti Tnms-Indiw fnim the 

and in the Salt ii:insre. ciniiinun in 

pdrt of the Slwalilc truol, and r.wr a 

!c fiart »f Hiixara (where it w rt^nark- 

I En* Ixdow Trot), and fotind *m the 

Kiivi and Sntlcj, rcachiup *J,*HHj tvvi 

rr^r. It ii frinud iu the hilU of the 

' It 13 raor^i cninnvon in lUo Salt 

V and tltc valley of tiie Indas, 

t .'i.O'Mi fpct Along with (^hiercus 

_ ■• fnnnd in the Jumna basin tu 

lltwafl. tt0 foliage Iiwlcs nirre donsf ihan 

ly if and gives a rather «btcf|iiered shade 

Lm] if kaH, heavy, cotui>act, strong and 

rlo<t»-*^rAined, ami iHtholw'*! lor (•M;i'< nf whevfc 
, U ifl aU) uHcd for U'^riniltural iin|iknicot.iJ 
cottnn-whecl**, walking-Hticlts, in iiirnniL!. an^^ 
I ftir c»Hnh4. The ciTKikeil tiiiiiH<r^ nri* lur;;cly]| 
' nsi?d for the knee^i of Uiat»un tlic Indii^ ni*ai' 
Altnck. On the t'heiiah at one phu-e. Or, 
.1. L. St«wan fumtd the twij^ usod for th 
short Hn!4|K*ndiiig rojie of ihc jhula, ( 
I'arotia) for whii'li jmrixHC, however, tlie pet 
|>lo s:iid it did nut answer WcU. Klphiitstondj 
Mays that llie Shcniwani tribe rut the fruitj 
tpoth frrsh and dry, hut ihert'i)* lilOv (h-Hliy |<!ri^ 
ear]) to i^nt, evi*n were it pieaftiint to tJic luiitaj 
which it lA not. Kumpcan olive ikpi^ urera 
intiM>ric-d intu tlii.* Punjab, in onlur U* tvAt th^ 
effect of gniflini; on the I'unjah vurielyi 
Several vnrictici of tlii? plant are kuowti 
in the 9i>uth of Huropo, two of whicli havtt 
lieen lon^ distiuL'ui.shed^tlie wild autl tli^ 
cultivated. TIk- liirniur is an everfjrt'en Hbrtill 
or low tree, yxitU apiny branches and rouni| 
tvr\}is ; the latter is a taller tree, without npinod 
and with fuur-anglud twigs. Thu fruit ia ■ 
drupe abtiut t)ic sixe and colour of a cbinisutij 
Ita fleshy pericarp yields by expression thculivi 
oil of c<minicTC»% ol' whieh the liiK-st conte^ 
from I'roveiice and Flon-noe. Spaniiih iir t'-asij 
tile soap is made by mixing oUv4: oil and rioiIa« 
while s*irt soap is maiie by mixinj< the oil with 
]wituAb. The wiM t)live ia indif^enowt to Syrit 
(Jrecce, ami Africa, on the h>wpr sIo^»c« Ol 
Mount Atljw. The eultivati'd siKicie8 gro' 
«p«>ntan«H>iiaIy in Syri;i, and is canily rt«.rcd' 
.Spain, It:ily and the south of Kranrv, varim 
part4 i>f Au-?tndia and thu Ionian i^lan* 
Wherever it hiw been trifil on thrsra-nasl* ( 
Au'^tralia, the aucccw has lieen nioitt (-(iniph*! 
and Atwtrnlia ought lo supply herHcIfwith oliv 
oil. The I'live true ia alw grown in I long-Koii^ 
The live or six varietiuH of O. uiiropjca, ur <>i 
saliva, ^Town in tlie smuii of KuMpr, are fo| 
tlie ni'wt [art naiiveB of that re;:i«iii. Thu nitir* 
exittirt-f of olive oil from tlie kingdom of Naphi^ 
have been t-stinnitLHl at 3«>,;j;i;t t.»iiM a y^'af, 
which, taken at its mean valiuf, when e'X(Hirt«t 
at X'(l:i per ton, is et|uivalenl totbr uMunaUun 
of X2,'2,yj,i\-iii. Thiajienuaof plant* aru aUi 
nineh admin-d fur the frigrance of their whit 
llowcr*. K'tfinerly, on m-'ounlol'its slow j.M'-m-lb 
llic olive wiLS not eonitideriil very u»efiil ; but th 
now variety which wa.-* inlriHluced into France 
and inli> «iomf |virtM uf Spain and Tortugal, whu: 
yietiU an abundant crop of fruit the acuiim 
ye-ar aflirr plantinj.'. They arc small IrccH a 
rather shrubfi, ab<jut fuur or live feet high. TU 
fruit irt larger than tlie eouimeii olive, is of| 
line green colour when rif>e, and contains i 
great deal of oil. The juivanta^'r-s accruing froc 
ibis new motle of eultivatiug lb« oil tree, a? 
beyoml all calculation. Hy the old in^aho 
aa ulivo true does not attain iia full q;cov(U 




oLmTM yioRrir. 


•nd Consequently does not yield any con- 
BiUerable crop under thirty years ; wlitreaa 
by the new ^lyi^tera of cultivating dwarl' trei^, 
espociatly Iruni cutting'*, llie ulive tree^ atrurd 
very ahunJiint cri.)p3 in two or three years. 
An uure ul' land can easily grow 2,5*JO trees 
ol* the new variety, and Uie giillierin^ ot the 
fruit cun be dune by small children. The 
olive in of fllow growth ; tree-i 80 years 

of age incnjiui*e only from *27 to ',i(} inches are Mien growing near all tlie vill 
in circumference ot the lower part of their nortli-ea^tern provinces oi the cn]pir«, 
trunks. An olive tree is mcntituicd by M. plentiful in gardens and nur^ries 
I>eCaudnllc a* measuring above iiH feet in cir- they are in flower in theautumiml n 
cumferonce, which, judging from the :ih»>ve in- air in tiieir vicinity is litemlly k^ided 
ferences, nmy be saJely estimateil ai 70L» years 
old, 'Vvfit other colossal oliyc« are rt^-orded, 
one at Hicrcs, inea^uring in circumference IM> 
ieet, and one near Genufi, measuring 38 feet 2 
inches. The produ<*e in fruit and oil is regu- 
lated by the age of the trees, which are fre- 

p!an*ed in different purt«i of their gai 
Kwei-wha isuue of their most lavuurtti 
It tnrnL'4 a good-sized bush, about as li 
liluc, and rtowere in the autumn, 
three or four varieties, the maiu cUA^ 
between them consisting in the colour 
hK»swnis. Those kinds which prxxluce 
yellow flowers are the finest and 
highly esteemed by the imtivea. 

miwt deliciiius (lerfuun;. One tree i* 
scent a whole gtirden. The fl*n»i 
kwei-wlia are a source of great prof 
rhine^e cottages, as well an to the nui 
who priKlnce theui in large quantitii 
market. There is a great demand fv>r tli«ai 

[|uently little fortunes to their owners. One all the large towns. Ladies are tond of wi 
at Villefranche pnulnced on an average, in ing wreaths of them in tlieir hair ; tk*^ 
good seasons, from 20IJ to 2^M) yioundt* of oil. ' aL«] dried and placed in ornanientat jaf| 
The tree at Ilieres, abovempntjono<l. pro<luoed tbeflame wayas rose-leaves are a<»eti in Ktwi 
about 25 iiufierial gallons. The itlive is tbinid , and they are used largely for mixing 
everywhere along tlie coa«t of Morocco, but liner kind of tea, in order to give it 
|Mtrrjcutarly tt» tlie south. The trees are plant- able perfume. — Willutm/ MuIrlU Kit 
ed in rows, whidi form alleys, the more agree- ' 288 ; Fortmi/s 7Wr Oijttrii^g^ pjt. 

able because the trees ore large, round, and 
high in pmfortion. They take care to water 
ibem, the better to pn-serve the fruit. The 
olive tree, is the tXma nf the fJrecks, '/^'n of 
the bible, and ZaiUxMi of the Arabs. The 
fruit of the olive U c-steenied evrn in its unripe 
state, as an tirlicle of the dcs&ert, having been 
first steeped in an alkaline ley. and tlien pre- 
served in :*alt and *v»ter. But it Ls chiefly \*alued 
on accoTuil of the bland-iixed oil which is 
sUkTed up in its outer fleshy part. This is 
obtained hy al itnce bruising the nearly ri]>e 

in Kun 


HotfU'fi III. Him. But., p, 2«(>. 

OLKA GARDXERI. Th': \ uw rf 
central province of Oylon, growing at ao eU 
tioTi of 5.0(K» to «,600 feet.— 77iii;. 
PLZftfl.^p. 188. 

of the central pr»ivincc of Ceylon, grui 
an elevation of 2.U1»U to 4.1>0U feel 
Emntu H, ZetfL,p, 183. 

OLKANDEU, Kwo. Nerinm odon 
h the Riali-chuh-t'au of the Chinese. 




fruit with nioderaie pr.^ure in a mllU Virgin , (;„,,j^,i^ i.,^.j„-,.j^ ip^^;,,^ ^^^^-^ ^^ 

oil), or by the aid of hoiling water nnd greater 
pressure, or when kTrnentalion had taken 
place in the olives collected in honfV!i, ordinary 
an'i inferior oiU are thus ohtainetl, the worst 
being employed only as Innijwals or in liic 
inaiiufactnre of snap. The finest oils are |>ri»- 
dui'od near Aix, Mi>nt]M?llier, Nice, Uenoa^ 
l.ucvca, and FlorMnci-. The oil is also largely pn*- 
duc»>d in the kingdom of Naph^-*. and ex|>orU9d 
frmn lralli|ioli. on the raflt coast of the Gidf of 
Tan'Ula, whence it i* commonly called (Jalli- 
poli oil. — FourlCn l!anti4Hh)k to tfie Fanjtth i 
Jir, J. L. SUutirt, I'anjah planU ; />r. //. 
ClAfhom^ Panjah litftott . SimtiioinCs Commer- 
fUU f^riplticU i ItoifU, III. Him, liitUtinj ; HnylrA 
Mat. Mii^Ua. 

:,\ KKAnRAXS. The ohve tree M 

Ll' 'tKwpi Ilwn of rheChinwe, 

iiied varieiv. u*ed to pert'ume 

It tt largely rtilcivAted in Chiim, 


Euphorbia neriifniin. 

Euphorbia nerilitolia, Linn, 

UI.EARIUS, »ee Kizxel oxiut. 

OLEASTER PLUM, fruit of tb« 
ixinl'ertu, which ab^Mrnds in sonic piutft'j 
Tcmuscrim jungle. Its aour red plui 
very good tarts and jelliei. — Mit$ot 

OLEVE, Gr. Ell. Esn. 




OLEO DE GARAFANO. It. Clove oil. 

OKErM. L*T. Oil. 

OtErM CER.*:, Oil of wax. Wax 
Oil, Wax oil. 

paiuculata. Malkungunce . 

O 198 




Kundur yachir, 
Incen«o, Olibano, 

Liibuntva, STkiAr 

Parangfii Hiiiibruiii, 7'am 







»T. MaUTjH, t*KIW. 

fc^fw*, Bkxu. 

;,T*u-ju, Cmx. 

lur. Dtk. 




Hayle Iclla us that two kinds of oliba- 

i»re met witJi in commerce, one Indian, 

le ot}\PT AlVican, tlie guiu resins of 

IJU serrau &iirl H. thurifcra, TUin wiia 

ikinctime Txsed by the ancients in their 

ceremonic*. Mmiea speaks of it in 

rxx, 34, and it lonp formed a cmwti- 

in the preparation of incense. It i* prrt- 

in the Ea.-ttem parts o( the peninsula of 

from the tree known as the lioawellia 

but tliere arc also African iind Ara- i 

raheties. Olibanuni, in the time of, 

woa obtained only a» a jmKluct of 

lU, but iliere are now three kiufls known 

uraorco, the AlHean, Amhiiin, and 

tt Indian. The tree prHluciag thone 

ica and Arabia is even not yet I 

thnupb the eni|>eror Augnitlnj^ aent an i 

ftf lO.UOfJ Rornatu under' Eliua (^allii.s 

.rabia expressly in search ot' it. The 

ifeian cilibanuiu was supjuwetl by Liniiicufl | 

obtained by a apeeies of juniper, .Juni- 

J^ciiB, one of the t'onilira>. Hut IJrucc, 

?r him Neibulir^ aearclied in Afri<;a ami 

and could not learn anythin;i alwiut the 

The three protlucti. known as ohhanum, 

!f, seem to he obtained from species 

r^lia, anrU prolmbly, fn>iu U. papyrl- 

B. tliurifera. There w no doubt that 

lianoUhnuMU! isoht^iinedfiom tiielat- 

'iit<'h iintwR iu Northern and (.'eutral 

theexit^tence of iliis kind as well an of 

le Arabian was known tu Diwcorides. In 

meat times, olibaniun was sold at very hi^rh 

eaustvl |>arily hy it* trade being nmnnpo- 

I, afld in [tHrt hy tlie great demand lor it in 

iplfls. In commerce, tlie Arabian is also 

as male or tear ulihanum, to distinf^niish 

tbe East Indian or Stalactiiic olihuiuun. 

Araliian. Od nUo (he African, olibanum 

ithe KuTTjpeau niHrket through .Aden and 

h ihe poru nf tlic lia<lnimauf. Mr. 

inentioiiA that, fnmi Kandar-Muit, 

maitee i» im|ioried int^) the Aden 

jalti; trom Bandar-Ai»gtire, the 

iW oinkar. or angnre ; and trnm the 

of Has Rntree, Khoi Bandar, Allmlu, 

larini, aud Bandar KhiusotJin in the country of 

|ttt« WuTsanpiU and Mijerthen Somali about 

|Ci^ Gardafus. The drug is coUecteil in March, 

and May. and chiefly Hnds itit way to 

tj ifaroi^h the entrepots of Maccula and 

Loltan Wbvni or Mulika. in coliectcd 



by the .Aial Yunus and the AinI Hamed Stnnall 
Tiie Anibian ohhanum, gniw!4 in tW(iK«uhti< 
viz., on the sides of tlie luuuutiuna in tin; Nwljj 
or highlands and near the Sabilw, or sea const 
between lat. 17*' '3U\ N., and lon^, 55° 47' K.j 
where the desert ends and the wooded nioun- 
lain region bc:;ins, and is ex|K>rted fmm all the 
ports in tl»e coaat line S. W. tn the t*»wn 
Damkote in the bay Alkammar in 5:^ 47 K. T, 
GockI olibanum, as met with in Homhav 
in Beuii-trans[(arent tears, of a light yelloi 
colour, sonietinie* indining tu white; brittle, 
and adhesive when warm; when burnt, tlie 
oiloiir is very a,[^reenble: its taste is birierish^ 
and somewhat pimgent and aromaric. (Hibrt 
nun» has been celohrutod from llie earlii 
ages, and usetl in nearly all the religious cen 
mimiea of antitjuit}-. It is ehictly rmployetl ti 
fumigations, and in tlie oereiu'inies of tin 
Greek and I'aiholin churches. It is inipori* 
into IVimbay from tlie l*er< Oulf ; the supe- 
rior or garbled '{imlities ar»* re-<'Xportcd 
England and France, and the interior or rcfusi 
kinds to China. The giuus frr»m the tbllowin 
trees are believed to be mixed wiili the com 
mercial olilmniim. 

Jiosivellia t/Uthtxi. 
Hala^o, | Mormin, Ta5 

A small tree ; loaves pinnate, deciduous, 
flower-i tenninal, small, whili- wilh a red nec^ 
tary, anthers yellow ; yields the jfuui salai. 

HoKU'fHui Bfrrnta, Staih. ( li. ihurif* 
Colebr.) -/fn.r^. /7. /«*/., ii, f,. ;i8;i. 

liosu'ff^iii thunffiu^ (.'ulehnwUe, .Is. lifs, \\^ 
:n7: xi, ITiS; lUi^h, Fl. /«.y., aH3. Percii 
Afftfiral iiitfttr^ xx, t>70. 

KcioiiUi'r, /ilrliir, AfUH. (itindii barciM, Iii.N 

Luolwui, IK'K. Avul KttD(l(H;r, 

Imp-^nltiM*, HiN». 

A tree with pinnate leaves prows on the hilla 
of tlic Drccan, is a native of the mountainou 
tracts of <'entral Imlia, and very common ii 
the ShaTiabad country. I>r. Hooker remark! 
when ascending from Belcup])€e in Behaj 
to the height of 1,800 feel, came upon 
small forest fif the Indian ()lil>aiuim (Bo 
wellia thurifofa,) conspicuous I'rom its pid< 
bark, and spreading curbed branches, leafy 
their tips ; with its general appearance 
good deal like that of tlie mountain aah. Tin 
giun, celebrateil throughout the east, wi 
(lowing abundantly from the trunk, very fra- 
grant and transparent. The Siilai or salaee tree, 
Boswellia (hurifera, remarks Or. Irvine, is 
plentiful in the Ajmecr hills: the gundn birosa 
is the prepared gum resin of this tree, and 
similar in appearance and qualities to Veni* 
turpentine. It » brought from Mewar, Hi 
rautee and the JShekhawatee hills: and is con- 
/<idered stimulating: an oil is distilled from it, 
said to cure gonorrliu'a, and ia used also ia^ 
ointments and much used in paiutingatid b^ ll 




rmi: iiiaiiiM] iu*t»t twrlvi* rnpnrs. 
Shnlitil<;iil nnHiiiy. Pr. 0*Sli:»ii^fi- 

Jti*ritw ; 
om til* 

(fiR-M llin-c «^a!l»*tl Salt' vnmd or SuU; laa?u 
.ft^lbHii'liJyur it w lcnne«l<jun«la hiroxa, and 

lilt- fhy fttntc Snkliii bimwi 
iwevrr/ttioii-iht tlic Kn^disJi Olibunum U.> be 
rir |ir»lii(c tif an Amyriif, |«iriiv IwH-Mtw*? bt» 
oiilil mil find thnt llio Sale n'-^in wiw ii»cil an 
u'cn-sc l»v ibc bindn.w. The \\, fflrthm »ihI 
I. tbnriro'iM Uitli liirnisli llir M:tlr KmnkitHM'nso 
»r Oiiwituridu*. TIk* nniin nllbaniitn of^curs* in 

ildiflh or I'ale y*'ll"w to:ir», oval, r»liKm;» aiul 
titu«<?. siwniUnn^t in rlciUSf, oj.a<|uo, bnitle 
raupft. Tlir yiinda bnr(v>ii of lIn' baxars is 
oft, diW'.tiU', it|mi^ut:', ^Tccnisb and whiti*. Tlio 
ibmr t» baUamit: nnd rr.-iinons, (.•j*ii^'iaUy 
diilo iHr rwiii i5 iMirnin^' ; tbe flavnur IvU- 

imic, »nd rather bitlcr. The jKnyder, ciiron- 
ri'Ilow. It ia Irrtpionily ndiiltorat<vl by ilam- 
Kr.sjindjiraoh, and oilier o.licn|K.'r rw'mft ; when 

icwimI, tb»' hm«l vnrioly sortt^iu, and iliswilves 

irtiallv V" the- saliva, whiidi it ren-leri wUiio 
ind tMiiuUlvr. The ointment t'runi lbi» is 

[r. MiiMnna boil ointment, fi vftfv mclul 
ip|»bcaii!>ii. antl H ftQ oxt'cllent sub^litntc 
ri»r ibf K>ini mntinenl of ibo Tjondon I'har- 

i:ux»iMi'ia. Aocnrdinj? to l>r. U"yle, tlic Indian 
;)bhnniun »;♦ inipftftod in rhosts rhielly iVnm 
|i.>'tfr*>ni Calcutta. Mr. Tnrnbnll. nl' 
tho lirfi!>al ^Tt•di^aI Spi*\i/'€. many years sinot* 
cnt »«iie riain of the Sahii troo mlUvtod in 
ihr hilU near Mirzajion'. whiidi in tho l.on- 
'tlon nnrkct wiw rtx-o^nixed rw Olibatimn. Mr. 
Colobrookc dolerniiue-l that Inbnn or oliKo- 
ui 14 pn>lure4l by R iroc ralU-d salni. Dr. 

.Tfitirntion slii/hlly inuincate. 1 
iuf,' the biuw ol' the ttvary, c«ft- 
rreiuilaiod. Stnuici.s 1<\ inwrUti 
disk, rivary sc-wilc, li-^rcllod, witV 'J '>tiii 
onib, attatrhctl to llitJ a\i*. S' 
l>r. Haniillon, | by a rapitatc S-lopcd sti^nin. 1 

3-anjilod. 3-cctIetl, ;J-vahx^, sci'licidnl 
finj" nt the angh's into valvrs). Stfd^ 
in *nfb ooJI, pirdcd by a im-mbranniw 
C.ttyledoiw intricutoly folded, rnuUiiUl. 
Indian ulibannm, n"»W the most f-fttj 
ifl in iviunii-Hh or oblimjr ic:^i>, "fa rwldis 
li;/hi yollviwoolour, usually oovcrwl will* 
ibh |iowdi r, Ironi atlritiim of the |>ic<:** 
wioh otlior, iransluoent within of a 
lurinh t;wif, atiil having a bal&amic oiJour, 
cially whiMi wnnue<l t»r hurnt. Sp. Gr. 
Aiiaiyaed liy Dr. O'Shatighncdsy, ft fine 
men gave, of resin M7 parts, volatile 
jwirm, pmi 4, plincn iC in i*-M3 j«Jt». 
the f[miniity of volatile oil is necosMfily 
leiw when it has hv*m ex|Ktw*l and bec< 
;w Re»*u in comnierce. Hracannol 
only 8 i»er cent, of oil, of rc*in 5ft. gi 
matter like gum, 6'2, loss '>*8^1<K), 
Imlsamic gum reain i? d con^^idoTtible 
fxjiort fntni Bombay and otlu-r porta of 1 
The hf'st is finind in pieces aa large as a 
of a hri;:ht yell(»wisli c<.ilour, sometime.'* 
iag lo reddish or hrown, covered nn the < 
with a whitjsh It burn* wnih & eM 
and steady light, dirt'iwing a grateful iri-.n 
In t:wte it is slightly bitter, ami nc: 
soluble in water ur alcohol. Afrioaji ' 
in imporiotl into Vienna and Mar-' 
Suez.and is obtained from Arabia » 

.»yle nUo e<illneted a very Iri^n^ni rosin from I ,Muist of Africa. It is mentioned by Dr. 

Ih.* .tnleh tree of Xorth-WV-t India, wliii^h lieara 

vrry eI'Me re^puiblttnce to c<minntn nlilianuin. 

'hia tree is Hoewellia tflubra, 7^rt.W>., tl»e Ibr- 

mter i<« H. thurifi-ra oi^ ('iilehrt»i»kc, called K. 

Iiiernun in many workd ; but a^ Mofwr*. Wight 

Iftnd Arnoti wiv, ** we dare not f\niitc here 

African or Arabian olihanum. and a 
in smaller lean* than the Indian van* 
ij*h or reildish and intermise*! wiiJi 
CarlKinate of lime. < )ne kind ot Aii 
nuui is no drmbt produccl <»n the 1 
•Somali eoa«t westward from CajK 

K, .■M»rmia. Stub. '••xtr, Hruc, p. 11*, t. It, tbi; jj„,j ^.^njed lo the Arabian eoast 

tisually d<^«rrilK'd as ovate, native Intam from Maeulln. This ir( ■ 
iblona-. and ncuminaio.*' Il*>th species were describe<l by Capt. Komplhnrne of tUr. liuii 
lecled )»y Gil. Syke-i in the Decran 03 the nnvy. litis .been identitied by Mr. Ik-nnciS 
ibbanuni-lrce hortwelliji tbnnfera growa the'Uritisb Museum with Ploslea Bnribumbi 

in billy »il nations, from »l>e ! Endlicher, but appears to Dr. Hoyle tft 
'uMniandrl civist lo tVinlral Imlia. It i» nodiint; but a fpocioa of Koawellin, w)uttb 
much brani-hod hut baro nf leaves in its | tliercfi>re trails B. Iloribitn.ta. 'J*hc s\ 
lower fturt*. but tJieae nr*? crowdetl and alter- i jire coverct! wiili little reftinous cs 
nnt4MowanlH ibe ends of ibc branehe«i. uneijmd- I J,, ^^^ ^jj^ leaves of a plant mlle«*trt! 
Iv |HnnHte. I^Mitlrtu oblMUg, obtuse, seiTUifM, I isl,i„d of 8o«>Ini by Lt. WelUti'.l 

1 ntlore.*reriee 

'. Slipvdes none. I nnore^reriee in 
ihiry niccrafa* near the end? of the 
■Itorter than tb^ haves. Flowers on 
SepU, of a pinkmh while colour. 
Calyx .=imall, r>-tootheti. 
the ba*e, 
th^ Hisk: 




i of 


appear to }>e tliose of a IVvwellia, CHil 
ftomolime* used metbrinally in ebntntoi 
lions of muf'ous membraDeA, but ehl 
pln«ter«. and as a fumipntion. — IIaiiU^ 
Hookers H\m. Jour., p. 'J\t ; Mrtf, 
Ajmerr ; 0*Shitwjhne.98ij ; Hrnij. f*hnr.^ 


pietciyinfi few hours ;sh oil W theoil rnntaineven | Atnu. O'm I BlinrbhuvJi a<ti 
One-twentifdi of Uie oil ol' poppies, a sotl muss , vitTiru varennyflni. b*liaT|U^ 
only L»olitainnMp. These experimont«* arc how- i dhiyo yonalia pracho daynth, i 
ever only available in India during the nights of i prayer hoseeching the divine lig 
tlio cold season. — O'Shawjhntmy^ pp. 4152-4315. | to ilJuniine the mind of llio wo 

OLIJ. Tam. Bars of steely iron, driuvi\ out , William Jones thus int<?rpreutt 
from the vuttoin obtained ia clay cruciblea. — [ adore ihu supremacy of dia( < 
SimmornW Dictionartf. I godhead who illumines all, del; 

OLLUCK, Tam. A dry-meai»ure, the oij/hlh whom all proceeds, to whom al 
part of a puddy. and tlic :20th part of a gallon. 
— Simmomfs' Diftionttnj. 

0L08. see Kibitka. " 

OlAJW. Poi,. Lead. 

OLOWO, Rrs. Pewtex. 

OLTKA-MAUINO, It. Ultra-marine. 

OLUKCH— •? Ilirudo. 

DLL'S JL'OAICl M, Corchonis oUtorius. 

Cyca? circinalw, Linn. 

OLUS VAGUM. Humph., Rh^fdf, Syn 
Convolvuhw reptann. 

OLYMPIAD, amongst the (Jreeks, a period j meditjite, poveruod by the m 
of 4 years, the firat of tlie OlympiacU began, | whirh resides within me for 1 
it Uauppoced, with the nearest new moon to the 
Bummor solstice, a.a.c. 77fi, being the 3,038tli 
year of the Julian period and 24 years before 
the tbundntion of Kome. 

OLYMPUS, see Lakshmi, Mem, Osiris. 

OLYPHANT, Dtrr. Klephant. 

OLYKEA, a section of the Graininaceie. 



whom we iuvoke to direct our \ 
aripht in our progress towards 
And in another place ho defin 
sun as *' not the vi:*ible material 
di\*ine and infoini>arably great« 
iUimtines all, delights all, frc 
pTooeCils, to which all must retui 
can alone irnidinte not nur visual i 
hut our 9»>nls and our intellecti 
bnx)kc Aguiii tiiua explains \\ 
t''X\\\^ox\i jjower wliich is Urahn 
is ciihed the liglit of the radii 

O'M I a mystic syllable, sigT\ifying llie su- 
preme god i»f gods, which hindfWH, fron^ its 
Bwful and wicred meaning, hesitate to pronoimce 
gJbvod \ and, in doing so, place one of their 
[^(felids before their moutlu. A brahman begin- 
ning or ending a lecture of tlie Veda (or 
the recital of any holy strain), must alwayt pri>- 
nounce, to himself, the flyllablcO'm ; for uiilesg 
that sylUble precede, his learning will slip 
Hway from him ; and unless it fultnw, notliin^ 
will hi* long retained. It is pre&xed to th<.* 
several name* of worlds, denoting tliat the 
seven wurldn are inaulfeslatiuns of the |*(>\ter 
signified by that syllable. All rites ordained 
jya the Veda, oblations to lire, and tu^lemn 
rifiivs piws away ; but that which pasMetli 
It away, says Menu, U declared Ui he tJie syl- 
lable O'm, thus called Ascliara, since it is the 
symbol ol' gild, the lord of* creatcil beings. 
From >'nrioU)i> paK<igc» in the Asiatjc Kcsetirtdies. 
principidly by Mr. I'olebrooke, ix» well as otlier 
authorities, it may be collected that thiif ^m'rcd 
mon'isyIlnhlr,s|»idtO'm,andprunnimced A,0, M, 
or A, L', M. is intcr^iretod to«lgnify Bmlun, the 
6i)| I J, under his three great attrihute.<> 

01 '. ! . the pr&w^rvrr and the de.-*itp>ver. 

ih' - lor the attri- 

myatri, called 

illuim *h ' of the Vwlas, 

"Uier j -t teit of the 

-Acd by liio thiiterai monosylUble 


thought. I mynelf am an irradia 
lion of the aupreme Brahra.** 1 
ever mere scholastic or Ujcoh 
tations, to suit the theological d( 
various bindoo sect*, for there 
that the Vedic doctrine was i 
ship, and the cpioted Sanscrit 
invocation to the sun, O'm ! Earth 
O ra ! let MS meditate on the supr 
of the divine sim ; may he i 
minds. Gayalri i^ a form of me" 
aj)plied to this verse in the Vedas 
to be of peculiar szinctily, and ii 
audibly in the daily morning 1 
hrahmans. The true sense is, " 1 
on that excellent light ot' tlie divi 
he enlighten our minds.** Ppo( 
literal translation of it is, **Wi 
that desirable light of the divin 
sun") who influemes oiu" holy ri 
thu-^ ■ f : 

Wr - J, l\ir hrlithl h« 

M«j- 1 . . U Mwrk of our pl«l; 

For auikianut^ i*c ituifttilQAtlF tU« dlvtn« Pr 
Tlmt b« vany dclicii lo bwunron ni oar } 

All who •«• wUti of hii»rt. mlore 0«1 the B< 
Drloirinr hlni ufFcrlurv of « rtvvoal lu'&ri «it 
The extrtin« imiwrtant-e that 
attach lo tJie supposed profu: 
Gayalri, renders it a text of n 
than, pvrhajis. iiidilTerent rcuder 
!*i discover in the w.^rda themsel 
tlicir ordinnry or recondite alius 
Jones savs that the Gayatri 
'* Motlier of the Ve^as ;" and i 
Aion of the jireftirc to the instit 
he intends a translation in the ; 
s.ige. the words in italics being 
diatcly of the text : — *' The mmx 
on the Gayatriy the mother, as it 




fwve lUe autJior to hare Mori 

tuibli? material Ktiti. but ihat dit'ine 

tmpAfrt^tle ffrfaUr iujhC, which Ulttmiitrt* 

'yhis ttllf from which all proceft.i., to 

I miat return, and wkifh alotu can 

t (not our visual orgnaa merely, but our 

tti) nur intellects. Thrsc may be ron- 

U the words of the mcwt venerated text 

lindoo scripture. Another traa'ilation 

inyatri, or hriti<k<t verso of the Veda*, 

itii^ tliirteoQth volume of his work. 

Let m adore tlie supremncy of that 

ni, the Gixlbcad, whi> illuminate.^ all, 

all, from whom all prnoeed, to 

It r*?tiim : whom we invoke to 

rstanditiirs aright in our ]»ro^eas 

ly seat." The Gayniri i» not 

meditated on, while Kup]'re**ing 

A brahman will writo. it for a Kuro- 

not, nr but rurely, pronounce it, 

of the breath is thus performed 

uppers: — Cloang the let! mtsf ril with 

t Hngen of the right liaiid he 

lhr>wgh therii^ht nositril : then 

ril iikcwisc with bin thumb, 

.breatli, while he meditates the text : 

e« bt>th fingers otf the left nostril, 

tlie suppressed breath, having diu*- 

y ' '1. ro|K*aterl to himself the 

mysterious naiue^ i>f the 

ba IxUJlcrai Dionosylliible, and tlio 

ff of f^mhm. A supproasionof breath i 

'■yau ancient legishitttr to 

medltationfl : *' Om ! sky ! 

r* :ion ! of birth ? m&n- 

-._- cj ! aborJe of truth ! — we 

the adorable light of the resplen- 

tor which goTcnis our intellects; 

tcr. lustre, savour, immortal, faculty I 

; Hrnhm, earth, aky, heaven, (Chap. I 

commentator on tliis verse ^aya : as ! 

tlir paJn^ia 16 supjiorted by a atngle | 

i$ this universe upheld by the syl- > 

A ^*mbol of the jpuprenie Brabm." , 

from a natural mother ; the 

ition of tht zone ; the third, 

lanre of the sacrifice : such j 

;i who is uftnally called twice- 

1 text in the Veda. " Among 

djrine hirth Lh that which is distin- 

' the ligation of the zone and aacri- 

»nd in that, the Gayafri is hia 

k] ibe Acharya hie fathir." (Acha- 

m, means spiritual preceptor.) On 

twduri, the Gayatri, properly so called, 

ihiiA expounded : — * On tliat efful- 

r, which \» Drahm himself, and i5 

l^lit of the radiant sun, do I medi- 

cd by the mysterious light which 

mcv for the purpose of thought, 

is the earth, the subtle ether, 

203 O 

nrth i« 

ftnd all that exists within tlie created sphere : 
it b a threeibld world, containing all which U 
fixed or moveable ; it exist* internally in my 
iiL'url, extcnially in the orb of the sun, being 
one and the same with that effulgent power. 
I myself am an irradiated manifestation of the 
Supreme Brahm. *' With such reflections," says 
the commentator, " should the text be inau- 
dibly ret'it^id — (Vol. v, p. 359.) He in another 
plnre, thus renders the important text : 
'* Earth ! Sky ! Heaven I Let us meditate on 
(thee, and on) the most excellent light and 
power of that generous, sportive, and respleu- 
dent sun ; (pni^'ing that) it may guide our 
intellects." — (Vol. vii, p. 259.) Another ex- 
ptisition ia : ** Let us meditate on the ador- 
able light of the divine Savitri. May it guide 
our intellect**. Desiroiw of food, we solicit the 
gift of the splendid sun (Savitri), who should 
be studiouitly wornhi])ped. Venerable men 
guided by the urider-itanding, salute the divine 
sun (Savitri) with oblations and praise, 'l^ho 
pasiiKige in italiL-s appears to contain the whole 
of the Gayatri ; and, with its context, is sulH- 
cieut to prwe tlmt the hindoog, esotericaJly, 
should not be polytheisla. In the article Surya 
it is noticed, that the sun is called Savitri in 
tlie Gayatri ; and under the name of Suryn. 
Savitri is personified as a female married to 
S<iina, the moon. Pusban is also among the 
appellations of Surya, The sacred monosyllable 
iri gcnendly spelled OM ; but being triliteral 
■seems better expressed by AL'M, or AOM, or 
AWM, it being formed of the three Sanskrit 
Ifeiiei's that are best -so represented. This 
mystic emblem of the deity was first introduc- 
ed to the European world by the translation of 
the Gita; where (p. 142) we are lold it is 
forbidden to be pronounced but in silence. 
" The first letter stands for tlie Creator, the 
second for the Pr«*ei*ver, and the third for the 
Destroyer." Again " OM, Tat and Sat, are the 
throe mystic character} used to denote tlie 
deity. The word Sat is xuet] for (|nalitiea 
whicli are true, and for quaUties which are 
holy : it is applied also to deeils which are 
praiseworthy. Attention in worship, zeal, and 
deeds oi' charity are likewise called Sat." 
/Vschara is a Sanscrit word, which, according 
to Menu, means the syllable (J'M. All rites 
ordained in the Veda, oblations to lire, 
solemn sacrifices, &c., pass away ; but that 
which p:uisetli not away, is the syllable 0*M, 
hence called Aschara since it is the symbol of 
God, the lord of created being's. — M..R«s., Vol. 
Art. xxii ; Hansen, God in Uist.^ Vol, i, jft. 304. 
Sec Gayatri, Hindu, O'M, Veda. 

OM M.\NE PAOMl HUM : Tibetan worde, 
meaning Ob ! the jewel in the lotus, an invo- 
cation of Padmapaui, who deUvered it to the 
Tibetans. It is the most common of the TibeUa 



lXE padhi nrm. 


in *)i J!»f*yer. The lotrw in rlic ayi"^*! "f ] «>n« — wlien, hy an intellectual t-icalive .tc: 
lifrhcst perfection, and in this prayer w iwt-d t^) f the ^'rent Sakya-Muiii (linddhu) a 

(livinily nam«l Padma-pnni wa» called 
boiiig I'rom tlio flower of the \nt\w, who 
fully iin<iert4X)k the wtjrlc of rnnvcrsirtn. 
nution Ih tliereiore, thiit the rayslic wtird*. *•' 
the j«wel in llic lotiw 1" are oommeimvatii 
this gTTjii net of Sakys-Muni, and of tlia: 
carimtion of the divine Tibetan npustle. 
con.^tant repetition i» al«). aa M. Htse 
explainLNi, extremely merittirinus, and 
of ati'urinjT ininjediatc nii*irption iiftcr 

illnstratc the genc.Hisof Padninpani in the loHis 
It i» an invocation nf Sakkya. whu is luviially 
roprc>itnted holdinfr a lutiw flower with u jewel 
in it. Evfirywhvre, at Tnmlontf. in an onitorv» 
the lotnst the niani, and the chirki (urjviieel) 
with three ravs, emblematic of the bnddhist 
Trinity, were introduced ** Oni raani padmi 
om" ill pllt letters, adorned the projecting end 
of every beaiu» and the Chinese ** cloud niessen- 
ger/* or winged drapm, floated in a;eurc ami 

guld alon^^ the capilaU and beiinis, ainonsst ' into the univer?rtd a«iid of Huddha, Ba«d« 
scrolls and proups of flowers. At one end was , LtiinaH, tiic Tibetan Ruddliiatu hftTe 
a sitting fi;i:iire of Gorucknaih in I^nm roho-t, ' nnnibers ot" nuns among them — who mr* 
surronudcd by a plory. with mitro and bea<lrt. j however, sulijeeted U) rcfitrnint, but 
A mylhical anhnal with a dojj'fi head and liltKxl- actively in fho HeldM, and one of them 
retl iipot over the tnrehead wa5 not unctuuinon ser^-ice for a short distance as a caviUe 
in thJA chai^-ol, and it* :d*o «een in the .Sikkim Captain Knight's party. Jani<!S Priiucp 
templejfi and throuiihout Tibet. ICrmann, in hi:4 j plainH auiu ad meaning «, the generative 
Siheritin Travtds, mentions it a« nrcurring in ' «, the typ' of the productive power, 
tlic Khampa I>ania'« tcniple at Maiuiaoehin : i the union of the essences of both, Buddha 
he conjeolurcrf it to have been the Cyclopo of nlfies intelhgenee ; Mant Padiiia, is on 
the Greekii, which according to the Honienc 1 the foniL^ of liuddha, and signifies tha 

' ' ' " or holy person who hns the padiua or 1 

hifl jewel. Ora Mn-ne P»d-nii Hotn !• 
a Mx-lettcrcd munrra, ShiMluk tthari in 

uiviii had a mark on the foreliead, instc;id of 

an eye. The gl"»ry nurrounding the beadB of 

Tibetan deiti(>» \s hI*> alluded to by Ennann, 

who n>co;;ni«cH in it the Nimlnw of the ancients, — Hvoker's Him, lAmr,, VifU. 1.229:11, 

u»ed to protect the beads of statues fr««m the j UU, 1W5. 

weather, and fi-om being sciiletl by birds ; and I ACM 8VASTI, see Luenplions. 

nddM that ihr glory of the ancient iniLsters in] OMADCR, a river of Bancorah, 

near Hahmunea. 

C)MAMl\ nr Vnmamn, Tkl. Ptyehi 
wan, DC, W. and A., ir. /c, ' 
ajowan, /{. ii. Ul, Bishop's wcctl. 

OMAN. Ilie provitice of Oman is 

pamtmg was no doubt introduced into the 
liy/antine bcIiooI from the buddhiat. Captain 
Knight, in the monastery of Herai* found sjieci- 
mens of tlte j>raying wheels — little wo«i«ieu 
dnmis, covcrcil with leather, fining into niches 

in tlie wall, and mmcd at t)ie (tlightest i>tHh by , .,„ die east by the ocean ; on the north, 
a spindle nmnine through the centre. There pprsian gtdf ; on the wpst and on fh 
wui'e alviiit a hundred of these machines at 
Hemis, and aa tliescroUs inside them are cover- 
ed with tiie mystic sentence, *' Oni mani padmi- 
huni," and ct>ntain nnihing eUo, it was calcu- 
lated that llio flmnn must o*rcur not le«s thnn 
1,700,000 tiine*. The.>*e sacred wnFrda nre not 


extensive ileserts. When Xiebtdir im 
it was possessed by a number of pcny 
reigns, the most considerable of whom 
the Imam of Oman or Maskat. The 
Dsjau, (jabria, (lafar, Rank, Gabhi, 
Makaniat, and Seur, liad the title oi 

only found in the praymK uhioK but long • -^^p [y^rsiixn gulf di^-idcs Persia from 
mounds of votive stones RUiithirlynwcnhcd are jjj, jjhout eight degrees iu length, ft^jm 
scattered tar find wide ovt-r the face of the conn. ^^^^^^^ „f Onnuz to the mouth of the Shi 
try. M.KU»pn.thwntc«thefnnnulathus,-OralArab: in breadth, at the nam.wert 
mani padmi hmu'— the l-wt syllable "oing ■ jj^.^^.^,^^ Cjjpe MusseJdom and G^unbn 

probably umalgamated with th.- tirsL 'i""")l i fifcy-fivo miles; and at the widwtTiafU 

r. 1-1 and consmnt repeiiiion, and thus perhniiiihB„^hiy^, j^^^j Khoilcma. three degrvCa 
,■_' csen|K.'d Captain Knigbn notice, y\y"\twcnU' mik^. The Arabian iharr hu i 
•'■ rlaims, htnd-ever, U) lmvc the actually i ^;,nd-fiauks nnd shoab, and is naWg»t« 
. mnumation. The meanmggivon by ; ,|j„^^,^.j ^^,i ditfirnlty. The Person 
;M. KMHothis, *-Oh the j.wi-J ui the I'^ite, ,.^11^,^ ni^ii the Sea of Oman, or 1- r 
Amen !" ond he tnmslatcs tr..m Motigohan into j 'jpjj^.,^ g,^. ^o vehicles of ftnv de^. . 
French a m.^t curious ex|.Ianaiory legend too I ^.^rried or drawn iu Oman, nor m ani 
hnr f'> TiMnMto, \mt of »*hich the k.-rnci is | jj^rt <rf* Arabia. In Oman, are the B«iu 
[ of Snow (Td>et) , Beni Abu-Ah, Beui Geneba, bedouins, oho 

L 1 the palo i'f law Beni Gafari; the Yemani and Et-Ar»)i», 

fUUl tvlii^oQv^rempli d'una hmle d'atres malfoi- I mast illastrious of the tribes of OmaB. E») 

204 O 204 



wntiuj? of th* ItoHouin Arab«4 of the! OMAKDKR, Sixon. A variety of roromori" 
lern jart of ArttJiia dwHiribea tho drem of i del or Caluiuaudcr wtxxl, obtainctJ in Co^lrtn 
rome^n •« a vide cotton gown nf a dark from Dioapyros ebennatpr. — SimwotM Dit- 
ir — blue, brown nr bl*i-k, iMt^'ned by a , Ui}Mirtf, 

rtn pirille. Ovt^r ihcir hc»<U they wpur I OMAU. The ^ci'und khalif after Mahomod. 
fch>c(, called sJiatiher or niekivune, ihe DoMurali ]a hiiilt on a crot-k, or rather c-auul, 
^ fvzu&ifs iiAvin^ it of ti rt;d colour, the ' al>out oni' inilo »iid u luijf dUUitil from the 
l*lack. All ihc wmiieii |»tinctiiro tlu'ir lijiH | Knphnilcs. The banks oi the rrcok are fringed 

with fohnfie. union^ wliich ,urc the wivhixit, 

apple, mulberry, apricot. It is called by tlie 

Arabs Al-Sura from Be-al-Sm-a, wgnlfyiug the 

llaBifrK both in the eant and nose. Bulh atony soil on wliicli it in built. Never having 

^hicT *nd winter they p> baref>x>ted. been the neat of sriverci^n |>ower, it in nut 

BSfciBJii mvn and women are very tawny ; ' adorned with tlmse strueturuA which dc<'onite 

the cities of the enst. The khalif Oniar, in tlie 
fitWnth year (A' the Ilijrah, wishing to coiubine 
the commerce o]* India. Pemio. and Arabia and 
necure that of Sind and Gixzerat, laid the foimd- 
ation of thin piuce near to the contUieuce of 
the Kuphrato-3 and Ti^ri«. The united HtreAm, 
called the Shittt-ul-Arab, eniptiej' itwlf at the 
distance of eighty mileft into the Persian g\i\i\ 
and counnnnds the navi^^tion of the surround- 
ing countriefi. ^th the couM of India. On tbo 
death of Mahomed, hia son-in-law .\H was not 
y thcrtisand ; but the northern di(ttric(8 recognize*! as hia successor, but Abu Bakr 
more jjopuloii*. Biudiah Is a name was so elected and after a reign of two 
loT tliemsrivfs, by tbo people of Oman, years was fnicccedcd by Omar who was a**- 
i» tlie while (ahiud) colour of their snssinatcd in the twelfth yenr of hid reign, 
n contradistinction to the ifTeen of Abdullah, son of the khalif Omar, in a. i>. 650 

dcfeate*! Yc/df?jiiti. Vezdejird waa tJien on 
bis return from Khorasan and for the ImI 
time put himself at the head of his subjects, 
and was defeated. He again was succeeded 

dye tiicni blue ; thiit kind of tattoniug 
rail iKfltnnm. Round their wrists they 
gU*s bnioclcts of various colours ; and 
both in the eant and nose. BuUi 
«T *nd winter they go baref>x>ted. 
mvn and women ore very tawny ; 
r children, however, at t>)eir birth and 
■mM lime ailerwanla, are txiir, but of 
rai whitensM. But WclUted, writing in 
jB, nentjofis that in their persons tlie 
lla Ar« tali And well-made, with a ronnd- 
I. nd fulnOM of fi>nii. The Ghafari are 
mfbltakt of till? tribes of Oman, and 
Yliflrabi, have at different periods 
y furnished an Imam. .Southern 
at thinly jjeopled^ for the whole num- 
ng women and children, does not 


iinitc», and ttbck of tlie Abasside«. 
hma th« tnpuz, the any x , and the 
or nkik. The agate is found near 
emenUds in tlie liejaZf bervls and 

near San^i and Aden, mnlnchite 

of Beni Salem, alsti j»s[>er, amc- 

|unise» in the enviiwns of the 

by Othman, and then, in A. a. 650, by Ali. 

With Ah's rule severe political convulsiona 

ensued. The enrliest arose from the intriguca 

A, about three days' journey from ' of Ayesha, and after giuh were settled, the 

Iiiamiind, the sardonyx, and the governor of Syria, Mnawiyah Ihn Ahi Sofhui, 

- * "•■Tt.jd from lliis country in former threw otf his allegiance to Ali and had hlm- 

-. silver, iron, leatl, and tM»pper 
iMj in different parts iif Arabia, and 
itly iaOmati. Gold is mentioned 
kdeni writers, hut at present is not 
i-xist in Arabia. Bitumen is obtaine<l 
Prtnta : and in Artibia Donerta, lig- 
eoal. The sea of Oman, called also 
gulf, Persian sea, and Krythrean 
the ftt-A of Fars, has several islands, the 
i-Lafet called also Jazir»h-i-Darftz or 
id. known on map4 a.f Ki^^hm. Also 
id. nn maj:« Karrack, a smull island 
not very far fmm Busheer, 
Id the Dutch, and was held 
b40 by the Britisli. — yiehuhri 
ro/,ii, p. 113 ; Kini^irs OeOf/raphiail 
yjK 10, n 4- 54: Wdlttr<ra 'fnwfh, 
'. 116, 240, .'107. 38iJ; BobinfoWf 2V«- 
L ii, p. 184 ; Col. CfifsneijR Euphrates, 
tlO; i^fHrrs TrtntU, To/. i,'^>. 458. See 
biA, Khodakcn, KcifieU { 


self prodaimefi khalif of tlie western pro- 
vinces. An appeal to arms resulted in the 
defeat of Ali. after a deiivdtnry war of 102 
days, ond Ali then n-tircd to Kutfa in Chaldco, 
on tlie banks of the Kuphrates. The people of 
Karund in the south of Persia believe Ali to bo 
a pixl, and they arc styled the Ali llluhi, Tho 
shiah sect of maliomedaoti connider that Ali 
(mght (o hav(* been the ttrst khalif. In Khorft- 
san, Ali Lsiisuidlv styled Shah-i-mardan " King of 
men." The Khajuli scot, and the entire I^imaili 
sects all worship Ali an an incarnate deity and 
the incarnation in li^HO was Aga JMahonied, 
a peniiioncr of the British Government at Bom- 
bay. — Fevi'ifrK Journet/^ p, ii 1 0. See Ali, 
Arabia, Istakhr, Kajar, Khinij, Zobcida. 

OMAKKOTK. This sti-onghold, or kote, of 
the Omiir tribe, was the capital of the So«la 
Uaj, which extemle«l, in the 17lh centurv, into 
the valley of tSind, and oast to the Luoni ; bnt.tho 
IJahtore of Marwar and the Talpur fiuuily te- 





the filovpreifmty of the Soda to a very con- I 
[noU spot, aud, tlirustoiii ol'Uiuarkdte (ilie hwt i 
of the uioe cutititM of Mar<x>) Uie descendmit ' 
of Sohris, who, rri>m Arorc> held dominions | 
extending from Cashmere to the otoan. Omar- i 
kotL' diirinp \he npulence of the Soda i>rim'es, 
ctintaiiiwl 5,()00 liotuM>jt, but in tJie be^nnning 
of the llith crnlury it hardly reckoned two 
hundred and fit\y houses, (*r raihor hut^. The 
old C34tle i« to the norlh-weat of the town. It 
ift built of brick, and the hastiooa siiid to be 
eij^hteen in nmnb<'r, are oi' stone. The foit of 
Omurkote is celebrated in the eust n» the birth- 
place of the emperor Akbnr. It is a pluoe of 
some strength and considored «o innwcssible, 
from thf* dcstcrt that snrrountU it, thut riie 
ameers of Sind idlotted it iw a place of acL-iirily 
to dofHX-^it H part of their trcasurefl. Tlie family 
of ( hnarkote in .Siridjs stated hyTtxltR-ijiusilian, 
i, y2, S>3) to bi_' I'ramar or IVmar, — TorCs Hn- 
joAthati^ Vol, ii, /I. 313; Puttinfftr'$ TiHiveU 
in Jifloochintun atu] Siiul^ pp, 41*1-2. 

OMAT-SCRl. About tlie middle of July 
tlie merranllle festival of Onmt-snri i» held. 
It U a procesaioii uf tra«led and an exhibition 
of their wnreii« aiuongHt which the wax-workers 
ore very prominent. 

OMBAY or AUor, in the Straits of Timor, is 
n high itinnd about 47 miles long, and covered 
with beautiful trees tu the summit of it« high- 
est mounfain. 

OMEN, HiXD. Amongflt the hindoos, thn^b- ^ 
l>in^ of the right eye, is an unlucky omen in a 
fenmlo — a lucky one in men. One very 
<flmmon mode of divination in Eastrni cmjuh- 
trie« is called the ilm-i-shooua or ** science of 
the fthouldcr-binde," and practised by cutting 
out the bladebono of a sheep newly kilted and 
einiuiniug the line.* and marks ufM>n it. This 
VTM common in Rritian in old times, and in 
JVotJaud in the 1 8th century. Pennant men- 
tions it in the Iritter country, where it was 
termed "reading tl»e spaul-bane," and gives an 
acc<mnt of a Hij^hlander in the Isle of Skye 
/brtelllng the event of the battle of Culloden 
by ila mciui*.~Hi'uL Theni., VoL ii,/>. 89. 

OMERZYE. «'c Khybcr. 

OMICilUVD. a Sikh unTchnnt, who wfw 
oouspicuoasiu the revolijtiim which was crowned 
by the l>attle of I'hi^'iev. 

OMMASTUEPHKS.a cenus of Cuttle-fishes, 
belonging lo the family Teuthid^e. The cuttlo- 
fislies of this genus closely resemble those 
belonging to l-o!igo. Bedsides otlu*r chnracten* 
they may gcnrriilly be distin^Miwlied by the 
short rhomboidal termination of the hiAy 
formed by the lias, combined with liie hinder 

OMMIAIK ^cf Khahf. 

OM-NAMO-NAR-VrANAYA, the principal 
mimum of UiB VoMlmavn hludou «ect. 

OMPHIS, accordinj< ti» ArriaOt 
ilcs, his father dying at the lime of 
invafiiun, Omphis did homa^ to Ale] 
invested him with the title and »i 
fath :r Taxiies. 

OMKA, Ab., Pints. Nobles: the 
amonf^t Indian luahoincdans as 
Umni, Shurf ul Utura. 

OMKAR, a river near Eiahadi 

OMULLY* a fish of the Baikal lal 
nuttlly ascends the Solingue rivej 
alW which they return lo the laki 
iLseont the nomade Monpils catch 
hers (»f tliem liir their winter proviH 
island, in lat. 28^ 40'. long, 4S° 
island on the west pide of the Persian 

OMl'M, aW) Womuni, Tim. 
ajuan? DC.^ Bishop'a weed. Omum 
the distilled water from Hishop^s 
It is a useful ntriiunative and larf;i 
Madras for children. At the Mat 
tion of 1855, Mr. Gay exhibittni sj 
omum water, crystaiized sugar of oi 
Madras B, J. H. 

OMUSSUNG, a river near On 
ONAGRACE-E, SCO Clarkia, Euci 
Fuchsia. Haloragaceie. I^ipezin, 

ONAM, a four days' festival at 
Nairs of Cochin, licld about tlic 
August, in which the Nair wom< 
street to street singing songs, and 
in athletic s|«irls. 

The ntiLslc-nit or mus-(piash, the Xaik_ 
ported from Ainericiv into India. 
ON DO, Malay. Dioscorca peoU] 
ONEA — ? see Columbid». 
dariiis. Linn. 

ONESIURITUS, a eomiwinion 
thenes, who gave tiic tirit account we k 
Ceylot) or Taprobune. He was aa o& 
Alexanders army, and died A. c. 328< 
^ ONESlCLa.U.S. 8w Ceylon. 

ONGDES, Angilrs or Ondos aijji 
The inhabitants cull tliemselves Il< 
apiK;ar to be the Houg-uiu of tb«J 
authors, the Hun (Ho^n) of Kiuupo 
— To*ffi JiajaMhii/u Vol , />. ]3tJ. 
ONGLAU, Thibbt. Cortinariu* 
ONGWA. Hi5D. Cassalpiuia septariai 




AUhim e#pa, ^ 

B»wkQg : B«nbMB 
Bai^^asalrB. 1 
Pifti, " 

























rion I* the BeUuUni of Nmubers, xi, 
icorumoii Tt»^»talile all over InHia, and 
rrto^icast, at aloiost all geasrtns of the 
flien ttbtjut six inches liifjh it is pricked 
fe«da six &n^Ti breadth apart; and 
Igo lo seed without tlifficultv. This 
Hirite pel vegetable of the natives ot* 
d is a t*oiwtant ingredient in all their 
wilaop, Aic, &c., &r. Witii fhc bnih- 
n-rer. and iheiiccUofhind'n«»;.'enenilIy 
tla iVoni animal IukI, the onion is not 
a fancy tluit ir« strurturo rpjjtetnbles 
()nion-jui<f U rcliurtantly taken 
>ed niefiicinallvt as a ^xtwcrftd 
t»y thi**} who would reject spirituous 
Willi the Chiueiw, every part of the 
It is rpckotitv] tii liave some s[»ecial 
"^•■'■Tty, tbo biilb is one of their 
* 4" diet ; it ia rich in nitrn;?e- 

j.„,:i,^-. — Faull-utT ; Hulflell : Ait^s~ 
B; Mrtvon ; StnUh. 
S, a ^amvi of the Coleoptera. 
JE. Sp. (>n\TE. 
Oni(.-e, Fb. Onyx. 
R, HixD^ of Kaabuiir, a bird, a 
ploten^ which »upplief» feathers for the 
ftmr tir VtiIl":. 

1 FOLIA, little shrubby 
in, ami of easy culture 

S 8PINOSA, l/iunelq, Syn. of Al- 
m, Tournf ; W, 4' -/(- 

, capiured 5lh Januaiy 1783, S. 

FM) I Kat katulla (Hazara, &c.) 

I Untui-fiook\ Vi*L i, ;», 503. 

i of Kflgban, lifted principally for its 
laattw atf a unlistitute for the alkanct, 
;iDrti>ria. It i^ pleatifid in Kan^n^, 
d to colour liquid.-*, |MirtiouIrtrlv' How- 
sift^ar oil. — PowfUn liaiuiJmok^ Vol. 

fiwpf, Vffj. Kxiujd.y p* 542, 
i!A F.MOlil. 

Alahu-rnni^A. Htvp, ; 

f-o«il»»f triplonervfd leaves, less hairy ! 
1 solitary rMcenuy, linear [ 
l« -" lonjr a.« the flowers; the* 

5-<x»rn<Ted witJi ovate scynienls a I 
&-levek^ corolla c^mtra^Ied Um-iirdii ' 
I, and llie anther- longiir than the 
Til* root ia hranclioil, of a dark- 
uur, and i^ it^ed in dyeing. It is a 
ttl. in G<o«iiinglIiaQ, where it is 
tire* Maharanga. grows pJenti- 
^07 O 

fidiv on the Himalaya ; namely, on tlie Hindtv 
l(ixwh — ne-ar the Punjab ri>ad, via Pcembur to 
Gwhmere. It is officinal in Ca^binere where 
its flower-stem and root, are l«*th of them 
deemed useful in medicine.— iiVw/. Cyc,; ffo- 
MlVA/^rr/rr, fi. 31fi. 

0. bmc^teatuui, lioyU. 
(ijio-KftbiD, Hnco. 1 Lisan-uJ-ttsur, Ar. 

Its rough leaver resemble a cow's timjrue, 
licnce the name, but the term Gao-zaban or 
cnw'rt tongiio 18 orten attributed to a upeciea of 
Cacaiia(C, kloinii) a coinjHwite plant. At the 
Lidinre Exhibition, the llnwers which accompa- 
nied two '4j)e{ime!w clearly helonjrcd to a plant 
of ibe natural order Ii«»raginace«. — PowtlCs 
I/anfl-hoi)l; Vol, i, /». 307. 

ONTUOPIIAUl, ftec O.leoptera. 

8yn. of Herpestes fulvescena, Ktl. 

Sterna fulipnosa ; * Sooty Tern' is very gener- 
ally di.-itributed in the Bay of Bengal. 

ONYCHO-TEUTIIIS, a g^nus of recent and 
fossil molluscs of the 8id>-fan»ily Oigopsid®. 
There are nlwut six ppecics* of this genua in 
the Atlimtic, tJie Indinn -jin<l Pacific Oceans. 
Their jxMiitiou may be tlnw shown: 

Skctiox B.— Decapodn. 
Familf III. Teulhid». CalaDiaries, or Squids. 
Siih-Fam'tlii A. Myo^isidGe. Ky^ covered by 
the skm. 
Genkua. Lolino. Calamnry. reC 21 pp. gyn. teuthifl. 
•Suf^rmnf, Teu'lujisie, ft>e«il, r» pp. 
GonatuA, mc. 1 epecies ; 0, aununa. 
Hepioteuthis, rec. I^ Dp. 
B^IotL'UthiH, foHitil, ft ep. 
Gi'.utiMittiU, fossil, 9 ap. S^'n. bolemnoeepii 
Ij»'{il<»t<;uthi9, fti««il. 
Crauchia, rec. '2 sp. 
Sepiola. rue. sp. 

•Suh-^emis, R«)SHia. rec. fi sp. 
Sn}>-Fiimily B. Oi^oiwidm. Eyes naked. 
Loligojisie, rec. ft .sp. 
Chpiroteuthis, rec. 2 s]). 
Ilittiotoutliiii, rec. 2 sp. 
Onychut<*utliis, Uneinfttod calamary. rec 

8p. fya. Anriptmteuthifl onychia. 
Enojilolcuthrs. Armed calamar>', rec. lO sp,* 
syn. Anciatrachirusand AbraUa, octopoUo^ 
ten this. J 

Oniniastrephea, Sngittated calamarj', reo^ 
14 Bp. See MoUusca. 

ONYX, ExG., Gee., Lvt. 



Stone of Solomon 
f)nix, onice, 
Suliiimru Pat'har, 


Ptt'rmatA unanl« Max,a vt 
Onique, Shj 

The ouxy stone is mentioned in Geu. w un^ 
II. but the term is said to have been appU^J 
aU* to a shell. This stone is a succoaaio^ 
of plate?* of chalcedony, it is found in groa| 
.ibiinilancc in the p-eat greenslrtne tract of ^^ 
Dekhan and at RajpipU in Guzerat and a\on| 
with ail the other chalceilonic and u^iartjiod 
minerals, is one or' the inferior gems, the sU^eioj 
particles are arranged in alteruatuift UMT\2.^i 



1TW3 ot opfl<iue whiti 
jrroy, or Iimwm, ami 

kee biittco, is the piwtile of the w>h*.i aio^ 

C>r>il buttec kackka, a incuiLLic rcoepin 


Oixl biutoe ka jhar, a tree formed of I 
min pastilcti. 

Oot\ (Ittit, n 1xix for holding Oic fnmlna 

OOIJA ClURtrrrA, Hind. Kxhciub 

OODAHARANA, Sans., tivaiof»t,»| 

and IranslucGiif blue, OOCllLTiS'lJTK Bb^g. Ageratum 
bpwiiise tln?Ho bave a : <J<)IJ, in India is the name appli* 
rcsonihbini'e to the marki* on tbo human nail, ' niin ; and in J*ei*:sia, to wuod (Uim;^. 
tlio stone waa callod i'roni ihc (rrook word t'nr ; Ood buit<?o, nre pastilM miule »>f w<»*d 
nail, oi'ct;'. It was known to ibe ancifnta, and wdikI, bonjanain: Lichen mtuB 
Wius employed by tbeui, a* it is now, tar tbo*e , tlie Patchouli, tulialed gyp3uin ; Talifl 
beautiful gcnw callfd rameos, the fijeiire being , (Flacourtia cutaphracta) gum mafttidl* ! 
cut out ol'tlic opaque white, the dark [tart foriu- cHndy and ^m, pounded fine and tbmM 
5ng the ground, or the contrary. It is most pastdlos. They are made in ererj liugB 
valuable, when the contnwt of i:oloura in stmng, ' and burnt for tlie fragrance they - ^ - ■-■^' 
and when tlic layer is thick enough to give a ! <A>d biittee, frankintretue n;>- 
hi;Hi-rclirf li» the obiect to bp eayraved. In 
the royal librarv nt I'arit* lfioi*e is au anti<]ue 
riinu'o cut out of an onvx witli tour layers, 
repnwnntinjj the apotheneis of Auj^usiiw, cloven 
inches by nine, which is suppo^icd to be the 
fiiiCMt in existence. Agiitea with an onyx struc- 
ture are not uncommon, particularly among 
**lOeei1onies. but the finest are obtained in 
Intlia. Cameos suld at R<>mo, are m ide from 

a thiek ahcll, havino; different eoloured layers j sition indicating that the action has an ^ 
like an on\Tt. The onyx atone is stained I direction, and aharana, a collecting. i 
black by being boiled in honey, oil or sugar- | OODANG, Malay. Prawn. 
tsd water and then in sulpliurie acid. For OODASI, Svss. Got. prop, and aa», to 
red, protnsulphate of iron is added : and far ' OODATAL GEDDA, Tau A4tiik 
blue, vell<»w prus»>iate of p»>tai*h ii* addod in the nata, Gm^l. 

prrjttHulphato of iron. The onyx ha» a peculiar ' OODBKfr, Beno. Areca catecha. 
and almtttt superstitious value in the east, and ' OODDESIIA, Sa58., from oot, pfwp 
is esi>ecially chtj^en fi)r amulets, ('hapletn of i dejtha, to seek, 

thii..MtDnB are mucli esteemed. Colonel T<hI , OODKS.a gcniwof thcCalliatidas ; tkf ■ 
had a vase. pnrcha'»ecl in ^cmdia's camp, evi- Ej^„jia ^nd Chehemus abound in the t^ 
duntly tifGreciaji workmanship. and the nuuier- 
eameos of the onyx Jound in the Punjab, 
kd other relics of Alexander's compiesls, at- 
test tlieir abundance at that time. In such 
numbers were these cameos found in 1^0.'J-4, 
wbeu L»ird Lake dictated peace to Ilolkar from 
tlic altars of Alexander, that the native artists 
of Muttra and Agra cai'ried on a succejwful imi- 
tation of them for some time, which encoiu*a^e- 
meiit mlj^bt have rai<«'d to celebrity. — Kn'J' 
Vifc. i hjuiwattnA ; Ttvff Ti^ftvrU^ p, 217. 

OOBALA CIIAWAL, nixn.. lit. boileil rice. 
is rice which hiu been boiled in the husk 
and then husked. All mahomedans and many 
hinrloois in Hriti-h India use Oobala chawal. 

tXJCALAGA. ThcWokulnr(>ocaIac:u,amonp 
the Canarese, are bindoo cultivators, whom tlie 
Abbe Dubois con-iidcred to be identical with 
the Tamil Vcllalar. Tliey eat flesh freely, 

id are not strict hindoos. Tliey arc iiuIiHcreut 

Idicrs but Bcrve hwally. One of their mib- 

ivisii>nA arc called Gangacara. — Vnut/thfU^ 

<XK'nKLL<X). T\M. Gni/otia oleifera. 
<M>rifiry\, Mr^.j. .Spik«-1 bitter gourd. 


KE. Tki.. Phylirtnthim 
rxUIOlSHUAV.V, Saxs. Kmrn oi>chchois, 
vrnatt atid Ahtoa, tu hear. Sec Kurma. 


the maculutofl set ap|>ear common to Aifl 
Africa, each country ]MtSF4es.sing spceici Ml 
exact representatives ot' each other, 
ue|jaleniU8 approaches in form 10 
Oodes is widely dispersed over India., 
occurs iu My*)rc. — /Jiti>e, M, L. J.,Jmim\ 
/>. llrt. 

(XJOEYPUR or Udepnr, in L. 24*» 3/ 1 
73° 4f)' K., in Rajwara, 70 jnile« W. of Nit 
accordinjjf 1o .Scott is 2,004 It. above tb' 
tlie level of the railway is l.:i:3*» feet, O 
pur is tlie capital of the principidi'v .>f M 
and its name is t>ftcn taken to 
entire territory. The area of Ml v.. 
s<jUAre miles and the populatiua l,10i 
souls. Tlie gross revenue is about Ks. 40,00 
of which about Rs. 12,00,iXK) arc cajeji 
the subordinate chiefs, subject to the jmi 
of eJiuttmrnd. Deducting this and tlie rvlj 
endowments, British tribute, &c., iIktb n 
to the state al>oul lU, 14,(H).00(). The S 
rana receives a salute of sc\ ■ 
Mewar is ruhnl by a Kajput })i 
subjects are of several nu'es. Ti < 
mier, is the military minister, wir' 
jrovernment of the fiela; th. 
ne^'cr of tliis raste. Local ci- 
varlous appellations to this otticer. At \ 
pour he is colled bhanjgarh ; at Jodpuer, 
han ; al JoijJoor (where they lutve 
O 208 



! at tlics ooiirl of LVllii) miHi: 

I. (cllbubr, ail"! iJfwari or n*m-til. 

KvouHr* » □ioAt'mi{uTt:mt |H*r8<)u:mis a** 

■ -• r .if lite KivtHifj (it* thi? snvercif>!i. In 

. italc ibc iKMirluml eU'cct of liritwh 

■II has Ihnm» vcrv ^rt-nt, in the Jimrc 

ncighUnurliorxi of British offiars. 

^ "^M lur;ir niid, from Ore hilly ttud 

I* ol' a conAidrrtiMi^ jtiirl of it, Uyi 

' t -^ fiiT (he inrtueucc of En^ilish 

;;,. vrry far t»r tiwt. The liiijput 

iv<-r llio Jihnoiniu chiefs who 

' jiarl of tho c^umtry was hurvly 

. n!,,lc in fuuuo ilUtrictjs tlic unthority 

*ii"»'- "VcrtUo Uht-eli* coiwtitutiii;/ often 

"f tlic [<t)[inl;itI'iM wn."* IrHssiill. 

•rder may he said lo have rt'Steil 

of a BliccI corii^, and to l>c r<»- 

M dtstrihulion. Where the lihil 

ur» wa« coQ^Umlly (»r often seen, there r.iida 

jj,Ir..lJ.,.riffl were ;m iiifrei|nent as in ihc nioHl 

1'. of Jndi:i, while in the hdly tructfi 

:i>r«»t, where liheel wjldiers seldom 

ihc nalivp si\-ngcs comjihicently I'ol- 

mvi ,Tii their ancestral nsajjM. witrh-«win^''intr 

ftrennlinj.'ly, perfeet order prrvniU, and en 
ttii- lihoels havi' tiikrn lo stcnd)' and jinLxewtlu 
ajri'if'ulture, rai:»ing fine urttpH of muizc, wheat 
hnrloy, pnun, sugar-eano, &o. I5ul at Kotrah 
where tlieiu are no roads worthy ttf the uaine, 
althon^'h a detachment of ilic liheel eoqwt will*" 
a liritish ofiioer is always staliDried there, the 
[leoplc nrc tuiieh mure tnimcuihlo antl niiieh 
iiard'-i' 111 eoiTce. In sneh ftn ijiaceeswibK' 
re^jiion tlie Dnrhar 'm more rohictant U> exer 
its aiitimrity in sup[i»tri. nf Ktt;!lifih itirtueneo 
lf>it it nii'iuld inip;)ir it4 prc-sti^^' Iiy ill gucccs:! 
The miiraU tlicrefore, of the hiter history of M 
war IS the &ame as tlial of the Cochar an 
Sylhet frontier — that roads are the true civtliK 
ci-^, since it is only f>y their aid that tlie lore 
can he pnuiplly exerted njMni whieli law ai 
orth'r r\jit. Tlie physical features of C'entnil 
India, incIudinL' >few:ir, Mahvah, liliopal^ 
Rinidelcund, and Shahabad, may be tJius 
epitomised. It extends by tlic Aravalli, Don- 
;iupo«tr, VimUiya, llindyacJinl, Panna an 
lion.lait ran^-3, 71^^ to 84*^, about 700 mil 
long; brea<lth very viirloua, greatest frnm An 
jherra to Ajmeer, ^50 milcji : from Mhow 



hm^ the ninnl>er. The Mewar lilieel corps j MokunduiTO, 150 miles; at San^'<»rand fJuinoh, 
] in 184 1, its eomnmndant and second 75 miles ; uftenvards very narrow. It vi hijrheal 
'I bavin;; ex-«jlIieio jifjlitical control, towards S. and W. ; avera;?e of Mewar, 2,0U0 ft, 
AnsUtant Political Agents in Malwah, 1,500 ft. to 2,(K»0 Ih IJhopal, S.UOOft, 
ely. Gradually, however, for Hnndeleund, about ],0(M> ft. Shnhahad, 7^0 ft. 
of the Hurbar, an«l to the prcat I Plain of Ajnierc. 2,00O ft. OwU-yporc towi 
cmntry, these olPicers had in | 24" y"' ; 73° 4!)' ; 2.0(J4 ft. It has a sloiKi 

to liicir p<^lirieal inthicncc, ac(|iured a 

criminal jurUdictioa in cases of dacoity, 

tfutlee, witcii-swinjpng, &c. Far fniin 

[>U5y bcin^jT cicitod in the Durbar by 

itii(h iuterfereuee, there has been the 

cordizility and the inortt loyal concur- 

aee on its part. All petty criiaiual oases arc 

' '\Mlion, while on the more sorious, 

r a liorder affray between two 

Is llie Durbar when solicited is 

. i^vc Us (i)=A\&iiince to the officers 

i ciTfc", eonsidoring shrewdly enough 

. ;ir. npplieation on the jiart of the 

■ tantamount to a recogni- 

.ly of the Durbar over the 

ijealousandoftcniivnubnrdinatcBhixmuah | 

Thi! greut obstacle to the more 

N. K.. the Banas river (lnwing in that direction z 
gradual fall alsi» to the valley of the Chumbu 
river, where it rises to Midwah ; Mhow, 2,010 iY,] 
Dectnun, 1,881 ft. Dliar, 1,008 ft. Indor 
1,<)0S ft. Crest of Jaum yhaut, 2,328 ft. Oojeii 
1,008 ft. Adjygurh, I ^U6 ft. Ainjherra, 1,890 % 
Saugor, 1,940 ft. RhoUwgnrh, 700 ft. Si.n 
river, at source. 1,000 ft. From the Viiidbv 
range, the surface baa a generally gradual, bu 
in some places abrupt descent ; as at Mokun- 
durra, and the Bindyachal bills, where t!ic 
riveraoccasionaUy fall over the brow in cascades 
Sbahabad district is very rocky and uneven 
Tin and copper are found in Oodeypur. In 
Bhopal the prevailinfj geological fonnatioa 
aj)iJears to be trap overlying sandstone. Mine- 
rals are few and uniin])i^rtant. Water is very 


•ion of lawlessness in tlic di^ I plentiftd. The nuneral resources of Bundcl 

: of rckads. Kvcn sn late as DjtJO 

It of the Oovemor-CJeneral in Kajpofn 

l*|»ortc<i that the only roinl traversing the 

untry which wa« at all {tasuible for carriages 

. ntu^'h one fn)m Oodeyi»ore tln-ongli 

1 lit Ahm<'dnl»nd ; and in this respect 

■ not very much better 

' of the Bhecl c*>rp9 

. rn. Frnm thence it has .toler- 

.^; ^ _! to all the surruundnig country 

Htm a certMitt caditu ami within ilmt circle, 

2i)y O 

ciuid ap|>ear to l»e considerable. — Treatits^^ 
ICu')fUffu\euts find t^irnnmh. Vol, iv, pp. lOj 
105-97; TotVs Rajaxtltau, VoL i, p. 1«0 ; Pi*u 
neer ; Ann. Ind. Atlin., Vot. xi, ;*//, 312,35^ 

CM^DGATA, Sans., from oot, prep, ajid goi| 
to sill;.'. 

(H")nGIR, or ITdgir, IS^ 2.r ; 77^ 8', in tin 
Dckhnu S. E. of Rajnri. The mean bei<rhto| 
the village ifi 2,221 feet.— C'lc/^ 

Ot)DIAIi,al*.l'dhal, Hind. Sterculia villosa.1 

(XJD-l-BALKSSAN, HiNU., U »up\Mi«idv^ U 




wood ot nu|jam<Miendrt>n knthl, a treo ot , OOJAR, n riv^r nvttr Kujouree id ! 
trabia^aanrticto ulcoiwiJeraUetralGii. Soe Vd. i UOJEIN.uImo ! jvirior Ihcnewcitv ■ 
OODl-SAUL'R. a lake ot"Haji>utnnnij. There cnlled aUo Avanii, lio:t^U o!" very lii^'ii 
f in renlity llin-e lakiv. une at tin? vill^ of quity, and is consitlcruJ Aji tlje fifHC iu< 
miJca ki-lmri, then the pLwhi»l;i or inner lake, by Hindoo jCen^raplicra and u^tronoinem, 
'bich is ?iJ ffot abovo the Oudi-wt^xir lake, tlic | Himter, in the sixth volume of the Asii 
ulel of whi«jh ia the Hairia river. The searches* ^•'Journey from Agra to 
WioIh is fed from the little lake at Suhailea ■ f^ives a despription of the modern city, 
i-bari and the Peifhola i.* the feeder of the | by repeated ob-icrvatiotM. he dctcrinined _ 

i-Kignr. Both the I*ei»ljola and Oodi- iu loij^. 25* 51' 11" N. TJie j»n •• • - 

arc from l!i to 14 miles in circumfer- , about a mile farther itouth. and 
ICO, and Fonie plarc^ 35 fed deep, and being in the eartlj to the depth of ittim :ir/yq 
I'rom the pc-renniitl streams of the Aravalli | eighteen feet. On digging itA watU, arc skid 
hey contain a uon^tant supply of water. It be lound entire pillarji unbrikon* Ac. 
rould he easy and unexf)0nj4ivc tn lead a channel | lion imputa^ itn destnictton to a fiHowvf 

roni the (Jotli-^afjur to Chettore aa the fail is i cartb» an idea likely to 1 
iffht and ftw Io^'Uh would Ik^ re*iuired. The | superficial ob!«?r\'ation, for a. 
tirU river ijvjuee fn>ni the Oodi-sap^r lake of i olwerved no traces of volcanic haU, t 
ijpulanah and passes within a mile of Chet- in the neiLrhbourhoiHi, and thinlts t 
»re. There are thu4 two ^raiid restrvnira within the wulU militates agiiiiwt the m. 
miles of eaeh oiher, tlie Peshola, or inter- i earth.pmke having elfe-'led the - . 
lakr, havm;; an elevation of eighty feel | the city, it ia still diffieult lo impute 
ive the external one, and the Oodi-«agur, other than a volcAuic caii«e. operating 
rhofw outlet ferms ilie Hairi^. The Pcshola ' Iwally. and with Ice violence and i 
lay be called the jwrent of the other, although , than usujilly attend such a ph"" 
It Is partly fe<^ by the minor lake at tlie villa may be remarked, iJiat the nei 
Suhailea-lti-bari. — TixPs Hajmiihan^ Vul. it, Oojein is particularly subject t.> t 


OODOMBOO, T\H. Oo4loomno, Ti:i.. Ijnmna. 

OOnf.XJGA MARAM of Wvnaad, Ba&sia 

Higifolia, Willif^. 

OODOOGOO, Tam. A larjie tree oi' Pal- 
lat, wo<k1 of a rod onlornr ; used for ploughs 
id building.— (?o^ Frifh. 

OODOO-JATI, Bbxo. Juslida dentata. 

OODOOMBUR, Bk>o. Wild fi 

OOD-S^VZ, Hl\d. a 
irn ood. 

OODUMB.'VRRA, Saks, Ficiw racomow. 

OODAYA, SAXft., lo arise, from ixit, prep 
td ava, to go 

•^, Ficus glo- 
censof in which to 

from the alluvion of the rivir Hipp.t 
which the city is situated : and the s. 
M)ft sinking nature. Whatever ma? : 
the real cause of the eutaiitrt'j>lio that htid 
metropolis, it cannot be sup]>n^ed th:it the 
fiincies of hindoo historians would Tuitfer the 
iu itself highly poetical and rt'inanuc, 
simply told ; they have dresus^d it up in • ml 
logical allegory, with the intervemioa 
gods. 'J'he following atory of the occi 
is accordingly related. Ou one ocouiai 
a«suni«d the form of a shephenrs boy, 
might tlie easier steal frt>nj a ganlcn 
pomegranate bloasom to deck the dark 
of his chanuing consort Indrani. The 

OODY NAR, Tam. Acacia !euconhl<ja. i ^^^^T'^^ ^'■^"^ 'j^'-'P^P'^'*^ "'/^^ 
^Rnmoa tree m Snitl.ern India. The i ^"^ ^ ***'''' "*^ ^ ^"* ^^ **>' ^*' ^'- -^^ 

from the bark arc used by tlie ftshornicn 
making neta: a course kind of cordage ii 
lioadc from it, 
T, Dut. Fruit. 

!AL, that which is apit out after chew- 
Ig betel-leaf. Oogal dan, a npittoon. 
OOGHAl. liiND. Oo^ha luaiam. Tax. 8u1- 
lora pereica. 
OOGOORASSA, SiNOH. Flacourtia eiapida, 
V3^.. If ^ A, 

' A.Saxs., from oogra^fear- 

I3i . -, wrtilhful. 

lAi-, a tivr in K:U'yw-ir. ri.«es in lat. 

injT. T^»* r»iv' f: h i" T rirnutoiw, but 

ogucs into 

. length 75 

'210 i 

a hymn, 

" Th« r^fkK'4's iteft?iint» who those fzlowlu^ 

Hopeful of rubiixl {ruit, huj foctor'd long. 

Soia'd, and with cordn^;*^ fltroag, 

Shftckl'd, thp gvMl who gave liim nhowcrsL 

titraight from t^ev^n wind;* inimortAl gcnU 

Vanma green, -whom Tonmy wiirea obay ; 

Bright Vahni, flaming liki* Ih" Umit nf dtti 

Euvera. nought by all, en 

Marut. who bids the viiii .. , 

Utero Ylmlt^ ruthless iudno I uoid Isa cold ; 

With Nairrit, miMly klil. 

Tli4y> with thu ru't'ly lliu«h that pointataia 

Rend hiif vain bau<l^ asunder. 

Til* exulting god resuino-* hi-* th,,iunnd ey«9k 

Four arms divine, 'iging djM.^ 

His *• robw oi' ' are the «*• 

ncsiont and varialdc cloudy with which h«(dl^ 
firmament perMmified) is clad aa witH a p0^ 
menl bespangled with a thousand rrm, m^ 
\ 210 

Kelaart, have also ^ven 
name sttbj<jct Irum which it is known that a 
ctiriotiA t'uct tniiy be tleJtioeiif vix., that ihc same 
bird's nest varie-s at tinw^ in different parts oC 
the country, when the great extent and varied 
physical, seasonal and climatic t'eatiu'efl ot'our 
Indian empire are taken into con<«ideration. 

What varied and touching instances of craft 
and devotion does not the inatvrnjil vropy* 
prompt tor the concealment ami pn-Jtorvation of 
the callow briMxi either from uiitural enemiea 
or iVoni unlbre.-'cei^ jn-ril*, and nowhere can we 
ItK>k lor mure ple^wing iii<«UitiCf4 o( neli'-denial 
than among binU engn>^ed in tending their 
egifs or y^'ung. TbJs has ever been a tUvourit* 
and adruired fliibjeot writh poexs and lovers of 
nature, who will nut fail to accept in a far wider 
itense, than originally attached lo ihem, the 
hnc* of Flaccvi» : 

" Non foTox 
Hoctor vel act*r Dotphobiis grnvofl 
Kxcepit ictns pro jtu'licis 
Conjiigibus puoriaquo primus." 

At nn time too, are more concliuiive proofn 

displayed by the brnic creatimi of intollectnal 

pur are the same as the fish-pro- 1 power, th:iu by birda engaged in the duties of 

.,:-.. ..inoiia shales 'd' Kola. The Kola i incubation. If rejwon bo defined in terms, their 

that reTrartietl the researches of Drs. actions in a greater or less degree will be found 

r and Bell, wcr« pronounced by Sir P. 

to be true (JoHtic forma, and probably 

« »ge of the Liaa ; between Nngptir and 

aA NEEI^MANEE. $aw8., from 

: i !-inr. nila, blue, and mani. a jewel. 

. i river ucar the Mirzapo«:ir canton- 

.A JAMOON, Dpt. Calyptranthefl 
)phvllifoIiiL, H'i7W., Su' 
tONt* BATTOU TOUTUNG, ace Rigas 

>K* Bkig. Saccharumoffichmrura. Lirm. 
►KTA, Sfcxs., »polcen, from vaeh, to Rpenk. 
►LA. HiXD. Saccharum cyUndricum. 
ILAK« the Baggage boat ot* Bengal. See 

rt*ASSA, a river near Bhowndy in norlh- 

lU, hurs of ateeU fabricated from the vui- 
(jncu tJie cruciblb. 

^LITE, in Ti'nlnry ft rocTi, al«oa geological 
! a question whether the 

kbejjrics s and laminated sand- 

ifte Upper Siindstone Una the u«fual 
hftn ' ' Ne lower laminated beds thp 

remaiiw, there i* a district 
Mau^Mii .IS the centre ^aixty mile--? S. of 
ir^ »wb*»re the superior Randstone i» less 
did the inferinr or laminated bed* 
fty iron of a deep briok-red. In 
It* the remains of reptiles, fishea 

to fulfil ilK-MU teraiB. Milton making Eve ad- 
dress the aerpent, suys : — 

'* What miy thU metm ? liingiinf:;e of man pn- 

nounceil f 
By toui^jiie of brute, an't /i'UHfTff^c/w^ expressed; 
The llvAt «t lB.**t of thosif I thoui^ht rhMiied 
To b4*a»ts, whom H^vl ou their creiiUou day. 
(^rontod iiiiUe to all nrticuh\lo ftound 
The latter I denuir, ior in thnir IooUp 
Much rfifuoff^ and in their wctions, oft appeaM." 

There arc thre*' ways wld>'h may be adapted 

for emptying an e;'g accoi-diaj to its size and 

raca predominate, while the few i the amount of incubation it haa received. All 

b!c« that are found, are generally very | eggs when fresh or only slightly incubated may 

t from ihoae occurring in other pans of i be blown after a manner, now to be de- 

terrilory. The -ikull of a Lab)Tia- scribed, but some care and careful handling are 

-.pfi Bradiy":'|« laticepei by Owen required to succeed with 8tich e^ga as of the 

' for It a Trixs^ic or even Carboni- | English wren or Indian p;dm-«iiril\. The ordi- 

i^. . mu the ploniifulne.4* of scales of [ nary mode is to make a hole at both ends, but 

id fi«hcA forbi'ls us lo atsi^rn a more alYer deciding on the proper spot which is best 

thou the .l(u**iA5ic ; iwui the con- an oval hole must be made in the aide varying 

with the size of the egg. and on holding the 
hole downwards the ccmtcnts are easily eva- 
cuated by blowin;jj into the egg through a line 
[pointed blow pipp, the lip of whii-h i? just ia- 
tr'xluttMl within the shell. The operation is 
neat and eH'eotuat but a violent blast miLst 
not be att.^mpted, liA in that ca^e the 3'olk, 
may cause a momentary ubt^truction and tlie 
dff^ explode trom the prc^aure of the confined 
] air wUli. Neither should the hole be made too 
.-. -lurini^ the years I large, as the air will then find too ready an 
s on this subject, exit and fail to expel the last |wrtion of the 
■ i of Find D^dnti content*. The empty shell should then be 
<lr liange. Layard immersed in water and ttUcd, Vj^ fex e!Oca,toAV;- 

-i; o 111 

oidahlc, not that the \agpore la- 

icr than the a,^e we have 

ii. in India, the Labyrin- 

- ootue down to a more recent 

'pr. Yht: vegetable remaiuj* 

1 lateralo, T/oniop- 

I-, Knnrria, l^'pido- 

irm, Entomo^traca 

ia verticillata. 




ing the air with the blow-pipe, this will effec- 
tually clean tlie interior, and the lost remains 
of moisture may be absorbed on blotting paper. 
The interior should then be washed with a 
solution of corrosive sublimate in spirits. A 
common six-penny hniss blow-pipe answers 
perfectly for this. When, however, the in- 
cubation has lasted a long time, a gixxl plan is 
to extract tlie contents, by means of a pin bent 
into a hook. This is a tedious operation which 
is merely mentioned in case of any rare egg 
requiring to be so treated. A third plan an- 
swers well for all cgga of a large or medium 
size, when well incubated, A moderately-sized 
liolc must be made in the cgga and the 
more liquid portion of the contents got rid 
of. They should then be wiped clean and 
placed in a shallow pan, when in a few days 
the maggots of the ftesh-fly will consume the 
contents. They will then only re<|uire to be 
w^iushed. The best mode of packing moderato- 
nizcd eggs in store is in wooden boxes with saw 
da-^t, after clot*ing the holes in the shells witli 
their jMiper. Tin Imxes are not gencrnlly to be 
trusted, at least when travelling, as with such 

Buteo canescens, Hodyson^ HU. March 
4th. 2-3. O. P. 2-00— 1-06; 219-1 
Greenish white, or white, blotched with 
claret brown, vary greatly. Nest largi 
trees, sticks lined with cotton, rags, &c., 
daubed witli mud. 

Lanius lahtora, Lahtor (generic). Bl 
4th, April 4th. 5. O. P. I'OO— 0*80. 
greenish white, blotched and ringed 
yellowish gray and neutral markings, 
much in intensity and colour. Nest oft 
lined with cotton or wool and usually plac 
stitf thorny bushes. 

Lanius erythronotus. May lat, 4th. 
B. O. P. 0-88— 0-81 ; 0*J3— 0-68. \ 
or pale greenish white sUghtly ringed 
spotted with yellowish gray and neutral, 
oi* roots, coarse gi'ass, rags, cotton, Ac, 
with fine grass and placed in forks of tree 

I^anius hardwickii, May Ist, 4th, June 
3-4. O. P.=:li. O. P. 0-80— 0-(;4 ; 0-87-J 
0*73 — 0*55. Colour same as L. eryihroi 
also creamy or yuIIowi»h white, sfwttcd 
darker. Nt-'st compact in forks of I 
trees ; otit^side fibmus stalks, Ixunid wit! 

tender charges ct>miiiittcd to their care a littk* or spider web and covered with lichei 

smash goes a great way, as he has ruefully 
learned from experience. Small eggs travel 
well-itacked in some soil nests as tluwe of 
*' Lanius'* with a little w^(k>1 and placed hi 
Avo<xlen boxes. Small tin boxes fitted into trays 
in a wooden Ih>x are also very handy, but arc 
not i-eadily got wull-mado in India. The fol- 
lowing are tlic commoner forms in the abbre- 
viations used : 

cocotms imitating a weatlu-red structure; 
lined with fine grass and vegetiible down. 

Corvuscorax, Dom kak, Doda, January, 
ruary. 4. O. P. 1-70— 1-30. Dirty sapj 
blotched with blackish brown ; also pale 
siKttti'd with greenish brown and neutral. 
offiticks, diflicult to get at, placed in well s 
od trees or boles in cliffs. 

Corviis spleudeus, Ktiwa. June 4th. 
P. 1-42— 1 -O.') ; ] •4i I— 0-l» '> ; 1 'ot>— 
1*70 — 0*!)7. Clear bluish greiMi, s|Mitted 
blackish brown, size and colour variable. 

0. oval, O. r. ovjito p\Tifonn, 
U. (). !)lunt ovftU B. O. P blunt ditto ditt- 
r. O. iwinted ditto, L. O. P. li.iigdittoditlo 

L. O. lonK ditto, H <). I*, rouixl ditto, , , , . , 

R. (). round ditto, K. round witli nouie mi- ; a neat but slight cup ot twigs and roiits«] 

P. pyriforia, nur comliinatioiis. | in medinni-sized tree". Columba inten 

Gyps benLiilensis, (iid Girij. M:irol» 1st, 2nd. I Kabulcr. March, April, May, June, July. 

1. O. P. 3-3«— 2(i2. Dull white. Nest ! O.^B. O- 1-03— 1-04 ; 1-43— M7. 
of sticks and twigs ; in large trees. | white. Nest none, or only a. lew twigs in 

Neophron )»ercn(»plenw, Safcd diHla. March 
3rd. 2. L. O. 2r>3— 1!)0 ; 2-7r»— 1h4. l*ale 
1»rownish red, thickly blot<h<'d with dark 
brownish red. Nest, a few twin's jtlaccd in 
holes of cliffs and diliimlt to approa<'h. 

Ilaliajtus g;»lliciLs? llurra ludi. March 2nd, 
4lh, April 2nd. 1. B. 0.=L. P.. O. 2-7<S— 
2-13; 2-67 — 2-30 ; 3-1 !S— 2-30. JNirc wliile, 
with wnnetimes a few sjtots of brjmn. Nest | Pure wliite. 
of sticks in large trees. j and biwle'. 

Circactus gallicu*, Cho^a ludi. March 2nd. Turtur huniilifl, April, May, June, A 
l.O. 2-41)— I'iX.'. White with a few minute ' 2. 1». ().=U. O. 0-ii3— 0-74 ; 1-02- 
lirown specks. Nest of twigs and sticks in I Pure white. Nest, a few twigs in low buis 

Iwpgc trees. I i»'^*'''*' 

|]^1uiq]S tccsa, Tnnnti. AjiHl 2nd. 4. <). I l*avn cristatns, Mohr nianjur, June, 
p, i-eo — 1*5<»; M>3— !•.'>(». Pure *>. P.=n. o. P. Clear brownish cnam c 
nlnmbecMis while. Nc^t small, ol'i Nrst, a more bole in the ground in dJ 
. near rtiliivatiou. t stony places in the hills. 

212 O '212 

in wall'', buildings, elilfs, »S:c. 

Turtur risurin.-*, Pandnk. April 3rd, 
1st, September 1st. 2. l'.0.=ll.<). 1-21- 
Purc white. Nest, a few twigs in low 
and bushes. 

Turtur sonogalensis, (Jhughu (gci 
March, April, May, June, August, Scpte 
2. P. <).=r.. O. Ml— 1>!#2 ; l-2t.>- 
Ncst, a few twigs in Km 


ppnit'crriana, Jim. April Ul, ^fay, 

kr. 9. l*.=U. P, 1'29— l*o;S. Clear 

Cii^ur. A Utile ^rruas in a Iiole in tlic 

lly ft1iclt«red hy a biuh : or in 

AaiiiiOfAidix Iwiiliarm, Susi. April, Ma^, 

12. ?.=0. i\ l'4tJ— 1-00. Clciir 

'ir. A aligUt hoUuw among »tuncs 

lakor, ChtiUr. April. May. 12. 

I'. YflK»widh white or bruwnidii 

culour, tiuutly ringcU anil si»tictJ >vif)i 

A lew leaved on givuud uiKler 

X sykcsii ? Uailer (Taigoor,) Aixg^t 

5. R. P. Pale gray clcecly frt'cklcil with 

■hrc, with a tew doteofneii- 

vviih deep reddinh bruwai vr 

aiul- f. Nwt, u Utile j/raas lionip 

intl u fi;w hairs on ground in field ul* 

ni- fnppiatus, T*>ta (generic.) May, 

1-25 — I-O-'j. Pure white. 

Ktid in hok'»» in wall, trees and 

hauhi ID cumiJAiiy wilh culuuihu inUr- 

fitwmi* c»rulijccphala, March 3rd. 4. 5. 

r Ma_0-1>5; I'lT— 0-y3. Pure white. 

holaH in iTLea. 

■ iA Icucolis, iJulhul (j^t'nwiu.) Mny, 

. 4.0. P. Oill— Ot>4. White 

••I with clarol rod. Nc.-*t, ii nciil cup 

lit- tihrcfl ill baihes. 


!ft. o. 

notxw iKin^Iirriiiif*, May, Juno, July, 
p. i>*57 — tj-{\'J. Dii'i'i pink, bintchrd 
irvt red. Nc«t Himilar to No. :i3. 
res trUtis, Afaitta, Juno. .5. <>. P. 
■•o. I'nle blnidi jj^rf^rn. N(.*sts, ront.i 
rubbuh, in trued or })ulL*ji in huiLsc 

tlicrc9 gingiunn!!!, Gang-mainn. M.iy 

8. O. P. P(I8— 0-81. Clear ^'rc'C'nir«li 

a hold in the «und nt the end uf 

into a iteqi buiik^ niuny iwiia in 

Cyp-clutf affinis ; AInibil (gr-norir.) April, i 
w, Jun«. Anjrn-t, S^JteiulKT. *>. P. O'ito 

pMrr «?ii!»', N.'<i, light slTiiw and 

■ lfi'r;Uierj^ oriiouseM 

I jnitt.**! ttii^'otlu-r. si/f 

, si^iiL' have i<iri;> nwk-*, othcrji are 

> without any. Sef*ind ncsta are Ic-w 

idt. 'J'he ia-^idc i:t not lined and 

. .,:irae card bixirl. 

rli» sinensis Febrmiry Sn]. 4. O. P. 
•iH. PuTK whittf. Newt of gra.'w lined 
Urn plairol at the end of a galkry in 

indtvu May 2nd. 4. 0. P. M7 
■U'75. Piii-c white with a few 
Nc9t a ntat cup ^f wuveu gra^, ] 

B2B O 


attached hy llic side to a bough of some fruit 

Dicrurus macrocerctis, Japul Kalchil, Mny, 
June. 4. O. P. 1-08— 0*7:3. Dirty reddish 
while spotted with red ; coloura vary, in w»tne 
thesuwU seem to have run, aa ink rlo*s* on damp 
paper. Neat a neat shallow cup of rootH and 
stalks in ba<ihcs. 

PiLscter doincalic;i8,Churci5, February, March, 
April, May, June, July. 6-0. O. P. O'^S — 
U-(>5 ; 0-S2— 0-01. White si^tte*! and bhttehed 
with hi'owriish black or browui.-<h «lilte bloich«?d 
with deep brown, colour varies much. Neat a 
loose structure of grniffi and feathers, in trees 
or houses. 

Malacocercus cautlatiw, Sor. March, April, 
May. June, Augiwt. 4-5. O. P. L. O. P. 0*84 
— 0-GG ; 1-04— 0-60 ; U-75— 0-o5. Clear 
greenish blue, Nwi a loa^c but deep cup i>f 
grass and twig? ia bushes in jungle or garden. 
The first size is common, tlie tiecond and ilurd 
nieu.^urcmentB were from egg^ of one nest. 

Uxylophus nielanolcucuH. (Identified by 
Mr. Hlyth) Augiwt. !. R. O. 0-Kl— 0*SI. 
Deep greenish blue. This eviileutly ]>aruditi- 
cal egg wua taken from the nest of Malacocer^ 
ens caudatus containing four ordniary eggs 
wliich it closely resembles in colour, tliough iia 
forui indicates it^ panwitical character. 

Gnlcrida criatata, Cluindnl. March 4th, 
May 3nl. 4. O. P. O'SS— O-tJO ; 0-82— U-R4. 
Yellowish white nniformly freckled, witli 
^n-nyisii yclluw and neutral. Nest, a little ]^:l^ 
in a liole in the ground. 

Thanniolia canibamfli^, Jimma (generic.) 
April 2n(l. 4. P. O. P. 0*7!' — U-UO. Greenish 
wliite ringwl and (*[»otttMl wilh pale re<hlL-*h ami 
a little neutral. Nest, loose grass and bits of 
snake's skin in holes in the aides of nuUas. 

Ncctarinia Jisiatiea, May 4th. O. 1\ 0*06 — . 
0-47. Graj^-i:?!! white, lieckled .and ringc 
with cineritioiis gray. Nest,, a neat purse o 
vegoUibre fibre and down suspended fr«nn' 
some small bough anil mii.rtked in from by a lV;Mr 
di-atl leaves loo:*i*ly atI;ii.lK-.l by silk tlireads. 

MunianuiUtbnriea, May, August, Srpteml>«-r 
October, DcL-crnher. I2'I8=(:i5) (), p. i>- 
— O'-Itj ; U-a4— 0-44 ; ()•*;(>— O'oO. ' |»ci 
white. Two pairs of binls frequently if »i<j»t 
usually are employed in the constructioii of 
one nedt in whieli the two hens cousecuti-vol y 
lay — so the s:unc ne^t hiw sometimes ii5 o^^, 
in it in dilfercnt stages of incubation — ii 
ofteu clumsy and hastily made — but usually 
neat domed structure of line ^a^ with ohq 
oj)ening, s<jmetimcs prolonged into a sh«^rt do- 
llected ticrk partially close*! by the clastieity ^^f 
the Ktng spikes oi' gra.s8 forming it ; .'"""ftiim^ii 
tiie nest is a simple platform of gniss, opc»u ^^ 
each end, Imt the grass ends rurvo'l ovot 
meet at the top, usually \A\y.^i*\ "^ ^-^vo- 








otten very couapicuomly aud close to 
It is mucli to be doubted it' ibe eggs 
found occasionally in October and December 
aie h.itclted. 

Podiceps philippeiisis, I'andubi. August. 
September. 5. T. O. L. P. O. 1-50— 104; 
1*42 — 1*00. Pure wbite ; when recently laid, 
green : is soon soiled brown iu tiie nest. Nest^ 
a few weeda heaped on the rank vegetation of 
jheela, but floating and tuuaUy several nests 

Gallinula chloropus, Au^rust 4th. O. P. 1-62 
— 1-15. FinkiiiU cream or gray spotted and 
slightly ringed with deep red-brown. 

Sareiophorus bilobus. Jithiri. May 2nd. 3. 
?.=(:). P. 1-63— M9. Ne^t «•* Podiceps 
philippensis eggs also atained by nest ; creamy 
yellow or stone colour, il»ickly spotted and 
blotched with blackish brown. 

Ardeola teucoptera. Kj;;1» (generic.) June 
4th. 6. fi. P.O. 1*64— MB. Pale green. 
Nest of loose sticks in trees. 

Kashmir Notts. 

Tinunculus alaudanus, Shikra. April 3rd. 
6. B. O. P. l-tt8— 1-:;3; l-ol — IlV. Pale 
reddish brown, freckled and blok-Ued with 
brownish red. Nest, bolo in ^arai wall o( 
'i*hanna, S. of Baranegala^SUahabad and valley 

Milvus? Hnteo, April 4th. 2. O. P.21f)— 
1-80; 2-40 — 1*77. Nest and eggs as in plains 
(Buteo caneaoen.s ante.) 

Corvus, smalt black hill crow. April 3rd. 
4. O. P. 1-70— 1-20; 1-UO— l-2r». Grocn 
spotted with brown, valley generally. Nest 
placed in '* Chinur* aud dilhuult tret's. 

Oirxnis monedula^ M^y 1st- 4. 5. 'i. O. P. 
L.O.P. l-2t>-0fl9; 1-45— lO'i; 100—100. 
Pale clear bluish green ; dotted and spotted 
with brownUh black. VuUey generally; in 
boles of rockx, beneath rooti*, and in tall trees. | 

Slurnus vulguris, Jil^iri. May 2nd, 3rd. 
O. P. 1*15 — 0*85. pale dear bluish green, i 
Valley generally ; in hole^ of hrid^'p^, tall trees, I 
&c., in company with Corviw nt'^iiediila. i 

Acridotheres tri«ti^, April 3rd. Nentand eggs 
plains, l^iiuiri and lower hilU genifraJly. 
kbit chuknr. May 3rd. Nusmauu on^the i 
-ba^r.i ; i'k"--^ a« ante. ' 

rcaonoi' V April 4th at Bliimba. 

May 2nd at ■ ■ i. Svil and e^jk's '^ ni 

plainii ante N.». Si* I 

liirutulo ru!itica, May 2nd. 4. h. O. p. 
0*83 — 0*53. Pave whii..-, ii.«.Ut'd wiih bright 
rtddUb bf«>wn ; VuH'-V i-On..r i!Iv. Ne«t Under I 


together. A depression in soft farth beot 
a rook near B'aragori, valley generallj. 

Anas bosohas. May Ist. L. O. P. 8^ 
1'55. Dirty white with a tinge of rctlai 
green near Snpeia, vaJley of Caahmir. 

Podioe[x9 cr [status ? May 2nd. 5. 0. 
2*53 — 1*51, Pure white : when recently 
pale green. \Vata lake. Nest, a heap aim 
floating on the surface of the water, bat i 
nected to reed», &c. I 

Podicepa philippenais, May 2rui. 5. 1 
1*40—1*00. Pure white. Wala Uk«, Ki 
Podiceps cristatus. i 

Fulica atra, May 2nd. 8. L. O. P. J-] 
l'4iX Pale brownish gray, dotted with ni 
black. Wala lake. Nest, pieces of dried ( 
abont 6 inches long, piled together amon| 
and floating on the water. 

Gallinula chlnropus, May 2nd. O. P. 
—1-26; 1-57— Ml. P:ile gray or td 
gray dotted and spotted with deep rtl 
brown. Nu^L, a few weeds heajwd on lb* 
among reeds. 

Centn>pus rufipenni*. Monghj 
August. 4.0. 1-30— 1-09; l'i7— 1' 
while : nest placed in dense tree*, a ne^ 
loose structure of twigR domed, and with 
ture m the side lined with dried levc*. 

Cy|i«eliis alfini.s, Mongliyr, May, Jow 

0. P. 0'D0~0*5(i. Piirewhitr-; r'^" 
in a former paper. Mr. Layard, ■ 
cribesitaA building a mud nest in Ccymn 
annals for 1H53. ago 311). 

Milviw ftter, ('al<*utta, OcUibpr 4th. 3, 
2"2l — 1*08. (irecnish-white. spotted andb 
ed.with pale reddish bri^wn ; neel o^l 
bulky, plitced in UiU trees. , 

Gyps bengalensis, near Dci^rhur. Not< 
4th.' I. O. P. 3 20—2-52. Pure what*. 
ofstick.s, u^untly small fnr thesizeoftfad 
and pliK'ed at the tnp of cotton t7V«»orfl 
very dillicult \o ascend. 

Buccros cavalus, Tenaaserim, F'-^r's»-» 

1, O. P. 2-(;5i— 1-2*8. Pure » 
measurement iif an e^'g, indt-htod :•• ■ ni» 
kell, who wa» fortunate enough to rutwir 
female on the ne«i. In botes of tf. 

the female U built in with mud 

as observed by t'apt. Tickell (p. -^J, 

Bupcro* subrufioolJis, Tcnaasorim, F*li 
3rtl. 3.1). P. 2 20— liVi. Piir- • 
ol incubation said to he similar i > 

Hakyoi) «ntvriir-ii<U, Mcr;;m, Munh 
.5. H. ()'. 1-20-1II3. Pure whiu-. 
1 \ fcri iu a ^tiff biink. near a n»ad. 

Hiilcyoii gurial, Mqnghyr, June 4l 

rpil with mud. I HK* — 1-02. Pure white,. Gallerjr 


I ly 3ra. 4. O. P. 0-y5— 

^ *vly 'iuttcdand ringed witli 

and grjyiih neutral mingled ttom 

214 O 

McTOfjs ervthrrxiephalus Mergui, Msrd 

5. tS. P. t). 0-84— 0-70. Pure whxtr. 

I to 7 feet in lengtJi. ta suft aao(i| 

It ent- iind 

ilea run- ^Hy. 

\y9 wri^ntalis, Monghyr, June Srd. 

'20—0-90. Pale diriy green much 
ill rpiHu*h brfiwn. }I:t(l luii one c^g 
id ihe man reported ti>»r crow's egg» 

mfipennis. Monghyr, *' MahoVa," 

" J\m<.% AuguK!, 4. O. 1-30— 

'• — I'il. I'urft whiTu : nest |i!arod 

«, aneatltut Itxisc strucUiii-ut'twigtt 

with Aperture in the side : 1in<id 

bnbiaienai«^ Monjjhyr, June 3rcl, 

y. H. L. P. 0-80— U'45. I*ure 

I of vegetable dowu, with a few 

|Iutinat«<l with muciu to the frond 

"olminntns, TenfWFfrim, Fob. Srd. 

ur. xVarch 4th. O. P. 1-6(5— 1-15. 

rwn, inncli blotched with brown, 

Ur pla'^ed in tall trees. 

rn-5* tritsttH. Mon^liyr, June Ist. 

r 3rd (i'nd brood.J 5. O. P. 1-20— 
^^feen. Nest in trer^ or boles in 
^Hnnd rubbish. 

contra, Monghyr. May -"^rd, June 

April 1st. o. o. P. 'j-10— o-e^^. 

^rven. Seat of gnws and twigs in 

at a small ' of " Snags" projecting some 4 feet above the 


Hirundo sineiiitis ; Salween R., January 2nd. 
4. O. P. 0-ti2— 0-4rt. J*ure white. Neat of 
gmiw and lined with feathers. 

Pycnonotiw bsernnrrbous ; Monghvr, June 
4th. 3. O. P. 0-90— 0-6S. Nest 'and egp) 
like P. bengalenffls, previoiwly described ; eggs 
not no quite so highly coloured. 

Neotnrinia flammnxillaris ; Tavoy. February 
1st. 2. O. P. o-.5*J— 0-43. Pale greenish, 
spprkled with gmyish ash. Xest. a nent purse, 
in a lime tree (Citrus), like N. asiatica. 

Macrophvgia leptogrammica ; Darjilinp, 
July 2nd. 6._(1?) |.4l>— 0-f»8. Dirty white ; 
nest, a few Htick.*. 

Franoolinus ?inensi.4 ; vnr. Phayrei ; Burmnh, 
June 4ih (Miatoh). 4. R. P. 1'40— M5, 
Uniform greeniwh cream ; on the ground. 

Tuniix ocellntus, Mnnghvr, June Ist. 4. 
R. P. O-^H— f»'74. YelWish gray, closely 
freckled with dark yellowisth gray, blotch^ 
with deep reddish umber with a few dots of 
neutral : on prouud. 

Glareola lactea, Tenassterim, ^larch 3rd. 

B. P. (8?) 1-01— 0-Sl. r>u5ky bufl; ringed 

and spotted with obsctire neutral and irregu- 

j larly linetl with yellowish brown. On chura 

and river sand-banks, 

j (Kdjcnenius crepitans. Dpoghur, April Ist. 
rcuff bengalensis, Monghyr, June 2. O. P. 1-SO — 1"35. Pale stone-colour or yel- 
l-gobria." "Gogoi." 6. B. O.- ]*. ' lowish crt»am. blotched with deep red browTi. 
Deep bluish groeu. Nest of twigs | ()u gruund in Sid jungle. 

Hoploprerusven!rali3,Tenas5ierTn, March 3rd. 

I liU-iihe*. 

reus caudatus. Monghyr, June, 
P. Nest and eggs previously 


Hmcea. Darjilinp, July 2nd. 
. O'ft — O'on. Deep dull olarct red, 
;er band at broad end. Nest, a deep 
: of bamboo l^.•ave:^, inside tinevege- 
1, Uned with featliers. 
kos longicAuda, Darjiling, August 
, May 1st. 4. O. P. (.)iil— 0-4o. 
irhit(% dotted with pale reddish. 
It cop of fibre and vegetable down 
a single leaf, which is secured by 
fibre : so as to envelop \tA cntrtinoe 
I and beneath the Stalk, the leaf 
in admirable pentroof to the nest. 
bin cambaiensis, Monghyr, April 
8nl. 3. 4. O. P. 0-64, Greenish 
ped and spotted with pale reddish, 
Ipyls of neutral. Nest rude jn boles, 
d banks, of grass and nearly always 

I domicota, Teuasaerim, April 2nd. 
I 3.77 — 0-52. White, spotted and 
I mnber. Nest asaucer of mud, inner 
I iDota, profusely lined with feathers, 
ble down, attached to the under part 
215 O 

3. P. rOO^l-17. Yelluwisii stone-colour or 
creamy nankeen, regularly sf>otied with deep 
red brown and sparingly blotched with ueutral. 
On sandbanks in tlie river. 

Metopodius indicus, Monghyr, -\ugtist. L. 
O. P. V50— 0-97. Clear" brownish ochre, 
strongly lined and streaked with black. Nest 
of weeds in jheels. 

Hydrophttiunnus cbirurgus, Monghyr, August 
2nd. 4. P. 1-33— 1-10. Clear brownish or 
greenish bronze : nest, weefls in jheels. 

Oiconia leucocephala, Deoghur, June 4th. 
3, P.O. 2-50— 1-yO. Dull white: nest of sticks 
placed in tall trc&s usually ** aimul," most dilH- 
cult to a^end. 

Herodias intermedia, Monghvr, July Ist, 2nd- 
6. O. P. I'Tft— 1-26 ; 1-94— 1'30. Dull green. 
Nest small, of sticks ; in company with " Mai- 
nas" and Herodias bubulcus and H, garzetia. 

Herodias garzetta, Monghyr, July Ist. C. 
O. P. 1-45^1I4 ; l-5tt— 111. Dull green. as H. intermedia. 

Herodias bubulcus, Monghyr, June Ist, 

6. 8. P. O 1-80— 1-30. Very pale green or 
greenish white. Nest, as H. intermedia. 

Porzana ph:enicuni, Monghyr, August 1st. 

7. L. 0. P. P70— 110. Dark bTovTva!diix«i^aa, 


^o^l of unwU 'lit jliL'cI*. 

G:illimil;i liurnc^'iii, Sull Kango, An;j;UH| 4\\\. 
run — ]*15. ViiikUb mam or jrrny, Bjnttii^ 
Am] riiigM wiUi i3cvi»itU Uvwn. Neat ol" wt'cUa 
in jht'ilA. 

Dcnclrorv^Tia aw^urco, M«iu;;li)'r, Au;.mj<l 1st. ' OniMuli nr L'mnuiti, n nniuo M 
8. O. P. i-Sl — I'oO. Creamy white, ncsl of Aiiiravatj. The ()<>mniwa(tc o( llel 

Willi a ;;r;in(! Intiit. IchJ by the prii 
vjujAJiil I'hK'tJs wlieii ihcy ch;uc, niiiy 
boar.— 7*>i/. See Uu:»:itit. 

OOMKAnTl, a uaiuc ^Mvcu to» 
in tlie ]Kiiih?ulu of ImliAibiiuIly, 

NcttnpiLS ruromnnilelinniM, Mnniihyr, August 
O. 1'47 — l*l(». Pure wliile, shell very thin 
The nomenc lature u*e«l alwve is ilorivod ln>m the ci\^Q ot* the ile^Tt near iJie 

the hir^;est eott«>n iiiiirta, another Od 

Masxilipatam i^ iaiiied tur iu hutKUuJ 

CK)MK-K()T, a tnrrrc*» in a, hu 


was tliu retreat of the cni[teror IIi 

the hirlh-placc of Akhiir, See Om 

OoML'U. a river near Nureiiigp 

IH)ML*K (irOnmra anj .S«wmni, 

Sin<lli from tlie IVamar or I'uiir r 

lwx>t,H, anil found n«iw ehiefly ha i 

thou^'h a few M\ ealknl Oijuira and 

tu be tiiiuid in Ji-jwiilmor and if\ ilio 

OOMUS, Sixuii. Viiia viuiiSi 

(KJMUTWAliA, in a hilly and ji 
rompri!>iiig^ OomutAvarrj, ScnjJi;^ a, 
wari-a, with a «caniv iH»puUtion. 

OOMY TAKtltl MAItAM, Tam. 
of ibc teak or Tt-ctona ^'randid. 

OONA^IAKOO u!sn L'nali,Si3tair. 

CX>XA1;A MAI:A, Can. Tamari 

OONDAII, a town in the Uurdw 
of lien^al 

tiejtermuni jiiimcilen*. 

OONOKV OIL. It.^ flourec ia wM 
Madras, but iiup{H)scd to be a tl«h ot 
Lured at Malabar. The name in Bom 
over, apjilied toan oil obtained from th 
Ca]o|)hyIhnu inojihyiluin, ht lini>ort 
Somali eoaat, and m^d ai* n stimulauC 
and internally. — iSunmomW DUt. 
OONOIE, Maur. talnpiiyllura, 
OONG-LAGXIYU, Ijii*n, Crtwj 
laicim, (rroif, 

OOSM\i\U, a river neiir Gwalior, 
OONN, Gpz., II1.NU. W«iol. 
(JOXNAY, Tam. A wcKxI of Tini 
a red colour ; spoeific^rravily 0'92d. 
wtjod used for wheelwriyUt*s worki 1 
—VoL /ViM. 
CKJXS, Opz. S*igar. 
OONT, IIi^Ti. Cajucl. Oonukft-b* 
hair. Oool :ihah, a mohurrum fai)ti 
tKJNTA DllUOia. a jmish in J.m 
OOXL'M, HLsnr Abied wrM.iai* 
OOPVDIKKK, or OoiK)daki, S^ju 
cordi folia. 

OOPAXA, SAifs. Asnrabttora, 
OOrA, Saas. Ab<:»ve, imjxjrtiiig' m 
Were [ hence. 
'• pro- j Oojtachara cliaU, Cnuu nof*m charv 
or apriug peraoiuiiLd, is ' aad chala, a prctuucc. 

the vnlnable e^italn^o of birds in the Miweuni 
of the Asiatic Society, by Mr. Blylh ; a work 
of jrrcat lnU^ir. wJiieh relloelw the utmost eredil 
on ita author. Kt>r Hcientifio purjio^-^, a collue- 
tiim of binU* t^Trs i^ only vabmbU' if the bird^i 
whicli have laid them he aeeuraluly kmiwii, and 
bfl'<rc the egjrs are disturbed iu the iicsts, the jwi- 
reni bird sliould be secured or shut. Tiio eiri^* of 
llieSanw nv Gnwantifjono, those of tho bustard 
or Ku]MMlutuH Kdward^ii.aiid tlio^o of the water 
jJieatJuU the llydrophasianiM .Vnieiisifi, have 
well nuirked distinctive character* aa eom|«irwl 
with any other Indian e^';:^. — SiMfs on the 
Nufijirntum of soinr of th4 commoner binlx of 
the Utilt llau*fr, with n few ntiJitionnl fft»n 
KatJimirt hff W, TUrofHiUlu, Jimr., Idq," iu 
Ufn;f, A.f. Ntw. Jour,^ Jan., Oct. lSo5. 

OOUX). liKs«. Inipcrata c)din*lrica. 

0<;»i.OOU)O-GAS. Swan. Machilus ma- 

0()1/)\VA, Srxnn, Fenu/rreek Poe<l. 

OOIX'T KL MUUL. liK.vG., llixn. Abtoiua 

(H)MAR. a caliph who succeeded Mahomed, 
and Abu-hakr, He seui an army into Siud. 
]{e built Ikisiumh in tlie 15th year of the 
Hijra If) weure the trade of Sind, Gtizerat 
and India. Persia and Arabia. See Khulif, 
Omar. Abdullah, Umar. 

<X)MAU, a river tiear Chdnwarra in Gur- 

OOMARI-KEEUAY. T\m. Salsola in- 

OOMBL'R, PrK. Ficus ;:U.merata. B^Mrh, 

0()ME TKAK,Tam., of Pal^liat. w.vxl t>f a 
dark-hniw n colour : third-rate leak. — Col. Ft-ith 

(MJMGONG, a river ncm- Muphluug in C'hor- 

IMOM-GON-YONG, a river near the Co^ah